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Transactions of the Woolhope 
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HEREFORD FREE LIBRARY, 

AND GROUP OF WOOLHOPEANS. 



Engraved for the " Gardetur^ Chronic W* by Mr. IVortJtington Smith, 
and reprinted by permission of Editors. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



WOOLHOPE 



NATQRALISTS' FIELD CLUB 



(ESTABLISHED MDCCCLI.) 



1874-5-6. 



"Hope on — Hope ever." 



HEREFORD : 1880. 
Printed by Jakeman and Cabvek, 4, High Town. 



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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

46r>16;2;H 

.iSTOK. LliNOX AND 
XILDEN FOUNDATIONS 
B 1948 L 



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TRANSACTIONS FOR THE YEARS 1874-5^: 



» ■ ♦ ■ < 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



(Figures refer to pages.) 



Contents— Officbbs, Members, Index, &c., i-xvi. 



1874. 

Meeting at Chdech Stretton, May 15 ... 

„ „ BuiLTH, June 19 
Address by Rev. W. S. Symonds 

Meeting at Whitohdroh, July 17 
Address by Rev. W. S. Sjnnonds 
Paper by Rev. H. C. Key ... 
Paper by Mr. John Lloyd, jun. 

Meeting at Ltdnet, August 18 . . . 
Address by Mr. Bathurst ... 

The Fungus Foray, October 1 ... 

Presentation to W. G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 
Paper by Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L.S.^ F.G.S. 
Paper by William Phillips, Esq. 

1875. 

Annual Meeting 

President's (Rev. J. Davies) Retiring Address 
Paper by Theophilus Lane, Esq. 
Meteorological and other Reports 
New Members, Officers, Field Meetings 

Meeting at Caerleon, M^ 20 ... 
Address by J. E. Lee, Esq. ... 

Meeting at Symonds Yat. June 15 
Paper by Mr. H. Southall ... 

Meeting at Grosmont 
Address by President 

The Fungus Foray, October 14 . . . 
List of Fruit exhibited 
Paper by Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L. 8. . .. 
„ „ C. B. Plowright, Esq. 
„ „ Rev. J. E. Vize ... 
, „ W. G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. ... 



6 
9 

15 
17 

28 

S2 



41 
49 
58 



70 

80 

93 

110 

112 
114 

120 
121 

125 
125 

lai 

18S 
137 
144 
147 
149 
160 



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(table of contents conttnued.) 

1876. 

Annual Meeting ... ... ... ... ... ... 167 

Preaident*B (Kev. C. J. Kobinson) Retiring Address... ... ... 168 

Paper by Rev. H. C. Key ... ... ... ... 176 

Meteorological and other Reports ... ... ... ... 180 

Meeting AT Stoke Edith, May 23 ... ... ... ... 198 

PaperbyDr, J". H. Wood ... ... ... ... 199 

Meeting AT Llanthont, June 27 ... ... ... ... 203 

Paper by Mr. Blashill ... ... ... ... .. 204 

Meeting AT Old Radnor AND Stan NER Rocks, July 17 ... ... 207 

Meeting AT Bbown Clee, August 25 ... ... ... 208 

Paper by Rev. A. Clowes ... ... ... ... ... 208 

„ „ James Rankin, Eijq. ... ... ... ... 209 

„ „ T. A. Chapman, M.D. ... ... ... ... 214 

The Fungus Foray, September 28 ... ... ... ... 217 

Paper by Rev. J. E. Vize ... ... ... ... ... 221 

„ „ W. Phillips, Esq., i^L.S. ... ... ... ... 224 

„ „ M. C. Cooke, Esq., M.A. ... ... ... ... 226 

„ „ W. G. Smith, Esq. ... ... .. ... 232 

}) II 11 11 '... ... ... ... ... 236 

Pomona Meeting ... ... ,.. ... ... ... 239 

Annual Meeting, February 13, 1877 ... ... ... 245 

Meteorological and other Reports ... ... ... 246 

President's (T. A. Chapman, M.D.) Retiring Address ... ... 254 

Paper by Rev. C. H. Bulmer ... ... ... ... 263 

„ „ James Davies, Esq. ... ... ... ... 270 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Hereford Free Library 




Frontispiece. 


Agaricua leoninus 




... To face page 41 


„ aJnicola 




49 


Cortinarius aagin us ... 




131 


Beproduction of Coprinus radiatua, 


plate I. 


151 


Do. do. 


plate 11. 


151 


Do. do. 


plate III. 


153 


Do. do. 


plate IV. 


153 


Do. do. 


plate V. 


155 


Do. do. 


plate VI. 


157 


Do. do. 


plate VII. 


157 


Do. do. 


plate VIII. 


„ 159 


Befiting Spores of Potatoe Fungus, 


plate I. 


161 


Do. do. 


plate II. 


163 


Do. do. 


plate III. 


163 


Do. do. 


plate IV. 


165 


Busatda lutcea, Agaricus sapineus 




217 


Peziza viridariat tectoria, and domestica 


„ 224 


Paraphyaes 




227 


Gladiolus Disease, plate I. 




237 


Do. plate II. ... 




239 



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LIST OF NEW MEMBERS. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 
ELECTED 1874. 



Bey. M. J. Berkeley. 
0. E. Broome, Esq. 
Bey. Wm. Houghton. 



Wm. Phillips, Esq. 
C. B. Plowright-Esq. 
James Benny, Esq. 



Bey. Wm. Beyan. 



ELECTED 1876. 

I Bey. T. W. Webb. 



M. C. Cooke, Esq., M.A. 
Bey. J. E. Vize. 



ELECTED 1876. 



The President and Secretary of the 
Cardiff Naturalists' Field Club. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 
ELECTED 1875. 



Charles Anthony, jun., Esq. 
S. B. Bosanquet. Esq. 
Joseph A. Bradney, Esq. 
Bey. J. Duncan. 
T. S. H. Hincks, Esq. 
J. W. Lukes, Esq. 
Bey. G. M. Metcalfe 
W. Watkin Old, Esq. 
Wm. Phillips, Esq. 
Bey. W. E, Prickard 



Bichard Bees, Esq. 
John Biley, Esq. 
Stephen Bobinson, Esq. 
Lewis Sargeant, Esq. 
Bev. F. C. Stebbing. 
Bichard Thomason. Esq. 
Stephen Vernon, Esq. 
B F. WooUatt, Esq. 
Bev. Wm. Wyatt. 
Bey. Arthur Young. 



ELECTED 1876. 



Captiun Doughty. 

Bey. John Gtoea, 

Bev. C. E. Maddison Green. 



Bey. Thomas P. Powell 
Captain Mayne Beid. 



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LIST OF- MEMBERS, 

FEBBUABY, 1877. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Year of 

Election. 

1851 



Greorge Bentham, Esq. 
Bev. P. B. Brodie, M.A,, F.G.S. 
B. M. Lingwood, Esq. 
Bev. W. H. Purchas. 
Bev. W. S. SymondB, F.G.S. 
Bev. B. H. HiU. 
1853 W. H. Fitton, Esq., M.D., F.BS., F.G.S., &c. 

1864 Sir W. V. Guise, Bart., F.G.S., Ac. 

1865 G. PluUips Sevan, Esq., F.G.S. 

1859 Professor W. Melville. 

1860 Dr. H. B. Geitnitz. 

1861 Edwin Lees, Esq., r.L.S., F.G.S. 
1865 W. H. Paine, Esq. 

1869 W. G. Smith, Esq. 
„ Mr. With. 

1874 Bev. M. J. Berkeley. 
„ C. E. Broome, Esq. 

„ Bev. Wm, Houghton. 

„ Wm. Phillips, Esq. 

„ C. B. Plowright, Esq. 

,, James Benny, Esq. 

1875 Bev. W. L. Bevan. 
„ Bev. T. W. Webb. 

1876 M. C. Cooke, Esq. 
„ Bev. J. E. Vize, 

The Presidents and Hon. Secretaries of the following Field Clubs :— Caradoc, 
Oswestry and Welshpool, Severn Valley, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, 
Cardiff, Dudley and Midland, and the Curator of the last-named Club. 



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ORDINARY MEMBERS, 

FEBRUARY 1877. 



Adamg, WilliamB, Esq., F.G.S. 
Alexander. J. G., Esq. 
Allen, B. Haigh, Esq. 
Anthony, Charles, Esq., jun. 
Apperley, H. G., Esq. 
Arkwright, J. H., Esq. 
Armitage, Arthur, Esq. 
Banks, G. V., Esq. 
Banks, R. W., Esa. 
Bateman, The Right Hon. Lord 
Bevan, Rev. T. M. 
Berrington, Arthur D., Esq. 
Blashifl, Thomas, Esq. 
Bodenham, 0. De la Barre, Esq. 
Bodenham, Frederick, Esq. 
Bosanquet, S. R., Esq^ 
Bradney, Joseph A., Esq. 
Broughton, F., Esq. 
Bull, H. G., Esq., M.D. 
Byrde, Colonel 
Cam, Thomas, Esq. 
Capel, Rev. Bury 
Carless, Joseph, jun., Esj^. 
Chapman, T. Algernon, Esq., M.D. 
Clay, Rev. G. H., M.A. 
Clive, Rev. Archer, M.A. 
Clive, George, Esq., M.P. 
Cocking, George, Esq. 
Cobbold, Rev. R. H. 
Cooke, W. H., Esq., Q.C. 
Comewall, Rev. Sir G. H., Bart 
Crouch, Rev. J. F., B.D. 
Cruttwell, A. C, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 
Curley, Timothy, Esq. 
Davies, Isaac, Esq., O.E. 
Davies, James, Esq. 
Davies, Rev. James, M.A. 
Davies, James Henry, Esq. 
Davies. Hugh Powell, Esq. 
Dixon, Rev. Robert, M.A., &c. 
Done, R. H., Esq. 
Doughty, Captain 
Duncan, Rev. J. 
Eld, Rev. F. J., M.A 
Evans, J. B.. Esq. 
Fowle, Rev. W. C., M.A. 
Fielder, Trevor, Esq. 
Fowler, J. T. Owen, Esq. 
Garrold, T. W., Esq. 
George, Frederick, Esq., M.D. 
Grasett, Rev. James E. 
Gray, Rev. Arthur 
Greaves, Joseph, Esq. 
Green, Rev. C. E. Maddison 
Greenly, Edward Howarth, Esq. 
Gobs, Rev. John 



Hall, H. S^ Esq. 

Havergal, Rev. F. T., M.A. 

Herbert, F. W., Esq. 

Herbert, J. M., Esq. 

Hereford, Richard, Esq. 

Hill, Rev. Henry T., M.A. 

Hincks, T. S. H., Esq. 

Husbands, E. T. Esq. 

Hutchinson, Arthur, Esq. 

Hutchinson, E. S., Esq. 

Jenkins, H. J., Esq. 

Jenkins, Rev. J. Rees, M.A. 

Jones, Rev. A. G. 

Jones, Gray T., Esq. 

Jones-Machen, Rev. J. Edward, M.A. 

Jones-Thomas, Rev. W., M.A. 

Jones; Dr. Talfourd 

Kempson, F. R., Esq. 

Key, Rev. H. Cooper, M.A., &c. 

Knight, J. H., Esq. 

Lambe, John, Esq. 

Lawrence, David, Esq. 

Lee, John Edward, Esq. 

Lane, Theophilus, Esq. 

Lukes, L. W., Esq. 

Llanwame, Thomas, Esq. 

Lloyd, James W., Esq. 

Lloyd, John, Esq. 

Marshall, Rev. H. B. D., M.A. 

Martin, C. G., Esq. 

M'Cullough, D. M., Esq., M.D. 

Merewether, Rev. F. 

Merriman, J. Jones, Esq. 

Metcalfe, Rev. George M. 

Moore, H. C, Esq. 

Morris, J. Griffith, Esq. 

Nicholson, Thomas, Esq. 

Norris, J. E., Esq. 

Old, W. Watkin, Esq. 

Owen, Evan, Esq. 

Owen, Rev. E. J., B.A. 

Palin, Rev. E., B.D. 

Paris, T. Clifton, Esq. 

Pateshall, Evan, Esq. 

Phillips, Wm., Esq. 

PhilUps, Wm., Esq. 

Phillips, Edward Cambridge, Esq. 

Phillott, Rev. H. W., M.A. 

Piper, George Henry, Esq. 

Poole. Rev. Wm., M.A. 

Powell, Rev. T. Pposser 

Price, William, Esq. 

Prickard, Rev. W. E. 

Purchas, Alfred, Esq. 

Rankin, James. Esq. 

Rees, Richard, Esq. 



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ORDINARY MEMBERS (continued). 



Keid, Captain Mayne 

Riley, John, Esq. 

Robinson, Rev. C J.^ M.A. 

Robinson, Stephen, Esq. 

Rosher, Lilburn, Esq. 

Salwey, Alfred, Esq. 

Salwey, Humphrey, Esq. 

Sandford, Dr., H. V. 

Sargeant, Lewis, Esq. 

Scobell, E. C, Esq. 

Severn, John Percy, Esq. 

Shellard, Orlando, Esq. 

Smith, R. Vassar, Esq. 

Smith, Rev. T. Thwistlewaite, M.A. 

Southall, Henry, Esq. 

Stanhope, Rev. Berkeley L. S., M.A, 

Stanhope, Rev. Wm. P. S., M.A. 

Steele, Elmes Y., Esq. 

StUlingfleet, Rev. H. J. W., M.A. 

Stooke, Rev. F. S., M.A. 

Swinburne, W. A. Esq. 



Svmonds, J. Frederick, Esq. 
Taylor, Wm., Esq. 
Thackwell, Rev. Stephen, M.A, 
Thomason, Richard, Esq. 
Thompson. Arthur, Esq. 
Truscott, Charles, jun., Esq. 
Turner, Thomas, Esq. 
Tweed, Rev. H. W., M.A. 
Vernon, S., Esq. 
West, Rev. Thomas, M.A. 
West, H. W., Esq. 
Westropp, Rev. C. J., M.A. 
Williams, E. Colt, Esq. 
Williams, Rev. R. H., B.A. 
Wood, H. H., Esq. 
Wood, J. H., Esq. 
Woollett, R. F., E8(i. 
Wyatt, Rev. Wm. 
Wynn, N. S., Esq. 
Younj?, Rev. Arthur 



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MEETING AT CHURCH STRETTON, 
FBroAT, May 16th, 1874. 



The first Field Meeting for the season of the Woolhope NatoraUsts' Field 

Club was held at Church Stretton on Friday, the principal object being an 

excursion on foot to the summit of the lofty hiU on the N.E. aide of that town, 

known as Caer Caradoc. An alternative excursion for those members who 

did not care to encounter the fatigues of the ascent was arranged, the party 

ascending the Longmynd hills, along the basis of which Church Stretton is 

situated. Very few, however, availed themselves of the alternative, nearly the 

whole of the party preferring to test the truth of the poetic adage, altiiough 

destitute of the inducement which he describes as justifying the effort : 

How hard it is, and difficult to climb 

The steep where Fame's proud temple shines afar — 

The only '' fame " with which the gray summit of Caradoc is associated being the 

legendary renown of the British hero-king, whose actual presence on the spot at 

any time is a matter of pure conjecture. 

The Meeting was fairly attended. The party from Hereford started from 
that city by train at 9.30, and were joined at Leominster by the President 
(Kev. James Davies, of Moorcourt) and a small party; and at Ludlow by 
Mr. T. Salwey and friends. On reaching Church Stretton at 11 ^m., the 
President and Members were greeted by the Rev. Donald Carr, of Woolstaston, 
and the Eev. William Elliott, of Cardington, who had kindly undertaken to act 
as guides. Leaving behind the few who had preferred the Longmynd, the rest of 
the party (22 in number) made their way along the foot-path which skirts the 
base of the the Lawley Hill into the sloping pass between it and Ca/eat Caradoc, 
and then commenced the ascent of the latter hilL The air, even in the valley, 
was cold and ungenial— more like that of March than the " Merry May " of the 
poets— but the labour of climbing the ascent made most of the philosophers quite 
warm enough, when they reached the summit, to feel the cold northerly winds at 
first rather agreeable. The occasional bursts of hot sunshine seemed to have no 
perceptible effect in warming the air, the de]iciou8 |>uzity of w)ac!^wftB |U>t gior^ 



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remarkable than its penetrating coldness. On their way up, the botanists of the 
party noticed on [every hand the effects of the late frosts upon the vegetation. 
In the pass, frost-bitten cowslips were gathered, and on the ridge the sward waa 
parched and tiie culms of the short grass were blanched and dead. Even the 
hardy bilberry (Vaceinium myrtillus) had its young leaves nipped into a browner 
shade than usual, and its growth stunted to little more than half its usual height, 
except indeed in the few places where the plant was sheltered by the bosses of 
black rock. The rock bedstraw (Galium ooxatile) which ought at this season to 
have covered the surface with its delicate white flowers, was visible only to a close 
search ; and the only wild flowers which seemed wholly unaffected were the pretty 
mountain pansy (Viola lutea), the bright yellow lip of which adorned the sward 
wherever there was half an inch of soil to afford it foothold, and stunted specimens 
of the dog-violet (Viola canina). 

To the Archaeologists of the party, the caer, i,e» camp, was an object of 
interest, as apparentiy one of the rudest and simplest specimens of ancient 
castramentation in the district The whole of the summit is included, but there is 
very Uttie of human handiwork. The excavation— there was no construction — 
could not have taken long, even with the rude tools and unskilled labour of 
Caradoc's time, 1800 years ago. A trench was cut right across the ridge just below 
the peak connecting the natural crags and precipitous sides of the hill, a hollow 
was excavated on the opposite side of the peak ; and the rest of the defence was 
left, to. the stout arms of the garrison. The only supply of water was aNScanty 
spring on the N. side, now dried up. The position was therefore untenable for 
any considerable body of men, and as the approach along the ridgo is easy, its 
defenders must have succumbed to a single assault by a Koman force. How such 
a position could ever have been mistaken for the scene of Caractacus's last 
encounter must remain a mystery. In no one particular does it bear out Tacitus's 
very dear and remarkable description. 

To the tourist, the scene is altogether beautiful, the only deficiency in the 
view being the want of water. Unfortunately the sky on Friday wa^ covered 
with a cold gray haze, through which the Wrekin and the Stiperstones were but 
dimly visible, but the near view was charming. The long broad range of the 
Longniynd, deft with so many beautiful glens, the rich vale, the pretty town of 
Church Stretton, with its andent church, nestling amid bright green foliage, the 
noble masses of the Lawley, the Eaglet, the Brown Clee, and Titterstone 
stretching far away in the dim perspective to the south, all made up a sylvis scena 
coru8C%8 well worth the trouble of the ascent. 

The geologic section of the party was unusually small in number, but those 
who were present could not help regarding with interest the highly suggestive 
view. On the east, the eye looked down the scale of ages, across the vast period 
of the Mountain Limestone and Coal strata to the New Red Sandstone which 
dimly appeared in the distance. Looking westward across the broad valley which 
marks what a distinguished honorary member of the Club— the Rev. W. Symonds, 
in his "Records of the Rocks"— has described as "a tremendous fault," the 
observer's eye rests upon one of the very lowest and earliest of the sedimentary 



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3 

rocks, the Clay Slate or Cambriaii Bocks. The whole of the SUorian rocks, which 

are elsewhere sixty miles in breadth— say from Malvern to Llandovery— are here 

crashed into a valley half-a-mile broad. Caer Caradoc itself consists of Garadoc 

Sandstone traversed and altered by basalt, which forms the peak ; and it is 

apparently the N.W. end of a chain of similar upheavals, beginning with 

Titterstone. The altered sandstone lies upon the basalt on the N.W. side, and in 

the decent of the hill the visitor comes upon other Silurian rooks which overlie 

the Caradoc Sandstone. "At Botville, on the N.W. flank of Caer Caradoc," 

says Mr. Symonds, " there is a mass of Wenlock Limestone jammed between the 

Longmynd rocks and the Caradoc Sandstone, a proof that considerable earthquake 

movements have affected the whole country since the deposition of the Upper 

Silurians." The Bev. Wm. Elliot kindly offered to guide the company to an 

instructive section of Aymestrey Limestone, containing in abundance the 

characteristic Pentamerus Enightii ; but the members were so fatigued with their 

decent of the Caer (1,200 feet) that they preferred to leave the limestone with its 

fossils as Wordsworth left Yarrow : 

Whate'er betide, we'll turn aside. 
Nor view the braes of Yarrow. 

Having decended from the hill at its steep N.W. side, the members made 

their way to Church Stretton. 

In the interval before dinner, the party visited the church, where they were 
courloously received by the Bev. H. O. Wilson, the rector, who conducted them 
roun-.l it. The edifice has been very carefully restored, but it still retains two 
features of interest. The south porch, which has been converted into a vestiy, 
appears to have been a fine open structure of the 14th century, of a tsrpe once 
common in the district, but now preserved only at Credenhill and a few other 
churches in Herefordshire. The doorway is most interesting, being a good 
specimen of Norman work : on the eastern side the capital is entirely gone, 
having been constructed of a tufaceous sandstone ; but the arch and the western 
jamb, with sunk column and projecting volute capital are in perfect preservation. 
The north doorway is remarkable on the exterior for a rude carving of a figure 
with arms akimbo, much defaced, the design of which is open to conjecture. 
The style of execution is very rude, and indicates a rustic artist as well as a very 
early period. 

The members met at the Church Stretton Hotel at 4.30 p.m., and partook 

of a well-served dinner, which was thoroughly enjoyed. The long walk, the 

climbing, and the keen pure air of the hills had had their proper effect even upon 

the philosophers, who did not care to realise fully the poet^s heroic resolve — 

1 am resolved. 

The mind shall banquet though the body starve. 

The chair was occupied by the President, besides whom there were present — Bev. 

W. C. Fowle, Brinsop, and Bev. C. J. Bobinson, Norton Canon, vice-presidents ; 

Bev. Donald Carr, Woolstaston, Bev. William Elliott, Cardington, and Flavell 

Edmunds, Esq., honorary members ; Bev. G-. H. Clay, Aston Bectory ; Timothy 

Curley, Esq., Hereford; William Carless, Esq., Hereford; Mr. B. B. Davies, 

Moor Court; F. W. Herbert, Esq., Credenhill Park; Joseph Greaves, Esq., 



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Lower Howsell, Malvern link ; Mr. James W. Lloyd, Kington ; Rev. H. B. D. 
Marshall, Hopton Cangeford Vicarage, Ludlow ; Bev. H. W. Fhillott, Staunton- 
on-Wye; Rev. E. J. S. Rudd, Hereford ; Theos. Salwey, Esq., Ludlow ; Mrs. 
Salwey and Miss Twining, Ludlow ; Rev. Berkeley L. S. Stanhope, Byford 
Rectory; Rev. William P. S. Stanhope, Holme Lacy Vicarage; Wm. A. 
Swinburne, Esq., Bulas, Hay ; Rev. C. J. Westropp, Wormbridge ; Rev. R. H. 
Williams, Bridge SoUars; Mr. Arthur Thompson, Treasurer and Assistant 
Secretary. The following gentlemen were elected members :— Trevor Fielder, Esq. , 
Trfley Court, Abergavenny; the Rev. Richard Powell, St James' Vicarage, 
Hereford; Dr. Sandford, the Vinery, Hereford; Joseph Greaves, Esq., Lower 
HowseU, Malvem Link ; George Henry Piper, Esq., Jjedbuiy. 

After dinner the President exhibited a curious bit of old Pottery from the 
Forest of Deetfold, for which he was indebted to the Rev. C. H. Middleton, who 
has seeeatly resigned the incumbency of Lingen. It was a quaintly shaped bottle 
of green and white ware, of which Mr. Middleton had picked up the following 
history :—*' Matthew Lowe owned land at Lingen a small estate now in the 
possession of William Webb, as well as other land at Deerfold, part of which is 
the 'Grove Head.' Matthew Lowe's father and grandfather had a house on the 
bank where theJAsarabacca is found, and that bank formed the garden of the 
house. There are queer plants there still ; besides the Asarum, single and double 
daffodils, snowdrops, and LiHum martagon. The house was burnt down about 80 
years or BKire ago. My informant, he writes, Mrs. Webb— a very old woman- 
only knew it from what she heard old Matthew say. Matthew Lowe used to say 
that there was once, in his grandfather's time, or before that, a Pottery there — 
that the remains are still to be seen (which is the case), and that people, ages ago, 
settled there, when Darvel was all covered with oak, which oak they used to bum 
the pots with. There used to be a good deal of it about, but it is a long while 
since any of it was [seen, except this queer old bottle, in which Matthew Lowe 
used to keep tea. They used to make pans and dishes, but all these have been 
brpken long since." Mr. Middleton's letter further states that he has searclied in 
vain in the locality in question for other like pieces of Pottery, though, on search- 
ing the ground, he could easily trace the old kilns, and discover, mostly in the 
lingen Valley, severid veins of whitish clay, whidi no doubt was the clay used. 
The bottle is carefully preserved at Moor Court 

The Prbsidbnt afterwards said that he was happy to have to say that 
Mr. Flavell Edmunds was about to make a very practical suggestion, indicating 
a manner in which the members might all render service to the study of natural 
science, and afford materials for future students. 

Mr. FlAlVELL Edmunds said he merely wished to point out a manner in 
which the members might help the President to place on record for the use of 
students of natural history the facts connected with the very remarkable season 
through which we are now passing. The frosts which have marked the first 
fortnight of May, are so abnormal in their character, and have produced so many 
remarkable effects on vegetation, that a club of naturalists might fairly be 
expected to record them. They had observed that day how the trees, the shrubs. 



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and the wild flowers had been damaged by the frost He had even gathered 
cowslips partly withered by frost. Before this year he had never heard of the 
hardy narcissus (N. poeticus) being killed by the frost Facts of this kind are 
interesting to all naturalists, and his suggestion was that each member should put 
down on paper the result of his observations on the subject, say from the beginning 
of April to the middle of May. On the President receiving these communications 
he would be able to compile from them a very valuable and interesting record d 
the abnormal spring frosts of 1874. 

The suggestion was received with unanimous approval, but we fear almost 
as unanimously forgotten forthwith. The party then broke up, having spent a 
very pleasant day. 




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MEETING AT BUILTH, 
Fbidat, June 19th, 1874. 



The Second Field Meeting for the season of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club was held at Builth on Friday, when there were present : — Rev. 
James Davies, President ; Mr. Timothy Curley and Mr. J. Griffith Morris, 
members of the Central Committee ; Rev. W. S. Symonds, Pendock Rectory ; 
Mr. Flavell Edmunds, and Rev. W. Elliott, Cardington Vicarage, Secretary to 
the Caradoc Field Clnb, Honorary Members ; Dr. Bull, Rev. T. M. Beavan, 
Mr. J. T. Owen Fowler, Mr. Joseph Greaves, Mr. Edward Howorth Greenly, 
Rev. J. Grasett, Rev. A. G. Jones, Rev. William Jones Thomas, Rev. J. H. 
Jukes, Rev. H. Cooper Key, Mr. Theophilus Lane, Mr. James W. Lloyd, Rev. 
a B. D. Marshall, Mr. H. C. Moore, Mr. J. E. Norris, Mr. Evan Owen, 
Mr. T. Clifton Paris, Rev. H. W. PhiUott, Mr. Alfred J. Purchas, Rev. Stephen 
Thackwell, Rev. H. W. Tweed, Rev. R H. Williams, Mr. Arthur Thompson, 
Treasurer and Assistant [Secretary. Visitors : Miss Browne, Miss M. Browne, 
Dr. Chase, Mr. H. Mier, Mr. Phillott, Lieutenant J. F. Symonds, Mr. R. 
Symonds, Rev. James Robertson (Llowes), Mr. E. D. Thomas (Wellfield, Hay), 
Mr. B. Whitefoord, Mr. David Griffiths. 

At this Meeting Mr. John Percy Severn, Penybont Hall, Radnorshire, 
was elected an Annual Member of the Club. 

The sky was covered with a gray haze when the Members assembled at the 
Barton Station, Hereford, and throughout the day the lofty hills were but dimly 
perceptible ; but the atmosphere was clear in the valley, and about mid-day the 
sun shone out with great intensity, making the shelter of the woods around 
Llanelwedd House, through which the route lay, exceedingly grateful. The 
beautiful scenery of the Upper Wye Valley never showed to greater advantage. 
The picturesque reaches of the Wye with their setting of luxuriant foliage, green 
meadows, and com fields, formed a succession of rapidly changing lakes as seen 
from the moving train, while the lofty hills of the Hatterill and the Radnorshire 
Beacon " stood dressed in the living green " of the young bracken, which faded off 
into the cold gray of the sward and the dark brown masses of rock, which here 
and there came to the surface. The view of the pretty gorge of the Bachowy 



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with its fragments of rock, amid which the scanty thread of water made its way, 
and the noble glen of the Edw, with its huge masses overhanging the steep sides 
of the ravine, as if threatening every moment to join the equally large rocks 
below, around which the stream usually raves and foams, would have been 
perfectly beautiful had there been a little more water to give animation to the 
scene. Up as far as Builth there was no lack of water in the Wye, but above 
that town, as well as in the tributary streams of which we have written, there was 
too strong a resemblance to the Highland river described by Bailie Nicol Jarvie, 
in which *' the chuckles were white in the sunshine." At the Llanelwedd rapids, 
t the curiously contorted and worn lava masses which cross the bed of the river 
stood out bare and dry, so that the stream might have been crossed by a careful 
pedestrian without wetting his feet ; and Boger Vaughan's hole, noted for its 
supposed unfathomable depth, had very little of its usual depth of ten feet of water. 
The botanists of the party were indeed able to gather without inconvenience 
specimens of the characteristic plant of these rocks, the purple-flowered chives 
(Allium schoenoprcLsum), which had lost none of its pungent onion-like odour from 
the drought. The view of the valley from the lawn of Welfield House, on the 
hill above the rapids, where the members held their meeting about 3 p.m. under 
the shade of the magnificent pines, limes, and cedars, was wonderfully beautif uL 
The rich valley, the pretty town, and the winding Wye, were set in a glorious 
amphitheatre of lofty hills almost worthy to be called mountains. From the 
towering Drygam on the west, the eye pabsed along the lofty range of the Epynt, 
thence across the elevated valley to the distant hills of Talgarth, until the magnifi- 
cent group near at hand, composed of the Garth, the Aberedw Hills, and the 
stem and solemn-looking Oameddau shut out the scene in the east 

The view thus charming to the eye of the mere lover of natural beauty was 
still more interesting to the gaze of the geologist Standing on the floor of an 
ancient ocean, he saw in the Oameddau the " root " (as the Bev. W. J. Symonds 
graphically called it) of an extinct volcano ; he traced the course of the lava cur- 
rents that once jMured streams of fire across the land; and he noticed how 
successive ages of life had left their traces in the beds which lie under, over, or 
against the lava, in almost every possible condition, here roasted with the heat of 
the lava— there full of fossils which have lain undisturbed since the rock was the 
mud of the ocean bed into which the trilobite sank when its life work was over. 
Baising his eyes, the spectator beheld in the varied forms of the hUls the traces of 
the action of mighty waters; and by the help of Mr. Symonds's eloquent 
explanations, he might form a dim conception of the latter but still remote scene 
when the Wye flowed along a course not much lower than the top of Oameddau, 
and when the bay-like curves of the hillsides were actual bays of the mighty river. 
Thence downward how vast must have been the period of subaerial action, of 
elevations and depressions of surface, of denudation and sinking, until we reach 
the historic period. Judging from the fact that the little fort of Breinton, near 
Hereford, conmiands the British road which yet runs at its side and the ford at its 
foot, while in the same way the ford near Llanelwedd, which was used in Boman 
times, is still available, it U evident that the bed of the Wye has not been lowered 



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8 

for these eighteen oentoiies. How vait then^ost be the period einoe the river 
flowed along the terrace at Welfield made an island of the Garth, and at a 
distance of 60 miles down the river flowed in and out of the bone caves at 
Doward! 

The day's ramble did not, however, begin with geology. - The train in due 
course left Hereford at 9.25., took up members and friends at Credenhill, Moor- 
hampton, Hay, and Builth, and at 12 o'clock deposited the party at Llecbrhyd 
jimotion, where the Bev. W. Jones Thomas kindly undertook the duties of their 
guide for the rust of the day. The first halt was made at Cwrt Llechryd, close to 
the station, where Mr. Thomas led the party round the west side of the Ancient 
Earthworks, pointing out the care and labour bestowed upon them, and remarking 
that the spot was identified with the history of Wales at a period which is still full 
of the deepest interest to every patriotic Welshman. It was in that neighbour- 
hood that Llewelyn, the last Prince of Wales, was slain. Not far off on one side 
lay Aberedw, where he vainly attempted to collect his followers, and where he 
was betrayed to the enemy, while near on another side was tho place where he had 
his horse shod reversely; and in the same district was Cwm Llewelyn, " Llewelsm's 
Dingle," where he was beset, overpowered by numbers, and slam by Adam of 
Frankton ; whilst Bedd Llewelyn, " the grave of Llewelyn," is still known as the 
spot where his body was interred. Although he was slain as far back as 1277, 
the facts are fresh in the popular memory, and people still speak with abhorrence 
of the traitors of Aberedw, and still honour the grave of the native Prmce whom 
those men betrayed. The position of Cwrt Llechryd made it a place of importance, 
and the earthworks showed that it had been fortified with care. Mr. Thomas 
added that the name was interpreted as the flat place (llechj of the ford (rhydj. 
He was glad to see Mr. Flavell Edmunds present, and should feel gratified if that 
gentleman would give them the result of his researches on the subject of earth- 
works and of that one in particular. 

Mr. Flavell Edmunds then led the party to the highest part of the 
enclosure, adjoining the farm-house on the south side, and there pointed out the 
original din or camp, the nucleus out of which the whole might be said to have 
growiL He showed that it, as well as the outer entrenchment, was constnicted on 
the circle, thus proving that the work was British, just as the use of the square 
and the oblong marked Boman work. He pointed attention to the simplicity 
of the construction, a mere circle of earth surrounded by the hollow out 
of which the earth was taken to form the ridge. In course of time, the 
ditch was usually deepened and widened, and the ridge was raised ; and then a 
row of stakes was fixed into the ridge, after the fashion of the New Zealand pah 
of the present time. The Komans called the line of stakes a vaUiis, and the whole 
fortification, stakes, ridge, and ditch, has become known as & vallum. The Britons 
had the word gwawl, which bore the same meaning ; and the Angles, coming, later, 
borrowed the word in the form of vxiU. When the Romans constructed permanent 
camps, out of which grew their cities, they substituted a structure of stone for the' 
row of stakes. The Saxons built little, but their stoc or stow was a place enclosed 
with ptfvkes^ aQ4 t}ieir tun w^ a ^oi^se in th^ cei^tre of an e|ic|o8ure formed w|tl) 



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9 

earthwork and Mthes Btokes or stones* The Normans adopted the same gnnmd 
plan in thA constnietion of their castles, and thus the grand and lofty Korman 
fortresB> such as once stood on the castle hill of Builth, was the outcome of the 
simple dm before them. He then showed that the site was in the midst of an 
ancient man^, and as the needs of the resident increased, he enclosed all the firm 
ground by cutting a deep trench all along its edge on the north and west sides, and 
building a ridge of earth through the middle of the marsh on the south and east 
sides. The Kailway has cut through this ridge. Near the centre of the south side 
is the original entrance, which was in the marsh for securitjr's sake ; and the road 
of the war chariots probably led directly from that entrance to the west 
entrance of the little din or nucleus camp. Immediately behind this dm the 
Normaa cwrt was built, which is merely saying that in Norman times the lord of 
the district resided there and administered a rude justice. Looking at the site, 
far away from the " ford " of the Wye, and observing that it was actually in the 
middle of a bog or marsh, and having found that it was usually the nature of the 
actual spot which suggested the name, he ventured to dispute the correctness of 
Llech-rhyd. Welshmen would bear him out when he said that the word is not 
good Welsh ; " the ford of the flat stone " would be Khyd-y-lech. He suggested 
that the word is a corruption of Llech-wedd, the latter half of the woid meaning 
a bog or marsh. He considered, too, that the word Llech means not a mere flat 
rock or stone, but a stone or place of sacrifice. The little central din, they would 
observe, m perfectly flat, and may have been used as a place of sacrifice. He added 
that he had the high authority of Mr. Joseph, F.S.A., of Brecon, as approving 
his reading of the word as Llechwedd. 

After examining the earthworks, the party proceeded to the ford of the 
Wye, examining the rapids formed by the protrusion of igneous rock, and then 
followed Mr. Thomas to the several quarries. At Hooper's quarry the hammers 
of the geologists wens speedily set to work and a number of trilobites were 
extracted from the Llandeilo flag. Several very good specimens of Ogygia Buchii 
were bagged. The company then proceeded to Welfield Hall, where they were 
courteously received by E. D. Thomas, Esq. Mr. Thomas hospitably offered 
luncheon, but as the party was very large, and the hour fixed for dinner at Builth 
was fast approaching, while the chief business of the day — ^the address of Mr. 
Symonds— remained to be attended to, the invitation was declined with thanks. 

As soon as the party had assembled under the shade of some noble trees, 
conspicuous among which were Hemlock Pines, Pinus Douglasii, and other gigantic 
coniferse, the Bev. W. S. Symonds proceeded to deliver as follows an address on 
the geology of the district :— 

Mr. Symonds commenced his address by sasring that some years had passed 
away since he had the pleasure of meeting the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 
on the banks of the Wye near the ancient Castle of BuaUt. Once more they had 
assembled in a locality rich in the records of byegone ages, rich in its local history 
and traditions, and still more rich in its geological records respecting animals which 
had lived and died long ages before any human tradition had a beginning. He 
was glad to have heard much that was interesting from Mr. Jones Thomas aad 

B 



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10 

Kr. FlAvell Edmimds, on the ancient hannta of Uewelyn, the last native Prince 
of Wales, and on the archaeology of the diBtrict< and he hoped to hear still more ; 
bat they might be aasared that it was impossible for the lover of history and 
historical lore to explore Wales, and ramble hammer in hand among its moun- 
tains and vales without thinking of the gallant race of moimtaineers which for 
years bid defiance to the Romans, again and again defeated the Saxons, and drove 
many a Norman king half wild with their gallant stand for liberty. " Hospitable 
and generous, full of poetry and wild native music," who did not revolt at the 
atrocious cruelties practised upon them by the Norman kings and their brigand 
chiefo? Bef erring to the geology of the picturesque country around BuHth, he 
reminded his hearers that the scenery they so much admired is due to physical 
causes, and those forces of nature which through long ages have been at work 
shaping the mountains and hollowing out the vales. Earthquake and volcanic 
action ; denudation by the action of former seas ; denudation by atmospheric 
and subriaeal forces in later times, have all been active in the Builth country. As 
regards earthquake and volcanic action there must have been somewhere in the 
Cameddau an active volcano with its crater above the waves of the surrounding 
Llandeilo seas, for great masses of volcanic ash and pumice were interstratified 
with the Llandeilo strata. The Cameddau trap masses were merely the roots of 
the former volcano, and they had good proof that the crater was subaerial, and 
poured out masses of lava and showers of ashes, for there was evidence that the 
ashes and lighter volcanic materials fell after eruption into the surrounding waters 
where they afterwards sank and became stratified sea beds, or interstratified ash 
beds, in which were sometimes found the Trilobltes, Idngulas, and Orthoceratites, 
' which once lived in the Uandeilo seas. 

When the Cameddau volcano was active in the Builth district there were 
volcanos in activity and force where now are the Aran mountains in North Wales ; 
and probably Cader Irdis, which had a volcano in activity in earlier times (Lower 
Llandeilo period) still continued to evolve its fires when Cameddau was active 
also. 

The fossil remains of the animals found in the Upper Llandeilo rocks of the 
country around Builth are the Silurian forms of Crustacea known as Trilobites, 
which are beautifully preserved, as are also some of those chambered shells, such 
as the Orthoceras, which are of the highest forms of molluscous life. Lingulas, 
and other shell iish too, were abundant in some localities, and on the lower shell 
fish it is probable that the high class Orthoceratites preyed. Both Trilobite and 
Orthoceras read a lesson to those, who chose to learn, of deep importance in the 
history of geologic creation, as the evidence now btands concerning it. The Upper 
Llandeilo rocks are often full of the remains of Trilobites probably destroyed 
en masK by an outpouring of lava from Cameddau. into the sea. And no one can 
study these stony records without observing that the laws of birth, and life and 
death, were as firmly established in those early ages as they are at present ']f he 
young Trilobite, side by side with its parent, alike yielding to the same fate, tells 
UB plainly that these mysterious laws have been at work for unnumbered ages. 



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11 

and that every one of those fossil fonns was once endowed with the gift of 
life. Then again that straight Nantilus, the Orthoceras, represents, as far as we 
know, the highest form of living animal the liandeilo seas nourished. No remains 
of any fish or other vertebrate animal have ever been found throughout all the 
length and breadth of the Lower Silurian strata wherever they have been searched, 
and Sir Roderick Murchison called the Orthooeratites " the scavengers of the seas,'* 
and considered that they occupied in those times the place which in after epochs 
was to be filled by the predaceous fishes. And such, indeed, appears to be the 
teaching of the rocks ! All geologic evidence now tends to prove that the simpler 
forms of life were the first forms called into existence. Trilobites, Orthooeratites, 
and other mollusca preceded the fish, the fish preceded the reptile, the reptile the 
bird, the bird the mammalian quadruped, and the mammalian preceded man. 

The Caradoc or Bala strata, which overlie the Upper LlandeUo rocks west 
of Llandovery and Llandeilo, are not found in the Builth district They were 
probably denuded here, for the May-hill rocks (or Upper Llandovery deposits) 
are found full of Fentameri and other characteristic fossils resting unconformably 
upon the upheaved Llandeilo strata, and there interbedded with lavas and volcanic 
ash. In order to see these strata the explorer must go westwards and explore the 
hill country around the Drygam moimtain and near Llandeilo and Haverfordwest. 
They appear also on the banks of the Wye, near Newbridge, where the Tanumon 
shales rest unconformably upon' them. 

In walking from Builth by the beautiful grounds of Welfield with its 
Llandeilo Trilobites Ogygia, Asaphus, Ampyx, and Agnostus, and its lingulas and 
orthides among its [shells, you arrive at Fencenig, another property of the family 
of Thomas, and here you find igneous rocks both eruptive and stratified with 
Llandeilo flags, while on and against them rest the May-hill beds (Upper 
Llandovery rocks) full of fossils, and which constitute the base of the Upper 
Silurians. These beds may be seen at the upper end of Pencerrig Lake. 
Welfield and Pencerrig are classic ground to the geologist, for here among the 
groves and hills and quarries have been the haunts of Buckland and Oonybeare, 
Murchison, and Sedgwick, who in former years were attracted by the rich 
profusion of Trilobites in the shales and the beauty of the surrounding scenery. 

Mb. Sthokds hoped and trusted that the owners of these houses would 
gather around them, if indeed they did not already possess them, some of the 
beautiful specimens which geologists of the past had travelled hundreds of miles to 
see, and he might predict the same of the geologists of the future. 

The Upper Silurians of the Builth district take us into beautiful scenery, 
for there is Aberedw, often the home of Llewelyn, and its picturesque glen, and in 
the rocks there I have found Pentamerus Knightii, that noble Upper Silurian shell 
which is so abundant in the Aymestry limestone of Aymestry and the Ludlow 
country. Near Llanstephan, too, there are at Pwll-ddtl beautiful rocks clothed 
with foliage which furnish many an Upper Silurian fossil, and the Calymene 
Blumenbachii and other Trilobites may be found below the waterfall of the Black 
Rock. Here, too, we have an example, on a limited scale, how the hardness of 



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19 

lodci in one {klaoe and ih«ir aoftneBs in othera produoe the mountain and rocky 
Boenery we bo mnoh admire. 

Let the observer mark at Builth and aronnd it, how a trap-dyke stands out 
in its hardness, and the softer shales weather around it ; or how some rocks Are 
hardened into limestone by the decomposition of shells and other organic remainB ; 
and, agam, how a hard silicious mass defies the elements ; and how the stream 
corrodes the channel ; and Builth, Aberedw, and Fwll-ddiH may teach him a lesson 
which hereafter may be useful on the Alps, or the Andes. It is in the upper 
Silurian strata (Lower Ludlow series) and in the Passage Bocks, between those 
deposits and the Old Bed, that we first meet with the relics of vertebrate life in 
the bones and plates and teeth of a few small fishes. Here we, too, meet with 
evidence of the progression of life, and of development throughout unnumbered 
ages. It was my friend Mr. Banks, of Eidgeboume, brother of our President, 
who first found numerous fish remains in the Upper Ludlow Passage Bocks, and 
advanced geology by those important discoveries. The Lower Old Bed Band- 
stone is rich in the remains of fish ; the Upper Old Bed is singularly deficient, 
but then we have few local geologists who search it. There is, I am sure, a licJi 
storehouse yet remaining for the researches of future explorers, and if the love of 
the rocks only affords to anyone present one-half the happiness it has afforded to 
me, I shall rejoice that I have once more been enabled to advocate the wonders of 
geology by the beautiful rocks of Builth. When we are on the summit of 
Cameddau we see the summits of the Breconshire and Carmathen Vans rising 
above the hills of Epynt, and we learn how the Old Bed Sandstone stretches 
away beneath the carboniferous rocks of the South Wales coal field. But there 
is more than this to a physical geologist who examines these old red rocks far and 
ynde as I have done throughout all the Silurian region. When I remember the 
old red outliers away in Anglesea, and near Denbigh on the north, and again by 
Marloes Bay, in Pembrokeshire, on the south, I feel sure that the whole of the 
Silurian rocks of Wales and Shropshire were once covered by this great series of 
rock strata which are now separated, between Ireland and England, by the Irish 
Sea. The Silurian rocks are, in fact, set in a broken framework, of which here 
and there only patches are left ; and I think, moreover, that these patches are the 
representatives of a vast continuous sheet of old red sandstone which was once 
also overlaid by carboniferous deposits eince denuded also. This, however, 
hardly belongs to the local geology of Builth. Mr. Symonds concluded by saying 
that one great reason why he had always so much pleasure in attending the meet- 
ings of the Club was that their proceedings were recorded not only in the trans- 
fkctions of the Club, but previously in the annals of the Hereford Times. He was 
glad to see the editor present, and to say how much he felt indebted to liinri for 
the care and accuracy with which the proceedings of the Club had been reported, 
and for the services thus rendered not only to the Club but to the cause of 
science (applause). In the course of his investigations in the Doward bone-caves 
he had met with a proof of the interest that existed in the minds of the general 
public. One day he met two working men out of the Forest of Dean, who told 
him that they always looked out for the reports of the Club's meetings in the 



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Hereford Times, and read them with great pleaaure (applaoae). He was glad to 
see Mr. EdnmndB present that day, because he knew that he would give an inter- 
esting and faithful account of that day's proceedings (applause). 

Mr. Edmunds said that his friends must think him a very ingrate if he 
failed to acknowledge the series of compliments which Mr. Symonds had been so 
kind as to pay him and to the Hereford Times. If he had rendered any services 
to the Club and to natural science, he had been amply repaid by the pleasure and 
instruction which he had received from it. When, at the formation of the Club 
more than twenty years ago, he originated the practice of reporting meetings of 
this kind for the public, he did so because he had imbibed a love of natural science 
from coming to reside in the district ; and ever since then the reporting of its 
meetings had been a labour of love to him, and a mark of his gratitude for the 
instruction which he had thus obtained. He owed to Mr. Symonds most of what 
little he had acquired of geology, and to other members most of his botany ; and 
he had much pleasure in learning that he had been successful to so great an extent 
in Tnalnng the reports of these proceedings interesting as well as instructive to 
others. In so saying he wished particularly to acknowledge the zeal and ability 
with which, when from ill health and other causes he had for a time relinquished 
the work, it had been taken up by successive Presidents at the Club. To Dr. 
Bull espedaUy the Club's thanks were due for the excellent manner in which he 
had for seven or eight years reported the Club's transactions, and the admirable 
volumes which appeared under his care. Last year, the President had found 
time amid his many engagements to report the meetings most ably; and his 
reports would appear in the volume of the Transactions now in course of pre- 
paration. He might just say that various causes had combined to delay the 
printing, but that it was going forward, and by and by he had no doubt the volume 
would be placed in the hands of the members (applause). 

The President presented the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Symonds for 
his most able and eloquent address. 

Mr. Jones Thomas seconded the proposition, and expressed a hope that 
Mr. Symonds would permit his address to appear in full in the Transactions, 
(applause). 

The motion was carried by acclamation, and was suitably acknowledged. 

The President then presented the thanks of the meeting to the Rev. 
Jones Thomas for his kindness in guiding the party that day, and Mr. Thomas, of 
Welfield, for his courteous reception of that large gathering of visitors. 

The party then, after a hasty visit to Pencerrig, made their way direct to 
Builth, it being then nearly two o'clock, and the time of departure of the train not 
allowing of the intended visit to the summit of the Cameddau. Sooth to say, 
too, the philosophers were anxious to recruit their physical energies. They had 
fulfilled the first part of the poetic adage : 

I am resolved 
The mind shall banquet, though the body starve. 



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14 

The mind had banqueted richly, and the body put in its daim to attention 
in turn. By the time they sat down to table at the lion Hotel, Builth, they 
were fully resolved to emulate the unscientiflc hero of inglorious times, who, 
" nobly daring, dined.'* It was not a very easy work after alL The dinner, which 
was a good one, was very imperfectly served. The number was, indeed, some 
dozen or so more than had been expected, but there was Uterally nothing that 
could be called waiting, even at the ratio of the original number ; and many of 
the guests had to rise from table and fetch from the bar the articles they wanted, 
or make shift to dine without The extra delay thus caused rendered it impossible 
to hold any meeting or listen to any papers after dinner. From the dinner table 
the members had to hurry off to the train, which steamed out of Builth Station on 
the homeward route about 5.45, and reached Hereford about 7.35 p.m. 



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?®:00lh0p^ ^atmialists^ ^idi djlub. 



MEETING AT KING ARTHUR'S CA.VE, WHITCHURCH. 



The third Field Meeting for the season of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club was held on Friday, July 17, at the beautifully situated village of Whitchurch, 
in this County, the object being to visit the Caves on the Great Do ward-hill, which 
have been investigated with such instructive results. The Rev. W. S. Sjrmonds, 
F.G-.S., by whom the investigation was conducted, kindly acted as guide to 
the caves and delivered an admirable address to the large company which assembled 
in and at the entrance of the principal cave, known as King Arthur's Cave. The 
members and visitors present were : — 

The Eev. James Davies, Moorcourt, President ; Misses Davies (2) ; Rev. 
Sir 6. H. Comewall, Bart, Hon. Sec ; Sir James Campbell, Bart, Coleford; 
Ideut-CoL Symonds, High Sheriff ; Kev. William Elliott, Cardington ; Bev. Wm. 
S. Symonds, Pendock ; Mr. Flavell Edmunds ; Mr. M. Mogridge, Captain Bankin, 
Bryngwyn; Mr. Frank Symonds, Pendock; Bev. Thomas, Mrs. and Miss 
Phillipps, Dewsall; Mr., Mrs., and Miss Swinburne, Dulas, Hay; Bev. S. 
Thackwell, Little Birch ; Mr. Fowler, Miss Bucknell, and Miss Teare ; Bev. J. 
E. Jones-Machen, Llanthewy Bectory, and Bev. B. Adams ; Dr., Mrs., and Miss 
Lawrence, The Priory, Usk ; Bev. A. Gr. Jones, King's Caple ; Mrs Hedger and 
Miss Goss ; Mr. E. Colt Williams, Mrs. E. C. Williams, Miss E. P. Hurle, 
Miss Timberlake, and Mr. Seer ; Mr. Jos. and Miss Greaves, Lower Howsell ; 
Mr. Cam, Hereford; Mr. J. H. Wood, Tarrington; Mr. T. Clifton Paris, 
Hampton Lodge ; Mr. Jas. W. Lloyd, Kington ; Mr. and Mrs. Griffith Morris ; 
Mr. T. Curley, F.G.S, Hereford; Bev. B. and Mrs. Buck Keene, Newent; 
Bev. B. H. Williams, Byford ; Bev. G. H. Clay, Aston Bectory ; Capt Power 
and son. The Hill Court ; Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Herbert, Credenhill Park, and 
Miss Eckley ; Mr. Fisher, Trebandy ; Mr. G. V. Banks, Birch House, and party ; 
Bev. F. S. Stooke, Wellington Heath; Bev. C, J. Westropp, Wormbridge; 
Rev. F. Merewether, Woolhope; Colonel Scobell ; Capt and Mrs. Helme, 
Woolhope Court; Bev. H. Cooper Key, Stretton Sugwas ; Mr. D. Long, 
Cheltenham; Bev. D. Seaton, Goodrich; Bev.H. Hormby ; Mr. Arthur Thompson, 
Treasurer and Assistant Secretary; Miss Maria Jones, Springfield, and Miss 
Yaoghan, Madley ; Mr. Henry Southall, Ross* 



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The gathering coxuiisted of several parties, the largest of which left Hereford 
by the 9.45 train for Ross, where they received an addition to their numbers, and 
thus started in a train of carriages for Whitchurch. The route taken was along 
the N. Bank of the Wye, past Wilton with its Ancient Castle, long the seat of the 
Greys of Wilton, for ages lords of the district still known as the hundred of Greytree 
(in Old English Grey's treow, or trees) ; and thence to Goodrich, famous for its 
grand old Castle, occupying the site of the abode of Grodu, sister of Edward the 
Confessor, and its modem mansion, celebrated in these later days for the unequalled 
collection of Ancient Armour now at South Kensington, but originally gathered 
here by the eminent antiquary, the late Sir S. R. Meyrick. The party did not 
stop, however, to visit either Castle or Court, or the Church, where Dean Swift's 
grandfather was incumbent during the great Civil War, but made their first halt 
at Whitchurch, where they were joined by parties from Bryng^wyn, and by the 
Rev. W. S. Symonds, Colonel Scobell, Sir James Campbell, Bart, M. Mpgridje, 
Esq., and other visitors. 

Before making their way to the caves, which part of the journey had 
necessarily to be performed on foot, the party found Mr. Symonds's beautiful col- 
lection of fossils from the caves laid out for inspection at the Inn at Whitchurch. 
They consisted of bones, teeth, skulls, and other remains of the rhinoceros, mam- 
moth, cave lion, cave bear, and hyaena, and skulls of Bos longifrona, an ancient 
British ox, the badger, and other remains not fossilised, together with specimens 
of the pebbles which had been washed into the caves, and others of the same rocks, 
which had been brought for comparison from Builth. Among the later remains 
were specimens of the flint knives which had probably been used by the human 
beings who had inhabited the caves in ages long subsequent to those of the cave- 
dwelling lions and bears. 

These had been found along with the bones and skulls of the Bos, and other 
animals, which they probably used for food, and with them two cores of flints, or 
pieces from which flakes had been chipped to form knives. These must have been 
brought to the spot by human hands, as there are no flints to be found within 
fifty miles, nor indeed anywhere west of the Severn. The condition of the fossil 
remains showed that the prey of the cave lions and bears had been chiefly the 
rhinoceros, which must have inhabited the Wye, although now only found in 
tropical countries. The lions and bears had dragged the carcases into the caves, 
and after devouring the flesh had left the marks of their teeth upon the bones, 
and afterwards dying in their dens, had themselves been turned to earth, and left 
their bones and teeth as evidences of their presence. Beside the teeth of the cave 
bear lay a tooth of the conunon brown bear of Europe of the present day. The 
teeth of many of the animals were in a state of almost perfect preservation, show- 
ing that the animals must have died or been killed while in youth or vigorous 
maturity. It was stated that one of them was pierced, but there were no other 
evidences that either the camivora or the herbivora had ever experienced the tor- 
tures of tooth-ache. One of the members remarked that he had read or heard of 
instances in which elephants of the present day had been found to be suffering 



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from tooth-aclie, and the lions of NorUi Africa are said to become specially 
dangerous to human beings when age or disease has damaged their teeth, and thus 
induced them to seek for prey of a more fleshy kind than the wild animals which 
form their ordinary food. Wild deer, wild cattle, and even the mountain sheep 
and goats are too tough eating for the old lion with his carious teeth. Still the 
instinct of the lion for fleshy food was shown in the abundance of the bones of the 
large bodied rhinoceros, as already noticed. Mr. Symonds explained the nature 
of the remains, as a preparative to the intended visit of the company to the caves 
from whence they had been exhumed. 

A toilsome walk along the steep lanes under the pitiless sun of July, led the 
party to the western slope of the Great Doward. There, embowered in the 
delicious shade of the overhanging woods, were the two principal caves, which had' 
been lighted up for the occasion. The path, a woodland path, such as that in 
which Mneaa is said to have met his goddess mother, leads past the caves. It was 
a ** ladies' day," and on this occasion the wood was thronged by a distinguished 
party, many of whom might vie with the goddess and her hero son in their personal 
beauty, while all were equally eager in a nobler chase than that which Virgil has 
described — the pursuit of geologic knowledge. When all were gathered around the 
entrance of the noble cave named after the British hero king, himself a mighty 
hunter and a chief of men like ^neas, the scene was a most picturesque one. As 
the Lecturer stood upon a point of rock discoursing eloquently upon the grand 
facts of primaeval history which the cave had yielded to his enterprise, the bright 
sunlight making a ** chequered shade " upon the greensward, dotted with the 
gaily dressed groups, and blazing full upon the gray rocky portal, while the dark 
recesses were made bright with artificial light reflected from the earnest upturned 
faces of the auditory, one could not help (mentally) echoing the exclamation of 
Byron, whatever might be said of the appropriateness of the consolation which he 
administered to himself : — 

O that I were a painter ! but my tints 

May serve perhaps as outlines or slight hints. 

When next the club holds a meeting in King Arthur's Cave, ** may we be there 
to see !" and may the Club provide at least a photographer to preserve a ** counter- 
feit presentment " of the interesting scene ! 

The Eey. W. S. Symonds delivered his address as follows :— 

Enough has already been said and written on the subject of King Arthur's 
Cave on the Great Doward, as well as on the adjoining caves on the property of 
Mrs. Bannerman, of the Leys, to show beyond a doubt that these caverns were 
formerly the dens of wild beasts, which in other ages of the world inhabited 
portions of what is now Great Britain, in vast numbers. There are caverns in 
England and the Continent into which the bones of animals and the cave earth 
and other foreign materials have been washed in by the flow of water from the 
surface or through fissures. There are others where the remains of numerous 
animals are found gnawed and scored by the teeth of carnivorous animals, like 
^hose found in Wookey Hole and Banwell in Somersetshire, Kirkdale and Settle 



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18 

in Yorkihlr»» or the cavw of Gowisr, near SwauMa, In Soatii Wales, and especially 
the oelefarated Kent's Hole In Deyonihire, at Torquay, which has yielded to the 
researohes of Mr. Pengelly and others npwaids of fifty thousand bones. Such too 
weie King Arthur's and the Doward Caves— at least those that occupy a height of 
from 400 to 600 feet above the river. Of the lower level caves I will speak just now 
The bones of the herbivorous animals are all more or less gnawed and bitten, 
and the remains of such destructive carnivores as were the cave lion and hyaena 
are found In considerable numbers associated with the bones of the herbivores, and 
prove beyond a doubt, that the mammoths, reindeer, bison, and rhinoceros fell a 
prey to those destructive carnivores, and that their carcases were dragged piece- ' 
meal Into their dens. I shall allude to-day to the consideration of the contents of 
these Wye Caves, and these only. Inasmuch as they are somewhat remarkable for 
the abundance of the remains of the long-haired rhinoceros (EL tichoirhinus) whose 
bones are found In great numbers In Northen Itnssia and Siberia associated with 
the relics of the mammoth or long-haired elephant 

Finally I shall allude, briefly, to the great changes which have taken place 
in the geographical and geological conditions of this country since the time these 
caves were tenanted by wild animals, and to the evidences of the coexistence of 
man with the mammoth. First with regard to the remains of the herbivores 
found in the Wye Caverns. We have the remains of mammoths, young and old, 
from the great fore-arm in the possession of Mr. Bannerman, which was 
evidently dragged in by either a cave lion or a hyesna, and hidden in a chink in 
the limestone rock for a future gnawing, down to the teeth of a young calf 
mammoth, several of which were found in King Arthur's den. The mammoth is 
only one of about some 40 species of fossil elephants known to palsBontologists, and 
you are aware that there are now only two species of existing elephants. It is 
found abundantly in caves and ancient river deposits throughout England and 
Wales, and was once very abundant ia Russia, Siberia, and Grermany. It has been 
found In Siberia with its flesh preserved ia ice, and clad in hair and wool with a 
long Bhaggy mane. It grew to a larger size than any living elephant, and the food 
on which it fed has been preserved in its stomach. It fed on the Arctic wallow 
and birch and pine shoots. The store of fossQ ivory furnished by this now extinct 
animal in the North of Russia is extraordinary, and not very long ago the lUustraied 
LoncUm New^ had an engraving of a room full of its gigantic curved tusks at the 
London Docks. Its teeth are as well known as the Gr3rphoea incnrva of the lias, 
and some of them have been exhibited to-day. Those who will take the trouble 
to examine the collections at the Gloucester Museum and at Mr. Bannermali*s will 
see from the teeth of the rhinoceros, young and old, how numerous the individuals 
of this animal must have been on those ancient lands of the Forest of Dean. On 
the banks of the ancient Wye it formed the principal prey of the hysena?, and a 
vast number of its bones have been disinterred from the caves in the shape of 
splinters and gnawed fragments, the enamel of the teeth being too hard even for 
the digestion of a hyen^. The quantity of individual heads of th's animal dragged 
In must have been very great So far as my knowledge extends all the teeth we 
have discovered In the Wye caves belong to the rhinoceros tichorrhinus (strongly 



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19 

walled nose), the remains of which are yery abundant In cares In En^^d and the 
beds of our ancient rivers, especially of the Thames. Entire specimens of the 
skeletons of this animal have been found in Siberia, and it is known to have been 
furnished with a protecting covering of hair and wool like the mammoth. It onoe 
ranged throughout Europe in vast herds. Of the deer tribe Mr. Boyd Dawkins 
determined the presence of the great Irish deer (Megaceros Hibemicus), and the 
teeth of this animal are tolerably numerous. It was a true deer intermediate 
between the fallow and the reindeer, and was onoe very abundant In Ireland. 
These perfect skeletons are occasionally disentombed from lacustrine marls below 
the peat mosses, and you may see one in the British Museum. 

The Earl of Enniskillen has a grand collection of heads with antlers, several 
of them showing an expanse of 10 feet across from tip to tip. I need hardly say 
that this noble animal is now extinct There is evidence that it survived in Ireland 
until the habitation of that country by the hunter, man. The reindeer's teeth and 
horns, the horns being gnawed, were also detected by Mr. Boyd Dawkins among 
our earlier specimens, and relics of this animal have been found since. It appears 
that this animal was still living in the north of Grermany in the time of Caesar, 
since which it has retreated to Northern Europe, Asia, and America. It has been 
extinct in Great Britun for a long period, though there is evidence that it lingered 
on to the formation of the peat bogs of Scotland. So numerous was it once in 
Great Britain that £>r. Falconer was enabled to determine the remains of more 
than 1,000 individuals from one cave at Gower, in the Museum of Lieut-Col. 
Wood. It is found in our English Caverns and river sands and gravels, and in A 
very few instances in peat mosses. The condition of its bones and antlers proves 
that it fell a prey to the cave hyaena, and it is an important animal, as we may 
from its presence reasonably infer the kind of climate in the dasrs when its herds 
roamed in Dean Forest and ovier the country where is now Wales. It requires for 
its food the reindeer, moss and lichen, with other sub-arctic plants, which now 
cover the great space round the Arctic Seas. It now thrives in the zones where 
once the Mammoth and the Tichorhine Bhinoceros fed on the Arctic willow and 
birch, and fir cones and shoots, and where they were sheltered by wool and hair 
from the inclemency of the climate. It is associated, too, in various parts of 
Great Britain with the remains of the marmot and lemming, and even that now 
most northern quadruped, the musk ox, which with the reindeer, as the 
climate became wanner here, had to migrate northwards and northwards still, in 
order to find the herbs on which it feeds, and the climate which suits its condition. 

The remains of the bison of Europe, or the Auroch, are comparatively rare 
in the Wye caves, although they are numerous in the caves of Banwell and other 
parts of Somersetshire. We have, however, found bones and teeth. The bison of 
Europe, once so abimdant on the continent and ancient Britain, is now exclusively 
confined to the forest of Bialowikza, in Lithuania, where it is protected by the 
most stringent laws to prevent its utter extinction. It is not adapted to so cold a 
climate as the reindeer or the musk ox. One relic of the old British bull (Bos 
longifrons) was found in the upper surface earth of one of the oavei belonging to 



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20 

Mr. Bannemiaii, bat not with the remainB of the extinct nutminftHa, as far as I 
can onderBtand ; and with it were the remains of the beaver. Again, however, I 
must remind yon that the bones of the rhinoceros are the most numerous by far, 
and that this animal was pw exeelfence the prey of the hyaenas on those great 
prairies of which a mere fragment now forms the Doward and the Forest of Dean. 
No remains of sheep or goats have been found in the caves save in the uppermost 
surface mould. Along with these extinct herbivorous animals we find the remains 
of great carnivores, or beasts of prey mixed together, and especially of the hysena, 
which we icnow now is in the habit of hunting in packs, puUing down an animal 
by hanging on to its flanks and limbs, eating and tearing the flesh, and then carry- 
ing off portions of the carcase to their dens and caves. In South Africa the h3r8ena 
is often a man slayer, and the cave hyaena was most nearly allied to the existing 
spotted hyaena of the Cape. I have more than once watched the hyaena in the 
Zoological gardens crunching huge beef bones and gnawing them as his pre- 
decessor formerly crunched the bones of the rhinoceros on the banks of the Wye. 
The existing hyaenas are cautious and cowardly animals, but a wounded or aged 
rhinoceros or Uon has no chance with them. The remains of the hyaena were 
numerous in King Arthur's cave, and with it were associated the coprolites or fossil 
dung, of this animal. The jaws and teeth exhibited speak for themselves. They 
cannot be distinguished in Bhax)e and form, but are often larger than those of the 
spotted hyaena of South Africa. 

The Cave Lion (Fells speloea) was a great feline animal which was once 
numerous in Ancient Britain, and has left certain testimony of his former existence 
in Dean Sorest by his teeth and canines in the cave of King Arthur. These may 
be seen in the museum at Gloucester, and one fine specimen we exhibit to-day. 
This was disinterred by Mr. Scobell, to whose aid I owe so much, along with the 
remains of the rhinoceros and great Irish deer, during our last researches. Mr. 
Boyd Dawkins and Mr. Sandford, who have paid great attention to this great lion 
of the British Caves, and which preyed like the hyaena upon the mammoth, woolly 
rhinoceros, reindeer, and bison, believe that it was the ancestor of the great 
tropical lions of Asia and Africa, and a larger and stronger variety of the same 
species. The cave lion was very abundant in the Mendip Hills, and nearly a 
thousand sx)ecimens of the bones of this animal have been collected from caves 
between Banwell and Weston-super-Mare, and the old city of Wells. Between 
six and seven hundred specimens may be seen in the Taunton Museum. I have 
seen its canines in the collection of Mrs. Williams Wynne, at Cefn in Denbigh- 
shire, and again at CoL Wood's, from the cave of Kavenscliff and Northhill Tor, 
near Swansea. The canines and camassials of the cave lion in Gloucester Museum 
from King Arthur's cave are very fine. The first thing that strikes us now is the 
anomaly of finding carnivores such as the hyaena and cave lion associated with 
such animals as the mammoth and reindeer, as these carnivores are now found in 
tropical regions, but similar remarks would apply to elephants and rhinoceroses 
which are now nowhere found in cold climates. Besides this, the existing tiger of 
Bengal is gifted with such an adaptation of constitution that it pulls down the rein- 
deer in the mountains of the Altai just as it springs upon the antelope in the 



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21 

jungles of Bengal It endorefl the oold of a Siberian winter as weU as it endues 
the heat of a tropical forest, and its jaws and teeth and bones may be found alike 
among the Alpine willows or the tropical palm. We know what the food of the 
reindeer, mammoth, and tichorhine rhinoceros was, and we may be certain that 
the carnivores which feed npon them were adapted to the climate that suited these 
herbivores. Aprofpoi of the British lion it happened to me not very long ago to 
say before a British lady that we had found the remains of his majesty in King 
Arthur's cave, with the remains of elephants and rhinoceroses. She smiled 
contemptuously, and said, " Well, Mr. Symonds, you may beHeve it, but I don't ; 
not a word of it" Of course aU I could do was to bow profoundly. I shall never 
attempt to convince that recent British lady. But to the ladies of the Woolhope 
Olub I would say, go and see the skeletons of the recent animals in the College of 
Surgeons, and then the wonderful collection of fossils, cave lions, and h]r»ttas in 
the museum at Taunton, and you will soon recognise in the teeth and jaws sent to 
Gloucester Museum and those which you see to^y the absolute identity of 
structure, and will make one step towards a lesson in that wonderful science of 
comparative anatomy, which restores to our knowledge the animals of bye-gone 
ages before lions or hyaena ever existed. 

The occurrence of human bones in these caves is limited to the superficial 
deposits, and none have been hitherto found fossilised as are the remains of the 
rhinoceros, horse, elephant and hywna, but flakes of flint and scrapers have been 
found in such positions that it is impossible to avoid the belief that men occasion- 
ally frequented the caves during the occupation of the hysenas. There is no flint 
in the district, and none occurs for many miles, so they must have been brought 
there by human agency. I myself exhumed several, and so did Mr. Scobell during 
the first excavations at King Arthur's cave, lying side by side with the bones of 
the extinct animals, and sealed and protected by the same stalactitic floor. With 
these also may be seen in Gloucester Museum some rude stone cores, which the 
cave men attempted to flake off and .then threw aside. These cores are struck 
from 'old Wye pebbles, and are like some I saw at Mentone in the museum, and 
which came from the caves where the skeleton men of the Bed Bocks are found 
imbedded, with the remains of the extinct animals also. There is one of these 
cores placed upon the table in order that those ignorant of the subject may see 
what a so-called core is, viz., a stone from which flakes for scrapers or knives have 
been struck off. 

I visited the Mentone Caves again and again, in company with my friend 
Mr. Mogridge, who explained to me the principal phenonema when the caves were 
searched ; and not only in the caves where the skeletons are found at Mentone, but 
at Nice and various other places in France, we find overwhelming evidence that 
man occasionally frequented those caves at the same time that animals, now 
extinct, lived on the shores of the Mediterranean. And such, I believe, is the 
evidence of these flints we find in the caverns of the Wye. I have already 
occupied so much time on this occasion, in describing the animals found in the 
Wye caves, that I must deal briefly with the physical geological phenonema 



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33 

pnioiied by them* having abeady alluded to them In ocmaiderable detail (see 
Beoords of the Bocki, Geological Hagwdne, Ac). But it will be interesting to 
■ome amongit yon if I attempt to give some idea of the geological period, when the 
wild animals lived in the Forest of Dean. Those amongst you who are acquainted 
with the Beoords of Geology, will remember that during the ** Pliocene ages " of 
Tertiary geology, the length and breadth of Europe, in its southern districts, was 
the home of vast herds of rhinooeri, hippopotami, mastodons, elephants, tafnrs, 
stags, beavers, and other animals. With these were various tigers, lions, and 
hyaenas, and especially the great tiger (the Machairodus Cuthidens) with canine 
teeth like a sabre. During that period we know from fossQ evidence of hundreds 
of extinct animals, that Europe and Africa were joined togetiier by land, over 
which the quadrupeds roamed, and that land reached from continent to continent 
In several points, where now roll the waves of the Mediterranean sea. There are 
caves and fissures at Malta» Gibraltar, Sicily, and Italy crammed with the remains 
of African forms of leopards and hyaenas, lynxes, and bears, associated with 
hippopotami, extinct elephants, and rhinooeri, which then roamed in thousands 
over land now submerged beneath the Mediterranean, and then stretching on 
to what is now Southern Europe. It was during the dose of this pliocene period 
that an ancient forest land of Great Britain, now known as the Cromer Forest bed 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, was tenanted by three species of elephant, two rhinoceroses, 
hippopotami, a gigantic beaver, numerous stags, and large camivora, but no arcUc 
forms of mammalia such as reindeer or the woolly rhinoceros, or mammoth, or 
marmot, are found amongst them. But the climate, which in the pliocene ages 
was in Europe comparatively warm and temperate, was gradually changing and 
passing into the Arctic severity of the glacial period, and, as we now know, with 
the glacial period there ensued subsidences of land, which, in certain localities, 
was afterwards re-elevated, but again there are large areas of that once great 
continent which are now washed over by the salt sea waves. These subsidences 
of the glacial lands occasioned the submergence of immense tracts of land between 
Africa and Europe, and England and France, and Ireland and England, and large 
areas of these ancient lands are now covered by the Atlantic and Mediterranean 
seas, }and which was once the home of thousands of living animals. As the glacial 
period went on, the cold of the northern regions increased and this change caused 
a corresponding change in the animals which frequented the land. The Southern 
forms of elephants, rhinooeri, deer, and antelopes [retreated aouthvxircb with the 
accompanying camivora, and are now represented by the African forms of animal 
life so well known to the zoologist and hunter, while their places were taken by 
Arctic and sub- Artie animals such as the mammoth and tichorhine rhinoceros, the 
reindeer and musk ox, Irish deer, bison, marmot, and others, thousands of which 
were frozen up in the bitter regions of the glacial north. So severe was this cold 
of the glacial epoch, where even now is the sunny south, that I have knocked out 
the teeth of the bison and woolly rhinoceros in rocks on which now grow the orange, 
the lemon, and the palm, and seen caves which contain the remains of the reindeer, 
where now the fire-fly flits by the Mediterranean shores. I have seen, too, the 
action of glaciers, the relics of which onoe swept down the vales where now^the 
olive tree bears its fruit and the cork tree sends forth her branches. 



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38 

Now it la to the doee of the glacial period we muat refer the oocopation of 
the Wye caves by the cave lion and hysBna, for they preyed upon the Arctio 
elephant (or mammoth) the Arctic rhinooeroe, and the reindeer, all invading fonna 
ao to apeak, driven by the cold from the distant North. Probably the climate 
here was comparatively temperate, though there is abundant evidence that gladera 
then filled all our mountain vales, and in some places stretched down to the sea. 
During the same period the cave animalH left numerous remains in the old river 
deposits of that epoch, and in these river deposits there are often large masses of 
angular rocks, which could only have been carried by floating ice. They lived, 
too, before the valleys had been excavated by the existing rivers to the present 
depth, and it is a question to me if the Wye has not excavated its channel through 
hard limestone rocks three or four hundred feet aince the cave lion lived and died 
by the long ago ancient Wye. 

In King Arthur's Cave we found a quantity of silt, evidently deposited by 
water, and in this silt were several Wye pebblea, which are juat like those now 
washed down by the Wye from Plinlimmon and Builth. I believe that an ancient 
Wye once rolled its waters into the cave in flood time ; those who do not can 
perhaps explain better the presence of the silt and pebbles, which certainly did 
not come from the stars. This summer, too, I have been enabled, through the 
generosity of a few friends— Mr. Crompton Roberts, Colonel Ratdiffe, Mr. Lucy, 
Captain Price, and others— to open two more caves at a lower level than is King 
Arthur's or the other Great Doward caverns. The result was unfortunate as 
regards obtaining fossil remains of the extinct animala. The first cave at Branland 
has only furnished the tooth of a deer. The second on the right bank of the Wye, 
about 200 feet above the river, has furnished the canine teeth of the oommon 
bear, but no extinct mammalian remains. It looks, therefore, as if the mammoth 
and hairy rhinoceros did not live on with the hyaena down to the period repre- 
aented by these lower caves. Such, then, ia a brief retumd of thia cave history 
and ita human and animal relica of agea long aince passed. It was during the later 
cold periods of the glacial epoch that we are now certain that man inhabited the 
continent of Europe and what are now our islands of Great Britain ; when there 
were no Straits of Dover, no salt waves flowing between Ireland and England. 
We find now continually, in England and on the Continent, his rude weapons and 
artificially worked fiints in old river deposits or estuarine drifts where rivers have 
ceaaed to flow and the salt waves no longer rolL Man was living here in Great 
Britain in times when you might have sailed above the sites of Worcester and 
Gloucester, on the waters of the Severn sea. Man was living here in England 
with the mammoth and the long-haured rhinoceros, and has left his flint imple- 
ments in caves then haunted by the hyaena and the cave bear, which he 
visited for shelter or for refuge. Not only so : in France he has left behind him 
bone ornaments and weapons made of the rhinoceros and reindeer, on which he 
feasted, and even in some instances he foreshadowed the art of a Landseer by 
drawing rude sketches of the hairy elephant and the reindeer on the very bones ' 
of the animala he had dain and devoured. I could aay much upon the vaatdhangea 
that have oone over this portion of the planet we now islM>i% BiRC9 tb^ee pld vom 



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34 

liTtd— bow the phyikil gtognishj has dunged, the climate has ameliorated, the 
yegetation has altered, and how where once roamed the savage in search of the 
mammoth there now rise beautiful cities, verdant pastures, and noble cathedrals — 
bat I trust I have said enough for you to understand what marvels are unfolded 
to those who study the former history of our earth. In conclusion, let me tender 
my thanks to Sir James Campbell and Mr. and Mrs. Scobell for their generous 
aid, and kindly, undeviating hospitality and sympathy. 

Tlie Pbebidknt said that he was sure all present had been equally with 
himself delighted with the address which they had just heard. Mr. Symonds's 
addresses were always ludd and profound, and the present address was remarbable 
above all thKt^Chey had previously heard from him. They all felt greatly indebted 
to hinv ftnd in expressing their obligations he (the President) would add the 
request that Mr. Symonds would permit his address to appear first in the Hereford 
Timet* report of the day's meeting, and afterwards in the Transactions of the Club, 
(applause). 

Mb. Stvonds, in acknowledging the compliment, expressed the great 
pleasure which he always felt in meeting the Club, and especially in meeting them 
there on a spot so full of interest and instruction. It was particularly agreeable 
and encouraging to meet with people who sympathised with him in his researches, 
and who were ready to accept the truths of sdence as taught by the rocks and 
oaves around them. 

Mb. Stvonds then led the party to the second cave, and made a few 
remarks on the zeal and intelligence with which the work had been carried out 
under his directions by Mr. Robertson, of Whitchurch. From thence a number 
of the party accompanied him to the lower caves, and some even looked into that 
which is occupied by a notorious person known as ** Jem, the Slipper," whose 
boast it is that he has lived in the cave for thirty years, and has not washed him- 
self for that period. Most of the company, however, preferred to return to Whit- 
dhurdi by other routes, through the grateful shade of the woods. 

On reaching the Hotel, some little time was devoted to further examination 
of the fossils from the caves, after which the party resumed their carriages and 
made the best of their way to Boss. As they passed along, the scenery, always 
charming, showed richly beautiful in the light of the evening sun, yet it must be 
confessed that most, if not all, were very glad to reach their temporary destination, 
and to seat themselves at the diimer table of the Boyal HoteL Creology is good, 
and fossils are good, and a day in King Arthur's Hall is good also ; but then the 
sun had been fierce, the scenery somewhat obscured with haze, and the fatigues of 
the way had prepared all to exclaim with John Gilpin's wife— 

The dinner waits, and we are tired ! 
Said Gilpin, " So am I." 

The wearied philosophers found their hunger assuaged with an excellent 
dinner, admirably served. After dinner 

Th^ Fb9SID||NT r<M9e c^d gave the health of her Majesty the Queen, the onl^ 



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toast given Ibt the dinneni of the Club, but one which loyal Woolhoj^ans never 
omitted. The toast having been drtink, the President expressed the great gratifica- 
tion which he felt in seeing so large a gathering of members and visitors, and in 
congratulating them on the very pleasant day which they had spent They all 
owed a debt of gratitate to Mr. Symonds not only for his excellent lectnre, but 
also for his explanation of the most interesting exhibition of fossil remains with 
which it had been illustrated (applause). 

Mb. Stmondb, in acknowledgment, expressed the pleasure he felt in being 
able to illustrate the great truths of geology, and to bring before them evidences 
of the vast changes which had taken place in this district He felt that the stady 
of the rocks enlarged the mind, and was worthy of man*s intellectual powers. 
Above all, he felt that it was beneficial to man as a reasonable creature that he 
should thus learn to understand somewhat of the power and wisdom of the great 
Creator (hear, hear). 

The Chatbman called upon Mr. Flavell Edmunds, as one of the Editorial 
Committee, to make a Report 

Mr. Edmundb said that he had hoped to escape at that late hour, bat that 
he observed a twinkle in the President's eye, which, if not *' ominous," was at 
least intelligible ; and it said to him plainly enough, " obey and speak." He had, 
however, little to report from the Editorial Committee : the printing of the 
Transactions had been delayed by accidental circumstances, but was now going on. 
The fourth sheet was nearly ready ; and he had no doubt that the book would be 
completed by the time of the Fungus Foray. For the rest, he would just say 
that he had been greatly interested and delighted with the eloquent lecture of 
Mr. Symonds, and with the whole proceedings of the day. This meeting at Whit- 
church put him in mind of the first time when the Club assembled there, just 22 
years ago. Mr. Symonds moidd no doubt remember the pleasant little party and 
their ramble into the adjacent Forest of Dean, and Symond's Tat. investigating 
the Conglomerate, the Millstone Grit, and the Coal Measures, and gazing with 
new interest upon the grand landscape, as their late esteemed chiefs. Sir Roderick 
Murchison and the Kev. T. T. Lewis, explained the broad facts of the history of 
the strata around them. In the intervening time, their revered friends Sir 
Boderick and Mr. Lewis had been removed by death ; their esteemed founder, 
Mr. Scobie, had also been snatched away, all too early for the useful career on 
which he had entered ; and few indeed of the party which met in 1852 were now 
left. A fresh generation, he might almost say, had sprung up in the Club ; and 
he was glad to be able to congratulate Mr. Symonds on the fact that the new 
generation mustered in so much greater number than the old, although they could 
not be said to show a greater love for the grand science upon which Mr. Symonds 
had so often spoken to them. For his own part he was delighted to see that 
gathering, because he took it as a proof that the truths that day expounded were 
making their way. He felt that the discoveries of geology were especially valuable 
in their bearing on the Christian verity. He held that man's conceptions of the 
greatness of the Christian scheme were .raised by the evidence that the creation 



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26 

was Agnnd work stretohiiig over oonntleiB ages, and made up of iniumierable 
detaOa all carefully elaborated, and all parts of the great prooees by which the 
world wae gradually fitted to be the habitation of an intelligent being, capable 
of understanding the mighty work of which he was the ordained head, and 
capable of honouring and serving the beneficent Maker of alL The geologic 
view of creation seemed to him to exhibit the great work in the form worthiest 
of infinite wisdom, power, and goodness (applause). 

The following paper by the Rev. H. C. Key, on a Boulder at Ssrmond's Tat, 
was taken as read : — 

ON A SO-OAIXBD '' XBRATIO BOULDEB OF PENNANT 8A2)DST0NE'* AT BTMOND'S TAT. 

In the year 1870, on the occasion of the meeting of the Woolhope Club at 
Symond's Tat, Dr. Thomas Wright, F.G.S., drew attention to a large stone to be 
seen on the private path adjoining, which he pronounced to be an erratic boulder 
of Pennant sandstone, and upon which he delivered a special address. I was not 
present at the meeting, and it was not till a year or more afterwards that I read 
the account of his address in the Transactions of the Club ; my impression had 
been that the stone in question was mill-stone grit, but I had no opportunity of 
examining it and the locality carefully till the Club met in the neighbourhood on 
Friday last, the 17th inst., when, after Mr. Symonds* paper at the Doward caves 
was concluded, I went, in company with other members of the Club, to Symonds's 
Tat for that purpose, and the result of the examination, which is by no means 
unimportant, I now lay before the dub. 

On pages 60 and 51 of the volume of Transactions for 1870, will be found the 
following paragraphs, which give the substance of the chief points of Dr. Wright's 
address :— 

" The party then proceeded to the private grounds in the Tat to examine 
a large boulder of hard yellow sandstone called ' Pennant,* which is here seen 
resting upon carboniferous limestone, and has been brought into its present 
position by some powerful agency, for it is clearly a rock mass that has been 
transported from a distance, there being no such rock as that of which it formed 
a part in the vicinity of Symond's Tat .... After such an example as the 
Doctor adduced, it is easy to understand how this block of Pennant sandstone was 
removed from its original bed to the limestone of the Tat, for, as the whole valley 
of the Wye afifords evidence of glacial action, doubtless this great natural force 
was the agency by which it was transported thither. This Pennant rock where it 
now stands is entirely out of its natural position, and therefore was lifted into its 
resting place by glacial action (applause)." 

The ablest and most careful geologists will sometimes be mistaken, and 
some excuse may justly be made for Dr. Wright's mistake in this instance on the 
score of his visit to Symond's Tat being so brief and hurried ; he may possibly 
have accepted his facts on the authority of another, but however that may be, his 
conclusions respecting this block of stone are unquestionably incorrect. 



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27 

1. It is not an ** erratic boulder " at ail, but merely a weathered block 

2. It is not *' yellow Pennant sandstone. '' 

3. It does not " rest upon carboniferous limestone.'* 

4. It was not ** lifted into its place by glacial action." 

5. There is '*a rock, of which it has formed a part, in the vicimty of 
Symond's Yat." 

And with regard to the statement, that "the whole valley of the Wye 
affords evidence of glacial action," I am not aware of anyone piece of evidence yet 
found in the whole course of the Wye valley, which amounts to actual proof of 
glacial action, — ^such as that which is seen round Snowdon, to say nothing of the 
Lake district of Scotland. But even if this were an erratic boulder of Pennant 
sandstone, and if there were satisfactory evidence of glacial action in the Wye 
valley, it is not easy to see how ice could have brought it from the Brisiol or South 
Wales coal-field, across the watershed of the Severn or the Usk valley, to the spot 
where it now lies. I may add that I much wonder Dr. Wright was not startled at 
his own conclusion, which, if true, would involve the extraordinary circumstance 
of a piece of local sandstone 'bemg transported by natural agency from one coal- 
field, to which it is peculiar, to another from which it is absent 

With the able assistance of Mr. F. D. Long, of the Cotswold Field Club, 
I have ascertained the following facts respecting this well-known stone, and he is 
able to corroborate the truth of every one of them. 

The stone itself is indubitably mill-stone grit, resting on the mill-stone grit 
formation. The hill above the pathway on which it lies, and the pathway itself, 
form part of the same formation, which extends to the edge of the steep slope to 
the river, and descends it for a short distance. The geologists of the ordnance 
survey have failed to see not only this, but also the more obvious fact that the 
overlying rock, as you go on to the promontory of Symond's Yat, is of the same 
formation ; and that, when you ascend the furthest part of the promontory, the 
surface rock is found to be mountain limestone, whereas in the survey maps the 
whole is marked as carboniferous shale. Still further the road up to the Yat, 
when it reaches the top of the hill, passes through a cutting in the rock ; that 
portion on the left-hand is millstone grit ; that on the right-hand is for a short 
distance limestone, which soon passes into mill-stone grit ; at the actual junction 
it is very interesting to trace the confused way in which the two formations, so 
distinct ia character, are mingled together, a mass of the limestone occasionally 
overlying the mill-stone grit. The cause of this is apparently due to the fact that 
the carboniferous limestone which forms the mass of the promontory of the Yat 
has been tilted up, and dips at a considerable angle (as shown in the the survey) 
towards the great limestone escarpment (of which it forms a part) which escarp- 
ment extends down and overhangs the river for a considerable distance, its 
bedding being perfectly horizontal ; the point at which the bedding of the strata 
is thus broken and inclined is also the point of junction of the mill-stone grit, and 
hence probably the crumpled and contorted appearance observable at this spot. 



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38 

The peculiarity here preaented and the dip of the margin of the great limeatone 
cli£fB through which the river takes each a winding course is well worthy the 
attention of the geologist. 

H. C. Eet. 

Mr. John Llotd, jun., of Huntington Court, handed in a very interesting 
account of the discovery of a gigantic skeleton in King Arthur's Hall, about a 
century ago, which was taken as read, it being necessary that the company should 
at once proceed to the station to catch the return trains. We give Mr. Lloyd's 
communication as under. 

THE SKELETON FOUND IN KING ARTHUR'S HALL 

A copy of a scarce book, entitled ** The Excursion Down the Wye from 
Ross to Monmouth," compiled by Mr. Heath, printer, Monmouth, was handed in 
by Mr. John Lloyd, jun., of Huntington Court The book was published in 1799. 
It is interesting, as containing an account of the discovery of what is described as 
the skeleton of a man of gigantic stature, which was said to have been found in 
" a natural tomb, under an arch," in the cave called King Arthur's Hall. Just 
such a natural cave, formed by two large pieces of rock, at the extremity of the 
left hand passage in the cave, was visited by the party on this occasion, the 
passage leading to it being, like the other recesses of the cave, lighted with candles 
for the convenience of the visitors. The hollow enclosed under the natural arch 
did not suggest the idea of its having been the grave of any man of gigantic 
stature ; but then it was possible that the skeleton lay with the head only under 
the arch, and the limbs extended towards the mouth of the cave. The description 
of the discovery of the skeleton seems to have been drawn up somewhat carelessly, 
the site of the cave being incorrectly stated as at the N.E. edge of the camp on 
Little Doward Hill, whereas it is on the S. W. slope of Great Doward Hill, and is 
separated by a deep valley from Little Doward. The cave is correctly stated to be 
on the side overlooking the town of Monmouth, but as the town lies to the south- 
ward of the Little Doward camp, it is obviously impossible that the description 
could apply to any cave on the N.E. side of the latter hill. 

The finding of the skeleton is mentioned briefly by Camden in his 
**Britamiia,"but in Heath's work it is given on the authority of a letter by a 
Mr. George White, of new Wear (an ancestor of Mr. Lloyd). It is admitted by 
the writer to have been " varyously told," but it is added that ** what follows may 
probably be nearest the truth." The discovery is stated to have taken place in the 
year 1700. The incident is thus told by Mr. White : 

" A poor woman being in search of a goat that annually brought her two 
young kids, meeting with some woodcutters near the camp, inquired if they had 
seen her goat, and received information it had been observed going into such a hole 
near the mouth of the camp, which being somewhat small, the woman desired her 
informers to break down part to let in more light. I don't know whether the goat 
was found, but in return something more surprising (by the additional light thrown 



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in) pTOBentod itself to their view, whioh was the body of a man of very large 
stature upon the ledge of the rock, and coyered over by a natural tomb, an arch of 
the same rock. He lay at hie length, I think, upon hie back with hie spear by 
his side. One of them ventured to touch the body of this once mighty man, and 
all sunk down in dust. As a strange and acceptable curiosity, the men sought for 
a basket and carried all the bones and skuU to the master, Mr. George White, 
New Wear. The skull, I have heard, was given to Oaptain Scudamore, of Kent- 
church, always a most friendly countenanoer of Mr. White, to whom he sold his 
woods near Kentchurch, and most cordially wished success. Tis said the wooden 
part of the spear time had mouldered into dust, but the head, which was of brass, 
was carried down to the master. If the skull was given with the bones to the 
surgeon, then it must be sent back from Kentchurch. • • • • 

** The common account that passeth, of the length of the longest bone of 
the middle finger and the bones of the leg and thigh, some will judge must needs be 
magnified when reported to be twice the length of the same bones of a common 
man, that is 5 feet 8 or 10 inches, which was about the stature of Mr. Greorge 
White. **•••♦•••• 

** Gibson, in his third and last edition of Camden's Britannia, has recorded it 
that the length of all the joints was twice the length of others of this age. If so, 
the man must be 11 or 12 feet. 

'* Mrs. Henrietta GwiUim, upon mention of these things, said she had often 
and always heard it reported that the hip-bone was the full length of her grand- 
father's. Captain George Gwilliam's, of Whitchurch, leg and thigh bones ; that 
she had seen it and took the measure— and the captain was a tall lusty gentleman 
nearly six feet high." 

It is to be observed here that the corroboration really contradicts the state- 
ment which it was intended to establish. If the hip-bone were only equal to that 
of a man six feet high, it is obvious that it could not have belonged to a man of 
double that stature, nor could the longest joint of the middle finger have been 
' * twice the length " of that of Mr. White. 

A Mrs. Mary Hopkins and her father, John Llewellin, are also cited as 
corroborating the story of the discovery, and the latter is stated to have been 
actually present with the workmen when the body was discovered. They, how- 
ever, give quite a different version to that attributed to Mr. White. According to 
them the body was found in a search for hidden treasure supposed to be buried in 
King Arthur's HalL In the position of the body, its crumbling to dust, and the 
gigantic size of the bones, Llewellin fully corroborates Mr. White's account. 

Heath's narrative goes on to forestall the natural inquiry as to what became 
of these gigantic bones, by stating that " the surgeon was intentionally sailing to 
Jamaica when the ship was cast away, and himself and the bones buried in the 
sea." Some ** further testimony " which he subjoins explains the disappearance 
of the bones a little more fully, as follows :—" For some time the bones lay 
exposed on the wall near Mr. White's house, being placed there by him to prevent 



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the workmen*! chfldren from pUyliig abont tbe hcnuie and distarbing him wHih 
their noise, after which they were given to Mr. Pye, surgeon, Bristol, whose pre- 
mature fate we have before recorded," for the professional aid rendered by him to 
his friend (Mr. White), the only remuneration he would accept of. 

Mr. White seems to have conjectured that the bones " might possibly belong 
to one of y ortigem's officers or great men, who fled from the defeat at the battle 
of Amesbury, in Wiltshire, and secreted himself for a while in the wood of 
Doward. 

A correspondent of Heath throws a very natural doubt upon the coireclness 
of Mr. White's conjecture. He remarks : ** We well know that Vortigem 
retreated after the massacre at Amesbury into Wales, where he immediately 
built for himself a castle called Eaer Gwortigem, after his name, and in which he 
was destroyed : but that Doward was an asylum for any part of his army after 
that retreat, or that the person here found might hare been one of his officers, the 
histories which record the events of that day will not warrant a conclusion. 
Might it not rather be deemed after the battle of Ailsford f' 

Bishop Usher, in his Ecclesiastical Antiquities, says : " Vortigem was burnt 
by Aurelius Ambrosius and his army, by appljdng fire to the town of Grenoreu, 
which lies on the banks of the river Wye, near the town of Monmouth, which still . 
retains its name." The Bishop quotes Geoffrey of Monmouth for his authority. 
The allusion seems to be to book viiL cap. 2, in which Creoffrey says : " Ambrosius 
marched with his army into Cambria to the town of Grenoreu, whither Vortigem 
had fled for refuge. That town was in the country of Hergin, upon the river 
Gania, in the mountains called Cloarius. * * * * At last, when all other 
attempts failed, they had recourse to fire, which meeting with proper fuel ceased 
not to rage till it had burned down the tower and Vortigeni in it" 

Heath mentions a tradition as still current in his time (1799) that King 
Arthur's Hall extends underground from thence to New Wear, a distance of more 
than a mile. The present appearance of the cave does not afford any colour for 
this notion. None of the passages which open into the great cavern or hall extend 
more than a few yards, while the researches carried on by Mr. Symonds must have 
laid bare the entrance to any caverns beyond or any passage leading into the 
interior of the hilL 

Heath's conjecture that " the cavern was a mine out of which was produced 
the iron ore for the furnaces adjoining," the sites of which were at that time 
marked by heaps of cinders from the imperfectly smelted ore, is probably correct 
so far as the limestone from the hill may have furnished the flux for the smelting 
of the ore. But here again the researches of Mr. Symonds show that the cave was 
used by wild animals not only ages before the comparatively late period when man 
discovered the art of reducing iron from the ore, but even before man himself was 
introduced to the earth. 

Flayell Eduundb. 



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81 

The botanists had a good day. Among the rarer plants found or obserred 
were the following : — 

Carix clandestlna, Carez montana, Carex digitata ; Hypericam xnontannxn, 
palchrum, androflsemum, hirsutum, and perforatum ; Atropa belladonna, HeUe- 
bonis foetidns, AnthyUis vnlnaria, Erigeron acris, Serratula tinctoria, Hieradum 
muromm, Cistus helianthemum, Chlora perfoliata, Erythrsea oentanrea, Polypo- 
dimn calcareum (very luxuriant), Melica nutans, Bromus erectus, Tilia parvifolia. 
Geranium sanguineimi. Campanula patula, trachelium, and rotundif olia ; Rubia 
peregrina, Lithospermum officinaliB, &c., &a 

Localities known to produce Hutchinsia petrsa, Spirea filipendula, bee and 
fly Orchis, Cephalanthera grandiflora, Cynoglossum sylvaticum, and LathrOBa 
squamaria, were visited ; but the botanists were too late to see them. 




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Moirlkp^ Naturalists^ <^kU ^kk 

MEETING AT LYDNEY, 
TuBSDAT, August 18th. 



On Tuesdfty, the members of the Woolhope Naturalists* Field Club held 
their fourth field meeting for the season at Lydney, Glouoestershire, in compliance 
with an invitation from the Bev. W. H. Bathurst, of Lydney Park. The Presi- 
dent (Bey. J. Davies), the Hon. Secretary (Sir George Comewall, Bart), and a 
considerable party of the members left Hereford by the 9.45 train, and after a 
pleasant journey of 33 miles, the last 12 of which lay through the most beautiful 
part of the Vale of Severn, reached Lydney station at 11.50. Here they were met 
by Mr. Bathurst, jun., who courteously received the visitors, and offered the use 
of the waggonette which he had brought, to convey them to the Park. The 
majority of the party, however, preferred to walk, the morning being fine, and the 
sun's heat being agreeably tempered by clouds. The variety of effects of light and 
shade given to 'the charming landscape, tiie noble river, the grand background of 
wooded hills, and the quaint-looking Uttle town and its ancient church and cross, 
helped to make the walk thoroughly enjoyable. 

Lydney Park is situated on the junction of the Old Bed Sandstone with the 
Mountain Limestone which walls in the coal beds of Dean Forest, and thus in- 
cluding a variety of soils, must be a happy hunting ground for the naturalist ; but 
as the object of the day was archseological and historical, the hammers of the 
geologists did not show themselves, and the vascula of the botanists for once 
returned nearly empty. There was, indeed, no time for either class of investiga- 
tions, so fuUy were the party occupied with the consideration of Mr. Bathurst's 
unequalled collection of Boman relics, and his explanation of the remains of the 
Boman villa, temple, and camps, in his park, in which they had been discovered. 

The day being thus devoted to archaeology, the members were guided first 
to the ancient cross of Lydney, passing on their way by the parish church, which 
seemed to be noticeable only for its lofty and beautiful spire, and its utterly spoilt 
lich-gate. The latter, indeed, might be dted as an example of the completeness 
with which what was probably a picturesque structure may be '' translated" into 
the most hideous and tasteless thing of bricklayers* and plasterers* work. The 
village cross, happily, has escaped the hands of the repairers and beautifiers of the 
last century, and remains as the iconoclasts of the 16th century left it, some few 



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slight repairs to the steps excepted. That is to say the cross and the shaft which 
supported it are gone with the exception of a few inches at the base of the latter, 
but the pedestal with its fine sharply cut tracery and its deeply recessed niches 
remains uninjured. As there is no trace of any pedestals in the nicheSi it is 
probable that there never were any figured. In front of the south niche there are 
two places where the plinth has been chipped away ; and it was suggested that this 
may have been done to afi^ord room for the supports of a kind of lectern or table. 
As the cross is of early 14th century work, it was thought probable that it might 
have been used by the preaching friars, who, being usually on bad terms with the 
secular clergy, would probably be forbidden the use of the church. As the cross 
is in the centre of the market place, and as it is raised to a great height (8ft.) by 
an unusually lofty range of steps, the friar would be able to address a large congre- 
gation without inconvenience to himself or them. The Rev. J. Trollope, vicar of 
Lydney, who was present, and explained the peculiarities of the cross, remarked 
that there was a fine cross at Clearwell ; but the distance (five miles) was con- 
sidered by the party too great to be attempted in the time at their disposal. 

Unhackneyed by tourists, though not exempt from the neighbourhood of 
tall chimneys, or the shriek of the railway whistle, Lydney Park stands beside the 
high road from Gloucester to Chepstow, within an easy mile of the town, on undu- 
lating ground which skirts the Forest of Dean, and commands a grand outlook on 
the estuary of the Severn, and Stinchcombe Hill with the vale of Berkeley on the 
other side of the water. At the ancient seat of the family, soon to be replaced by 
a modem seat on a most striking eminence, the members of the Club were 
courteously received by the Rev. W. H. Bathurst and a large party of private 
friends and guests, amongst whom were Sir James Campbell, Bart., Archdeacon 
Ormerod (since deceased), the Kev. Stephen 0. Baker, and many of the clergy of 
the neighbourhood. With great forethought and consideration the host had for 
the nonce converted a very spacious and oblong room into a museum for the relics 
of ancient Roman civilization, which had been unearthed and collected within the 
precincts of the two Roman camps, villa, and temple, the remains of which are 
traceable in the circuit of Lydney Park. SkilfuUy arranged and classified on 
tables and in glass cases were to be seen articles appertaining to every department 
of Roman social life, architectural, culinary, agricultural, decorative ; the knives 
and spoons of the Britanno-Roman period being illustrated as well as their cups, 
and their more warlike gear. One tray was filled with specimens of the coloured 
plaster, stencilled in gay patterns, the whites and yellows of which seemed almost 
as fresh as though just finished, with which the walls were covered. In another 
were the rusty knives and spoons with which the Romano-Britons ate, and frag- 
ments of the vessels out of which they drank— amphoroe, pateroe, vases, bowls, 
and cups. Another tray contained the keys of their doors, tiie huge and awkward- 
looking nails which they used, their staples and bolts, and the hand-bell by which 
the slaves were summoned. The shape of this bell, flattened at the sides, was 
exactly that of the larger bell dug up at Marden, in this county, and now in the 
museum of the Herefordshire Antiquarian Society, in Broad street. Still more 



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14 

■uggertlye wm the oollection of ami and ankle rings, and portions of duuns, sach 
as were pat upon captives, refractory slaves, and prisoners. All these were deeply 
oonoded by mst from their repose in the soil daring eighteen oentories, hnt the 
shapes were perfectly preserved and the material was indisputable. Out-door 
labour was represented by the iron sickle, the hatchet, and some remains 
apparently of other tools. The household and the toilet of the families which 
dwelt at the villa and temple were represented by combs, small tweezers as perfect 
hi action as ever, ornamental pins, headed with agate or sapphire, necklaces or 
beads (lapis lazuli, kc) long hair-pins, a great namber of rings, both solid and 
twisted in construction, together with a small toy-bell with four openings shajted 
BO as to represent the petals of a rose. Samples of the combs, tweezers, pins, 
rings, necklaces, and parti-coloured beads are to be seen in an excellent little hand- 
book of Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S.A. (Half Hours among English Antiquities). 
That the Roman ladies were accustomed to use preparations for heightening the 
effect of their charms might be inferred from the discovery of three stamps for 
different kinds of coUi/rium or eye-salve, prepared by a certain Julius Jucundus 
from mjorh and other ingredients, which were supposed to add to the brilliancy 
of the eye. Thus Eastern women at the present day stain their eyelashes and 
eyelids with a preparation which by contrast greatly heightens the brightness of 
the eye. On two pieces of pottery were female faces, with the hair so elaborately 
dressed that it might provoke the jealousy of modem artistes; there was how- 
ever no clue to their identification ; though it was remarked later in the day that 
a female terminal statue at one extremity of the larger camp gave like evidence of 
no mean skill in the use of the brush and curling irons. 

Besides these features in this remarkable Museum, there were noticeable 
also curious military relics, among them iron 8i>ear-head8 with rude sheaths for 
the wooden stock or shaft, well preserved arrow-heads, bosses of shields, and 
equestrian rings. One of these had a projection on one side perforated in squares 
like the ward of a key ; and in addition to these the numismatic department was 
well represented by coins of Galba, Hadrian, Antoninus, and other Emperors to 
Allectus inclusive. But after all these ancient details that which attracted most 
careful and curious inspection, was a collection of three votive tablets, two in 
bronze, the third, if we recollect aright, in pewter or lead, all of which bear ex- 
press reference to the tutilar Romano-British deity, to whom the temple, still 
traceable within the precincts of the camps is dedicated, and one of them the 
name of Flavins Senilis the probable founder of the temple, and owner of the 
adjacent villa. It would seem that this god was named Nodons, Nodens, or 
Nudens ; and there is reason for supposing that he was a local British deity, 
adopted by the Romans in Britain, after their accommodating fashion, into their 
tolerant pantheon. In the ruins of the temi)le was found an inscription in large 
characters, covering a large space, and, with the exception of one or two incon- 
siderable lacunse, easy to decipher. Its surroundings included a fanciful border, 
representing the twisted bodies of salmon, the fish of the Severn; and cocks, 
sdrpents, dogs, and representations of limbs, in connection, it would seem, with 



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the Divinity of the shrine. It might be too much to say that thk inBcription In 
so many words indicates the object of the building, or establishes the name of the 
god, to whom it is presumably dedicated. Yet the burden of it, taken in con- 
nection with the three votive tablets already mentioned, goes far to settle the 
question. The inscription runs thus ; — 

D.A. . . FLAVIUa SENILIS. FB. BEL. EX STEFIBVS 
POSSVIT O ANTE VICTOEINO INTEB .... ATE. 

Here the two first letters are in all probability the prsenomina of Flavius Senilis, 
who may well have been owner of the villa, as in the inscription he claims to have 
dedicated the temple. The abbreviated words pe. bel have been taken to stand 
for " presses religionis,*' an ecclesiastical title, for which there is no authority or 
warranty, whilst it is highly probable that they may more aptly represent the 
Latin words, " pretio relate," which, taken in conjunction with those next follow- 
ing, viz., ** ex stepibus,'' or, ** ex stipibus," would signify that the altar or shrine 
was paid for by the "penny subscriptions," the small coins paid freely by the 
votaries at the instance of the priests. There is no lack of illustration of such 
spellings as * stepibus * for * stipibus,' * possuit ' for * posuit,' and the like from 
other examples of later Roman epigraphy. In fact, bad orthography is rather a 
confirmation of a genuine inscription. Dr. McCaul, too, the Principal of 
University College, Toronto, has parelleled the practice of defraying the cost of 
sacred buildings among the Komans by BBaaU contributions with an extant 
inscription to Mercurius Augustus in Switzerland It is to Dr. McCaul indeed 
and his Britanno-Boman inscriptions that we owe most of our light upon this 
at first puzzling inscription. From what has been already made out, and the 
filling up of the lacuna between O and Ante with the letters pvs CVB (h.e, opus 
curante) a text will have been reconstructed thus translateable : — " Flavius Sems, 
set up this temple at a cost defrayed by smaU money offering, Victorinus being the 
builder, or clerk of the works." Victorinus, it should be noted, was a name not 
uncommon among the Silures, and it is obvious that we have yet to connect with 
it in somewise the defective INTER . . . ATE. The most plausible filling up 
of the * lacuma ' is that of Dr. McCaul, AMN = ' Interamnate,* a word to be 
regarded as an adjective of place : so that Victorinus will thus be further identi- 
fied as a local builder, 'Victorinus the Interamnian, or native of a country 
between two rivers,' " the eye between the Severn and the Wye," of which a 
later local proverb tells. This adjective of the birthplace is quite classical, for, in 
Cicero's oration for MHo, one Cassinius, by cognomen Soola, Interamnas, an 
Interamnian, is mentioned. He was of Interamna in the mother-country, not 
that in the province of Britain. 

Against this ingenious restoration militates the fact that the fragment of 

the first missing letter, which is still visible, is unlike the top of any other A in 

the temple inscription ; but perhaps exact uniformity is no more to be looked for 

in written characters than strictness of orthography. What makes the suggestion 

f Interamnate more ingenious, is that it will help to unriddle the puzzle of 



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36 

another Interamnate in one of the votive inscriptions on a leaden or pewter 
tablet, thus :— 

NODENTI SILVIANVB DIVO 
ANVIVM PBBDKDIT 
DEMEDIAU PARTEM 
DONAVIT NODENTI 
INTER QVIBV8 NOMEN 
SENICIANI NVLLIB 
PERMITTAS 8ANITA 
TEM DONEO PERF * RA * 
VSQVE TEMFIVM NO 
DENTIB. 

The gist of this inscription is that one Silvianns wagered a ring : one half 
(the value of it) he presented or vowed to the god, Nodens, and as a certain 
Senidanus won the bet, and left Silvianus to pay his vow to the god how he could, 
besought the deity not to grant the blessing of health to any one of the name 
Senicianus, till the said ring was lodged by its winner in the god's temple. After 
d&navit Nodonti in the inscription follows, inter without a customary accusative, 
but with a relative clause beginning Quibus Seniciani nomen. Here some supply 
eo8 before quihm : others take inter for in termino, referring to a terminal statue of 
Nodens. But the one explanation is harsh, the other more than doubtful, seeing 
that the terminal statue hard by has nothing to identify it with the British 
^sculapius, and is much more like Pan or Silenus, or a terminal bust of Socrates. 
If however we might take Inter iat Iteramnati, on the faith of the other inscrip- 
tion, we have the god's locale, as well as that of Victorinus, satisfactorily identi- 
fied. The credit of this acute discovery is wholly due to Dr. McCauL The two 
other inscriptions which remain are of briefer tenor. They run as follows : 

(1) DM. NODOSTI 
F. L BLANDINVS 
A.BaiATURA 

V. S. L. M. 

or, in English, " Flavins Blandinus, a light armed soldier, readily, as was meet, 
paid his vow to the great god, Nodens," and 

(2) PECTILLVS 
VOTUM QUOD 
PBOMMISSIT 
DEO NODENTE. 
M DEDIT. 

or, Pectillus, as was meet, paid to the god, Nodens, his promised vow. " Such 
irregularities of orthography as promissit nodente are very common. 

In the garden, Mr. Bathurst pointed out a collection of roofing tiles, the 
pipes of the hypocaust, and the drainage pipes which had been found at the villa. 

After nearly two hours spent in the Museum the party were summoned to 
luncheon, which Mr. Bathurst had hospitably provided for his guests, who num- 
bered not less than fifty ladies and gentlemen. The repast, which was sumptuously 
provided, was served early, and was not followed by long sitting at table, the 



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37 

membdrs being desirous to see the camps and site of the Tilla and temple £rom 
which the Boman remains had been obtained. 

After lunch, the President (Rev. J. Davies) rose and said that he felt it 
his very agreeable duty, as president of the Woolhope Club, to return thanks to 
their esteemed host, the Her. W. H. Bathurst, for his great kindness in inviting 
them to visit his beautiful park, for exhibiting to them the contents of his most 
interesting museum, and finally for his thoughtful care for their comfort in the 
provision of that very excellent entertainment which he had given them (applause). 

The Bev. Mr. Bathurst gracefully acknowledged the vote, remarking that 
he felt the obligation was quite on the other side. He was glad to find that the 
Woolhope Club sometimes stepped across the borders of their county and investi- 
gated parts of the neighbouring counties, and he hoped they would be interested 
in what he had yet to show them. He felt honoured by their accepting his invita- 
tion, and hoped they would find the camps and the villa worth seeing (applause). 

The party then rose from the table, and were led through the beautiful 
gardens into the park, admiring on their way the fine specimens of tropical and 
sub-tropical plants which were flourishing in the open air. Lydney Park gardens 
are certainly warm and sheltered, but we did not expect to find the Magnolia, the 
Fieiu daaUca (Indian rubber tree), not to speak of the oranges in fuU fruit, in the 
open air. The mildness of the climate, however, was shown with equal force by 
the enormous size of the CoLStana vesca (edible chestnut), some of the trees being 
at least 70 feet high, with trunks measuring 18 to 20 feet round at five feet from 
the ground. It was noticed, too, that in some cases where a huge branch had 
fallen to the ground it took root and sent up a fresh set of foliage distinct from the 
original extremity of the branch, which went on growing and fruiting as if 
nothing had happened. Among the other remarkable trees, one in the park was 
noticeable for the curious contrast between the upper and the lower leaves, 
the former being entire, while the latter were divided and deeply serrated. 

It was through the gardens and park that the party made its way to the 
campe, the larger of which is of an irregular, oblong shape, 830 feet long and 790 
broad. It commanded the Severn, and covered some eight acres according to the 
hand-books. It is single-ditched on aU sides but the east, where, as the ascent is 
less steep, the ditch is two-fold. The lesser camp is round and single-ditched. 
Within the entrenchments of the larger of the two, lying to the right of an un- 
doubted Boman road, lead to Caerwent, Mr. C. Bragge Bathurst, sometime 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and a kinsman of Lord Sidmouth, was the 
first to discover and excavate the remains of a considerable Boman villa or palace, 
with commensurate offices and adjacent buildings. To summarize a note of Dr. 
Ormerod to his elaborate paper '*on the British and Boman roads leading to 
Caerwent," read at the British Archselogical Proceedings in 1851, ** the excava- 
tions disclosed the foundations of an irregular quadrangle, the sides of which 
averaged 200 feet, exclusive of offices to the north-west, and of a palatial fabric 
on the north-eaat. This latter had a portico on the west front, and an open court 



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88 

in the centre, rarroanded by oorridon In which, ae well as in several chambers 
oocnrred beautifal teeselated pavements ;" two of which Mr. Bathurst had kindly 
uncovered for the inspection of the Woolhope Club. To the north of this build- 
ing) and detached from it, are considerable ]i>i)ocau8t6, the system of flues beneath 
the chamber floors being distinctly traceable, though it would be too much to aver 
that there is extant proof of these chambers having been bath-rooms. Here, too, 
are elaborate tesselated pavements, one of which was uncovered as a type of the 
rest, which have remained carefully preserved by the first excavator, who had the 
forethought to treasure up the coins and relics found, and to have plans and draw- 
ings executed, of no leas than eleven tesselated pavements. 

We have still to speak of that part of the principal quadrangle most inter- 
esting to the claasical antiquary, viz., the vestiges of a temple, 95 feet long by 75 
feet broad, from which we glean the name of the tutelar god, the inscriptions and 
votive tablets to whom we have already discussed in the Museum. There can be 
little doubt that the votive tablets found just outside its walls, in connection with 
the larger inscription already discussed, and coupled with a brass figure of a dog, 
and the two figures of winged serpents, identify the god Nodens with uEsculapius, 
or the God of Healing. 

Sir S. Rush Merrick traced the name of Nodens, Nudens, or Nodons to 
the British * Noddi,' to preservCf or to * Nodutos,' a rural god, presiding over the 
*' nodi culmorum," and it is certain that at Lydney was a temple to a god of heal- 
ing, propitiated for his healing powers with typical offerings. But Dr. McCaul 
ventures another conjecture in reference to his identity with Nodutus, which is 
entitled to consideration. The circumstance that limbs were here offered, suggests 
to him the possibility of this god's connection with the cure of diseases affecting 
the joints or " nodi," and the query whether the same deity may not have pre- 
siding over vegetable and animal " nodi" Who shall that a god in charge of the 
healing of gouty and rheumatic joints may not have been in grave request in the 
days when the villa and camps at Lydney were occupied by a Roman legion ; and 
the god, Nodens, the deity in such request ? 

The members having assembled on the camp, near the prsetorium, Mr. 
Bathurst delivered a very interesting address, explaining the history and the 
construction of the camp and buildings, and pointing out the various spots where 
the most remarkable remains have been found. He said that he believed that the 
camp was first formed there about the year 60 or 70, and that in after times, when 
the Roman domination was fully established, the camp was converted into a 
station for permanent residences, and that a temple was afterwards added. It 
seems to have been suddenly destroyed by fire and never restored, but it had then 
lasted for many centuries. Coins of sixty emperors, from Augustus to Honorius, 
having been found there, it would follow that the station was not destroyed until 
the break-up of the Roman Empire. It is not mentioned by any ancient writer ; 
and indeed it became entirely forgotten until the commencement of the present 
century. The estate had been granted by Charles II. to the Winter family, in 
whose time excavations had been made in several parts of the camp in search of 



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39 

iron ore, but no one seems to have thought of the edifices under which the miners 
worked. The neighbours, however, were allowed to remove portions of the 
masonry which appeared above ground, and to use them for building walls. In 
the early part of the present century the estate had come into the possession of 
his (Mr. Bathurst's) family ; and his father had taken the pains to explore the 
ruins, Mr. Bathurst showed a series of maps and plans which had been prepared, 
and remarked that the measurements were all carefully made. As soon as a bit 
of wall was cleared of earth, its position and dimensions were ascertained and set 
down on the plan. The immediate cause of this survey and excavation was the 
revealing of a bit of tesselated pavement in consequence of the fall of a wall. It 
was remarkable that in all their excavations they had found no trace of a burial 
place. Their reasons for supposing that the building marked *' C " on the plan 
was a temple, were, that they found there the votive tablets which the company 
had seen, and the inscription on the tesselated pavement (He then described 
them minutely, giving at length his reasons for reading the contractions as he 
did). He remarked too, that a figure of a human leg had been found, which was 
not part of any statue, and which seemed to have been hung up in the temple as 
an offering from some person who supposed that his diseased leg had been cured by 
the interposition of the god worshipped there. It was customary to hang up 
models of limbs and other parts of the body in the temples of ^sculapius, and 
this fact went to strengthen the arguments that that god was identical with the 
Nodon of the votive tablets. 

The Pbesidrnt remarked that this practice was still kept up at St 
Winfred's well in Flintshire. 

Mr. Bathurst went on to say that there was a great difficulty attendant 
upon this interpretation. There was no such god as Nodon found in the Koman 
mythology ; the nearest name was that of Nodatus or Nodutus, the god who pre- 
sided over the swellings or knots in the com, but he was altogether too insignificant 
to have a temple erected to him. Sir W. Drummond had thought that the name 
Nodon might be derived from the Greek Nodunos, assuager of pain, a title which 
have been given to -^sculapius, although it is not stated that he was ever so 
called. The frequent recurrence of the figures of dogs, as well as the two serpents, 
was thought by Dr. Mc.Caul, of Torronto, to make the proof conclusive, but he, 
(Mr. Bathurst) knew of no reason for supposing that there was any connection 
between ^sculapius and the dog, except that Pausanias, an ancient Greek writer, 
states that in the temple at Epidaurus there was a figure of a dog sitting beside 
the deity. Dogs were not sacrificed to the healing gods, but cocks and goats were. 
Only one figure of a cock had been found, and that seems to have been made for 
some use, as it bears upon its back a socket. Mr. Bathurst went on to describe 
the collyrium stamps mentioned above, remarking that Mr. Wright in his work, 
" The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon," had mentioned several, although not 
those found here. The collyrium mentioned in these stamx)s was said to be made 
in one instance from stactCf or myrrh ; in the second from an oil extracted from 



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40 

the quJnoe ; and the third from pene, a contraction of pmieiUtu, a sort of sponge 
mentioned by Pliny as used to relieve the tumours of the eyes. 

Mr. Flavell Edmunds, at the request of the President, expressed the 
obligations of the members to Mr. Bathurst for the admirable address which he 
had given them, and for the pains he had taken to identify and explain the various 
parts of those most interesting remains. 

Mr. Bathurst acknowledged the compliment; and after rambling about 
the park and its antiquities for a short space further, a small party of members 
made an excursion to the Scowles, the vestiges of the old Koman mines and iron- 
works which bear the same name, near Colef ord and BreanL A writer on Dean 
Forest regards * Scowles * as a corruption of the British word Crowl-leaves, but it 
is better with Thomas Wright to give it up, unless it have any connection with 
the verb to " scowl," in its sense of " looking red and hot" 

After the proceedings on the camp, the party descended the hill, feasting 
their eyes upon the beauties of the forest dells, the hanging woods, and the silvery 
rills which wind through the shades, examining the grand old patriarchal 
trees, and quitting these delights only for the grand views of the broad 8evem 
and the distant hills lighted up with the golden radiance of summer eve. As they 
took leave of their kind host, and left Lydney on their return to Hereford, they 
unanimously declared that they had spent an exceedingly pleasant and instructive 
day. 

We noticed present— Rev. James Davies, President ; Dr. T. A. Chapman, 
Vice-president; Bev. Sir G. H. Comewall; Bart., Hun. Sec. ; Mr. Edwin Lees, 
President of Malvern Club; Mr. Flavell Edmunds, F.RH.S.; Rev. W. H. 
Bathurst, Lydney Park ; Sir James Campbell, Bart. ; Mr. Charles Bathurst and 
Mrs. Bathurst ; Colonel Byrde ; Rev. H. Cooper Key ; Mr. Richard Hereford ; 
Rev. Robert Hereford ; Mr. Henry Greenham ; Mrs. Willesford ; Rev. E. Evans, 
Lydney ; Rev. J. J. Trollope, Lydney ; Rev. J. F. Gosling, Bream ; Archdeacon 
Ormerod, Sedgeley Park ; Mr. F. Adams ; Mr. C. H. Moore ; Mr. H. G. 
Apperley ; Mrs. Jones, Nass ; Rev. A D. Pringle, Blakeney, Newnham ; Lieut. 
Symonds ; Mr. William Symonds ; Mr. R. B. Davies ; Mr. Arthur Thompson, 
Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. 



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WOOL. TRANS. 




aqaricusleoninus.fr. ^ T 

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HEREFORDSHIRE FUNGUSES. 



AGARICUS (PLUTEUS) LEONINUS, SCHiEFF. 



SCARLET VARIETY OF YELLOW PLUTEUS. 

This very beautiful species, which is usually of a tawny yellow, shaded with 
bright orange, or occasionally tinted with purplish brown, was first found by 
Miss Maude Bull, growing in crowded clusters, within the hollow of a decayed 
Elm trunk in 1874, in Hinton Lane, near Hereford, and it continues to appear 
there in more or less abundance annually to the present time, 1879. 

Description. — Pileus, 1-3 in. broad, unbonate, companulate, and then expan- 
ded, sometimes pitted round the umbo, smooth, submembranaceus, with a striate 
margin, variable in colour but usually with bright yellow orange tints. Stem, 
2-3 in. high, solid, smooth, striate, downy at base, sometimes rooting, orange 
tinted, but here with scarlet tints at base. .Gills, free, broad, yellowish, then flesh 
coloured, rounded behind and in front. Spores, rose coloured, elliptic. Schceff, 
t 48. Fries' Epicrisis, 188. Pen. ic. et desc, t. L,f. S-4. Berk. Out., t. 7,f. 4. 
Engl, jl.y v., 78. Cooke's Handbook J., 88. Cooke's OrevUlea, Vol. VI., pi. 93, 

The colour of the pileus was too brilliant to be represented accurately. This 
variety has not as yet been found elsewhere. 



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Mtfrihap^ ^atoalte (^kU dflttb. 



THE ANNUAL FUNGUS FORAYS. 



It might have taxed a clearer and stronger brain than that of '* Our Own 
Commiseioner " to keep count of and carry in his head the records of the Wool- 
hopian Fungus hunts, which came off in the first week in October, through the 
exciting week which immediately followed, and -during which all Hereford, except 
himself, must have held high festival on account of the opening of the Free 
Library. But the great firm of '* Method and Pluck " can do a great deal, 
especially when the junior partner pulls the strings, and therefore we are not 
surprised that after a short breathing space he has found time to put together 
notes, which, had they been sent in last week would almost certainly have been 
** crowded out," but which, coming now in the hush after a great excitement, will 
be welcome not only to the foraging parties, but also to a goodly number of their 
stay-at-home and weather-bound friends. 

The opening muster of the mycologists proper, took place on Tuesday, the 
29th of September, and a select band — consisting of Dr. Bull, Mr. Broome, Rov. 
W. Houghton, Mr. Lees, Mr. Morris, Mr. Plowright, Mr. Kenny, and Mr, 
PhilliiM— arrived at Ludlow by the early trains en route for the beautiful grounds 
of Downton Castle. The party was hospitably entertained at the Abbey Villa, 
Ludlow, by the Messrs. Fortey, whose welcome to the Club some years back 
when it explored Deerfold is still held in pleasant remembrance, and these gen- 
tlemen presently reinforced the excursionists with the addition of themselves to 
its number. Arrived at Downton the foray began under the leadership of Dr. 
Jones. The fame of the "gorge of the Teme" for its lovely scenery is world- 
wide. The river rushes through a stony channel, now broad and rippling, and 
again contracted, deep, and silent, whilst its banks are fringed everywhere by 
the richest variety of woods. For a full mile's space a charmingly meandering 
walk transports the lover of nature at one time to the river level in deep gloom 
from rock and foliage, and another, in prospect, to some lofty craig, where— 



** Midst scatter'd trees the opening glade 
Admits the well-mixed tints of light and shade." 



It is indeed a lovely valley, though not for its loveliness was it visited on this 
occasion. Other attractions were potent enough to draw from north and south, 
east and west, the eager excursionists of the day. Listen, scoffers of science ! 
Here is the only known British home of the brilliant coloured Cortinarius, (Der- 
mocybe,) cinna^rinus, and of the C, Miltinvst and here, too, in favourable years 



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43 

grows abundantly the rare fir-cone BoletoB, StrobUampcet StrobUaeeus, while on its 
mossy banks and promontories are to be found other funguses rare and interesting. 
Think of this, and shake off the scales of your mental obfuscation ! 

At the Castle Bridge on an elm branch a fine Agaricus FUurotiu uLmarivM 
was observed and gathered successfully. Though abundant in the parks and 
neighbourhood of London it is rare in Herefordshire, so that we may as well note 
that it is pleasant and said to be edible. We should suspect it would need a power 
of stewing to make it tender. Almost at the entrance of the walks the foragers 
were encountered by a heavy storm of a full hour's duration, which, however, did 
not stop the hunt or damp the enthusiasm of the hunters. Manumius fcetidus 
gladdened their hearts, however much it might offend their noses, and its sister 
Mcmismius erythropvM was pleasant to their visual organs. Why will people keep 
sniffing at things unpleasant when they know what to expect ? At Downton the 
sweet-scented Lactarius OlyctosmtUt Agaricus clitocbe odorus and fragrans were at 
hand ; and so, too, in plenty was Ag. (Hebeloma) ppriodorus, which has a strong 
odour of pears beginning to ferment, so that savours more agreeable or less dis- 
agreeable, as the taste may incline, were not wanting. On a charcoal bed— a 
" charking place,'' in the woodman's vernacular— one of the most graceful and 
beautifully coloured forms of the variable Ag, (Omphalia) ppxicUitus delighted the 
eyes of the fungologists, lifting away the depressing influence of the rain, which 
was just then at its heaviest. Ordinary mortals may be afraid of rain : a fungo- 
logist has but to retreat under sheltering rock or tree, and wholly forget its impor- 
tunity in the contemplation, as in this case, of the rare Peziza succota, or the 
peziza-like Solenia ochraceay not to mention Lactarii, Oortinarii, Boleti, and 
Hygrophori growing all around in the utmost profusion and variety. 

After a short halt in the rustic arbour at the Mill (which it was pleasant to 
see at work), to admire the lofty rocks, and to sketch a picturesque and many- 
headed boll of a Wych elm, the way was taken up the highest walks to " Kenny's 
Promontory," a name perhaps not of local significance, yet henceforth never to be 
forgotten in mycologic loie. It is a high, moss-covered promontory, thinly studded 
with trees, moist, though well drained, damp, and yet auy, a very paradise for 
funguses. To see them in a favourable season covering the ground here is a sight 
to remember. Bare funguses affect the spot. It was here in 1872 that Mr. Benny 
discovered the brilliant Cortinarius (Dermocybe) cinndbaHnus growing in clusters, 
each richer and more dazzling than its fellow, just gathered ; a bright orange Ver- 
million in colour with a metallic lustre that defies water colours to imitate. Here, 
too, in the following year Dr. Bull found the CortinaHvs MUUnus, equally new 
to the British Flora, though by no means so striking in colour or form. The sea- 
son of 1874 has been so dry and unfavourable that finds were scant on this 
occasion. The Bev. W. Houghton was the first to find C cirmabarinus, and a cry 
of joy quickly summoned his co-mates to admire its lovely tints. Smaller groups 
were afterwards found, and so the day's foray was a success. True, StrobUonipces 
strobUaceus was not found, though keenly searched for. It is clear that it does not 
like dry seasons. But many other interesting varieties yielded themselves to the 



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quest of lynx-eyed foragers, e.g*, the pretty and xx>t common Ag, (Amanita) Mappa, 
the rare hedgehog puff-ball Lj/coperdon echinatumf Coprintu Picacetu, Ag, IfamHf 
obseuruB ermmeus, unicolor, &c., &c. 

A stroll was taken on the slopes of Bringewood Hill to searbh the open 
ground and examine some curious trees, but, as time was nearly up, the note of 
recall was sounded, and at the rendezvous of the Castle Bridge a beautiful group 
of Ag, (Fholiota) lieteroclytus was gathered by Mr. Broome from the roots of a 
Lombardy poplar. Here a pleasant and welcome hamper turned up, and anon 
the tired visitors were Fortey-fied and refreshed with the Melton pie, chicken sand- 
wiches, and sparkling Carlovitz, which formed its contents. The journey back to 
Tiudlow by Oakley Park and Bromfield Church was singularly bright and cheer* 
ful, and this not entirely through pleasant memories of the Carlovitz ; for the sun 
shone out again to give the climax of its warmth and cheerfulness to the satisfac- 
tion of a good day's work. At Bromfield an ample supply of Maratmiiu creadea 
and of iMctaHiu ddicioetu was secured for the next day's feast, and so, with laden 
baskets, the excursionists caught the return trains, alter a foray very pleasant and 
satisfactory, the rain notwithstanding. Though the fungus season in Hereford- 
shire is confessedly unfavourable, upwards of a hundred different species were 
observed in the excursion of September 29th. 

The foray for Wednesday was fixed for Dinmore Hill, a locality which had 
proved so rich and fruitful in former years (see transactions of 1871) that it was 
deemed advisable to revisit it on the bye day. Nor was the idea a bad one, for 
many interesting plants rewarded the visitors. The rare AscMlut viridis, Ag, 
(CoUybia) PUxipeSfPeziza repcmda, and brunnea were found. The Sphoeria, cordi- 
ceps cUtUacea, which is very rare, and usually, if not always, in company with 
SpcUhnlaria JUtvida, was also welcomed. Three specimens of Ag, (Leptonia) 
uchroua also fortunately yielded themselves to gathering—an agaric, as its name 
imports, of singular beauty, with lovely tints of violet, varying as the light falls 
upon it. This has not before been observed in Herefordshire. Here, too, was 
found HygrophoTos murinaceus, a great abundance of Ag. (Naucoria) cucumis, and 
many other very interesting fungusses. 

During the night preceding the grand field-day of the week, and following 
the novel introduction into the dinner Tnenuis of certain hospitable mansions of 
" Salmi deLycoperdon gigantum," ** Salmi de Lactarius Delidosus," and a sauce 
for cutlets of Marasmius Oreades, on the evening of the 30th, the clouds dropped 
water to the extent of an inch and a-half , and there were grave doubts whether 
the foray to Stoke Edith would come off. Hopeful members— up and doing with 
the day dawn— were fain to occupy themselves at the tables, on which the fungi 
were arranged for exhibition at the Green Dragon, and to postpone a decision 
until 9.15 a.m. , when, an adjournment having been moved to the street, it was found 
to be still raining at 9.30. Adjourning again to the Barr's Court Station at 9.45, 
their faith and patience were rewarded by a brightening sky, and, though occasionally 
the clouds lowered, and the night's rain had made the atmosphere cold and the 
ground slipper^r and treacherous, a very pleasant day re(iuited those who had th4 



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44 

courage to venture. Some five-and-twenty repaired to Stoke Edith by train, 
where they were joined by the President (the Rev. James Davies), who had been 
kindly accommodated with a seat in Miss Guthrie's carriage, in which were Miss 
Guthrie herself, Mrs. Lloyd Wynne, of Coed Coch, and Mr. Washington Jackson. 
The noble owner of Stoke Edith, Lady Emily Foley, had most considerately 
placed her head-gardener and head-keeper at the services of the forayers, and thus 
the delays arising out of defective and speculative guidance were pleasantly mini- 
mised. The short grass of the shrubberies was, as usual, excellent hunting ground ; 
but the most favourable finds of the day were as follows :— The rare yellow 
ffygropkrus Chrytodon, showing clearly its colours on the slightest bruise ; a great 
profusion of Ag, (Armillaria) mucidus on the beech-trees, in a larger and finer con- 
dition than is often seen, the larger specimens being from four to six inches across ; 
a lovely segment of a circle of the Fly Agaric Ag, (Amanita) museariua, too 
beautiful not to be commemorated ; and a very curious Amanita, not fully grown, 
which puzzled the experts to discriminate and determine. It might be a young 
giant of a Vaginatus, but the scales were not right, nor was its edge sulcated. Or 
it might be a young StrangulatuSf or Exctlma. A nut for the mycologists to crack ! 
An eye must be kept on the spot for future examination. Here also, as on almost 
every foray, was found the interesting Hygrophorus Calyji^oRformis, nowhere, 
however, in great abundance. 

To those who joined the excursion to Stoke Edith, albeit on a day little 
favoured by sunshine, there were several other attractions, scarcely secondary to 
the prime motive of fungologising. The flower-garden, geometrically arranged by 
Nesfield, is as perfect a thing as can be seen in a long day's survey of parks and 
gardens. It is oddly brightened, too, when the bloom is yielding to the early 
frosts, and spiteful winter forecasts its shadows— by the bright red cloaks of the 
women who weed the gravel-paths of varied shape and colour. Beyond its pre- 
cincts, up a succession of undulating slopes, stretches an ample deer park, magni- 
ficently timbered, and reaching up to the lofty ridge of Seager Hill, whence a 
carriage drive commands a grand and extensive outlook of the valleys and hills of 
Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, and South Wales. Beneath it, southward, lies 
the Woolhope country, which seems to say to the Club followers, whom it has 
christened, ''Antiquam exquirite matrem." For the mansion itself, its hall, 
library, pictures, and tapestry-— the last exceedingly curious and well worthy of 
minute inspection— our readers may refer to the " Mansions and Manors " of the 
Fresident-Elect. Our space at present admonishes us to take wing, in thought, 
for Hereford, where — despite the charms of Stoke Edith — a committee meeting 
awaits the President of 1873 and 1874, to say nothing of the feast and the pre- 
sentation, which attract as great an interest for many as the forays. These have 
been ahready reported elsewhere, and it needs but that we should glance at the 
treasures of the Fungus Exhibition, which graced the sideboards of the Green 
Dragon guest-chamber — for ornament, let it be added, in more instances, than for 
edible use. Amongst these we noticed specimens of the Ag. MudduSf measuring 
half an inch more than the largest- of those at Stoke Edith ; and a splendid sample 



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of the lovely Peziza Awxmtia (9) inoheii acrois)-HMnt from Shobdon by Lord 
Bateman. Mr. Houghton exhibited from the ^ plantatioiui of Chetwynd Park, 
where he has found them year after year— failing last year only— a good ipedmett 
of Sparauii critpa. Dr. Chapman contributed from the pastures about Hereford 
a magnificent group of Ag. (VolvariaJ Olcioeepholw, each agaric being ten inches 
high, with pilea 17 or 18 inches in drcumferenoe. The odour of them is not nice. 
Near these also was Afforieui Junoniui, Mr. Berkeley had sent Leotia drdnanit 
received by him from Scotland ; and from Abergavenny Dr. McCullough had 
brought Laetarius eofOrovenut, on which he alighted the next day growing, ab- 
normally we should say, under a Lombardy poplar. Badulum Foffineum^ Lae- 
tariut FiteUmiM— which Mr. Worthington Smith declines to recommend as edible, 
however fond of veal some non-Woolhopians may be — and one or two other some- 
what rare plants excited and satisfied curiosity. Amongst exceptional contribu- 
tions to the Fungus Exhibition were a fresh water sponge from the Biver Teme, 
sent by the Messrs. Fortey, and some gigantic rhisomes of the water lily, brought 
by Mr. William Phillips. Amidst this class— had it not miscarried— would have 
been exhibited a splendid box of the choiceet pears of English growth, sent to the 
President by Mr. Bachard Doddridge Blackmore, M.A., of Exeter College, 
Oxford, poet, novelist, and market gardener. They might have taught the 
visitors to the Green Dragon to discriminate between the Beurries and the Doy- 
ennes, Louise Bonnes and Marie Louise— and distracted the lovers of fungus forms 
by the weightier claims of pomology. But, though sent to Beading, carriage 
paid, on the 28th of September, they did not reach the President's post town, 
Kington, till the 6th of October, so that they never reached the show, and the 
President bids us say that all who would discuss their merits must come to Moor 
Court, and be quick about it, as they are inclining to that condition which gives 
its name to the Pyriodorus, above mentioned. The feast, and the soir^ which 
followed it, were as successful and cheery as their predecessors ; and what, between 
the presence of ladies and the festive board, an unanimous delight in the un- 
feigned surprise of Mr. Worthington Smith at the recognition of his constant 
services, a pleasant memory will long invest the evening of the 1st of October, 
1874. 



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46 



THE FUNGUS FORAY, AND MEETING AT HEREFORD, 
October Ist, 1874. 



The Fungus Foray and meeting was held on Thnraday, October 1st. There 
was a good attendance, the following members and visitors being present during 
the day :— Eev. James Davies, president; T. f Algernon Chapman, M.D., vice- 
president ; Mrs. Wynne, Miss Guthrie, Mrs. Cooper Key ; Mr. C. E. Broome, 
Mr. James Benny, Eev. Wm. Houghton and brother, Mr. C. B. Plowright, Mr. 
Wm. Phillips, Mr. Worthington G. Smith, Mr. Edwin Lees (president of the 
Malvern Field Club), Mr. R. M Lingwood, Mr. Flavell Edmunds, Bev. H. 
Cooper Key, Mr. Thomas Cam, Mr. C. G. Martin, Mr. J. G. Morris, Dr. Bull, 
Mr. Elmes Y. Steele, Mr. J. J. Merriman, Mr. F. W. Herbert, Dr. M'Cullough, 
Mr. John C. Kent, Major Merriman, Bev. Geoige. Herbert, Colonel Litchfield, 
Mr. Thomas Walker, F.L.S., Tunbridge Wells j Mr. Jackson, Mr Bichard 
Hereford, Mr. W. A. Swinburne, Mr. H. C. Moore, Mr. Evan Fateshall, M.P. ; 
Lieut.-CoL Symonds, High Sheriff ; Bev. Wm. Jones Thomas, Bev. A. G. Jones, 
Bev. J. E, Jones-Machen, Mr. J. H. Wood, Bev. Arthur Young, Marston ; Mr. 
J. Bowie Evans, Byletts ; Bev. T. T. Smith, Bev. J. H. Jukes, Mr. J. Greaves, 
Mr. T. Clifton Paris, Mr. John Caleott, Mr. Thomas Blashill, Bev. B. H. 
Williams, Mr. J. F. Symonds, Bev. W. P. Stanhope, Bev. J. A. Panter, Mr. 
Theophilus Salwey, Mr. Arthur Thompson, treasurer and assistant-secretary, 

The following were elected officers for 1876 :— 

President :— The Bev. C. J. Bobinson, Norton Cimon, Weobley. Vice- 
Presidents :— Mr. B. Haigh Allen, Clifford Priory ; Bev. Samuel Clark, Eaton 
Bishop ; Bev. E. Du Buisson, Breinton ; Mr. F. W. Herbert, Credenhill Park. 

Central Committee :— Mr. Thomas Cam, Mr. T. Curley, Mr. John Lloyd, 
"Mr, C. G. Martin, Mr. J. G. Morris. 

Editorial Committee i—Bev. J. Davies, Bev. C. J. Bobinson, Bev. Sir G. 
H. Comewall, Bart, Bev. Samuel Clark, Mr. Flavell Edmunds, Mr. James 
Bankin. 

Honorary Secretary :— Bev. Sir G. H. Comewall, Bart. 

Treasurer and Assistant-Secretary :— Mr. Arthur Thompson, Hereford. 

The following gentlemen were unanimously elected honorary members :— 
Bev. M. J. Berkeley, Mr. C. E. Broome, Mr. James Benny, Bev. William 
Houghton, Mr. C. B. Plowright, Mr. William Phillips, and Mr. J. Bowie Evans, 
The Byletts, was elected an annual member. 

The meeting was held at the Green Dragon Hotel The Pbbsidekt (Bev. 
f d&es Davies) rose and Introduce the h^xt busihess of the evening, which he was 



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47 

sure would take no one there by sarprise, iinlem it wae, am he hoped and trusted, 
the person most concerned. As he had been in communication with most of hie 
hearers on the subject, he might at once dash in media* rt» and state that some 
three weeks ago a happy thought occurred to Dr. Bull (who» with his usual kind- 
ness, admitted him into the partnership of it) that the dub ought no longer to leave 
unrecognised and unacknowledged the great and gratuitous services of Mr. 
Worthington G. Smith as its " Myoological Professor," and as one who was ever 
ready to assist their studies with his pen, his pencil, and his head. Among the 
literary men he (the President) had met there were two prominent types, the 
hoarders of their knowledge, who Uved in dread of '' a chiel among them takin' 
notes,*' and the generous and unselfish communicators and diffusen of the infor- 
mation which they had amassed by patient inquiry. One example of the latter 
type was the late Sir George Lewis : another, in his way and walk of science, was 
Mr. W. G. Smith. Every Woolhopian knew he could count upon the free use of 
Mn W. G. Smith's experience, and of his very extensive and accurate information. 
Having himself realised this during his two years presidency, he (Mr. -Davies) 
readily undertook to co-operate with Dr. Bull in sounding the members of the 
club, by letter or word of mouth, with referance to a testimonial, marking the 
sense of their gratitude and indebtedness ; such testimonial to take the form of 
silver forks and spoons. The result of their canvass had been an unalloyed 
success. There had been two ghosts of an alloy, but they vanished almost on the 
instant of appearance. One gentleman began a letter by denouncing testimonials 
generally in the strongest terms, but went on in the second page to say that were 
his objections multiplied an hundredfold, he could still rejoice in the privilege of 
having had the opportunity to mark by a subscription his great sense of Mr. W. 
G. Smith's deserts. Another sent a subscription with a letter full of compli- 
mentry expressions, and concluded with a hope that the forks and spoons might 
never assist Mr. Smith in conveying to his mouth poisonous fungi, which might 
terminate his career of usefulness. The thought might cast a passing shadow, but 
reflection told him (the president) that if there was a man in Europe who could 
be trusted to discriminate between edible and inedible fungi, that man was Mr. 
Worthington Smith. In token of their sense of his helpfulness in extending this 
discriminative knowledge, as well as of their regard and good-will, the Club had 
deputed him on this occasion to present to Mr. Smith the oaken-box, which he held 
in his hands, with the plate which it contained, and he begged him to accept it, 
to quote the language of the superscription, " in pleasant memory of fungus-forays, 
assisted by his experience, illustrated by his pencil, and chronicled by his pen." 

Dr. Bull then rose, and, after playful allusion to the relative shares of the 
President and himself in originating this testimonial— a mystery, like the origina- 
tion of the Franco-Grerman War— went on to say :— The pleasure of the corres- 
pondence has also been shared by himself, for it was indeed a great pleasure to 
read the cordial, kind letters received from the members applied to ; and, when 
the lithographed circulars were sent out by our President, every post might be 
said to bring in a fork or a spoon, until our friendly gift— originally small in our 



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48 

Mma— had 1[>eoom6 really a valuable one. Everyone felt tiiat it was a present 
really deserved from our Club ; and it may be said, without hesitation, that this 
feeling will be echoed far and wide through the country. Our Club has done 
itself honour in giving such kindly expression to their obligation ; and all those 
who have written to Mr. Smith from all parts of the country, asking the names and 
other information about funguses, will know how worthy Mr. Smith is of it. Not 
to mention the time and patience he has given to all applicants-Hstrangers as well 
as friends— it must have cost him no small sum in postage stamps alone to reply to 
Uiem. Our President has not told yon how useful that mystical individual, " Our 
Own Commissioner," was to us. He set to work at once, ornamented the in- 
scription plate with funguses, and sketched out a design for engraving on the lid 
of the box. There was not time to carry all this out ! but he insisted— and I 
fully agree with him— that every fork or spoon, in place of crest, should bear a 
fungus on its handle— each a different one, and all of them to be copied from the 
plates published in our " Transactions," or to represent the funguses new to 
Britain discovered by our Club ; so that the friendly, pleasant days he has passed 
in Herefordshire will be always recalled to him as his eye falls on a ddiciosm 
spoon, or a procerus fork, and a kindly feeling will pervade his domestic every day 
Ufe (applause). 

Mr. W. G. Smith, who was warmly applauded on rising, said there was 
one thing which he never could do, and that was to make a speech, but he ielt 
this inability all the more on that occasion, when he was surprised with such un- 
expected kindness. He had been thinking only that day how much he was 
obliged by the unvarying attention and courtesy shown to him in Herefordshire, 
and he really felt that it was he who ought to make a presentation to the Club 
rather than the Club to him. He could only add that he prized their splendid 
gift very highly, and should always feel himself greatly indebted to their kind- 
ness (applause). 



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HEREFORDSHIRE FUNGUSES. 



AGARICUS (FLAMMULA) ALNICOLA, Fr. 
THE ALDER FLAMMULA. 



This plant is very variable. It grows in clustera from the old trunks of alder, 
in damp, leafy woods. 

Description.— Thxit, grows in crowded clusters. Filens, 2-3in. broad, fleshy, 
plano-convex, moist but not viscid, irregular in margin, subfibrillose at first, 
becoming smooth but variable, of a yellowish brown colour. Stem, 2-5in. long, 
stuffed becoming hollow, more or less curved and flexuose, usually narrowing 
towards the base, fibrillose, first yellow, then of a red ferruginous colour. Gills, 
broad, rounded, or slightly decurrent, of dull yellow colour becoming ferruginous. 
Spores, rust coloured. Taste and smell, bitter. A variety of this plant grows 
upon wUlow, and is called taliciedta ; usually of a greenish yellow colour, more 
squamulose, and irregular in growth, often resembling in appearance Agaricus 
(Fholiota) auricellus.— J?We«* Epicritis, p, t48, Fria^ Hymen, Succia J.. S56, 
S.M.I., p. 250. Qudei, p. tSS. Berkdey and BroonUy 124^. Cooke's GreviUea, 
FJ., pi 90, 

This drawing was taken from specimens sent to the Woolhope Club in 1875, 
by Mr. Worthington G. Smith, from Epping Forest. 



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WOOL. TRANS. 



AGARICUS ALNICOLA.fr. Digitized by GoOglc 



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49 



PRESENT of PLATE from the Woolhope Club 

TO 

WORTHINGTON G, SMITH, Esq., F.L,S. 

LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE CLUB WHO SUBSCRIBED: 

President—THE Rev. James Davies, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Abthur Armitage, Esq. Dr. Algernon Chapman. 



Rev. W. C. Fowle. 



Rev. C. J, Robinson, 



Committee of Management, 

THOM.is Cam, Esq., F.R.C.S. and J.P. C. G. M.vbtin, Esq. 
J. Griffiths Morris, Esq. 

Honorary Secretary, 
The Rev. Sib George H. Cornewall, Babt. 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. 
Mr. Arthur Thompson. 

Members. 

The Right Hon. Lord Bateman, Lord Lieutenant of the Connty. 
Lieut. Colonel Stmonds, High SheriflF. 



William Adams, Esq., F.G.S., &c. 

R W. Banks, Esq. 

Thomas BlashiU. Esq. 

C. De la Barre-Bodenham, Esq. 

C. E. Broome, Esq. 

Frederick Broughton, Esq. 

Dr. BuU. 

Colonel Byrde. 

Rev. Bury Capel, M.A. 

Rev. S. Clark, M.A. 

Rev. Archer Clive, M.A. 

Rev. R. H. Cobbold, M.A. 

George Cocking, Esq. 

W. H. Cooke, Esq., Q.C., Judge. 

Rev. J. F. Crouch, M.A, 

J. H. Davies, Esq. 

James Davies, Esq. 

Rev. E. Du Buisson, M.A. 

T. W. Garrold, Esq. 

Rev. J. E. Grassett 

Joseph Greaves, Esq. 

Rev. Arthur Gray, M.A. 

Edward Howorth Greenly, Esq. 

Rev. F, T. Havergal, M.A. 

F. W. Herbert, Esq. 

J. M. Herbert, Esq., Judge 

Richard Hereford, Esq. 

Chandos Wren Hoskyns, Esq. 

Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.G.S. 

E. S. Hutchinson, Esq. 

H. J. Jenkins, Esq. 

Rev. Alexander G. Jones. 

Dr. G, T, Jones, Downton. 



Rev. J. E. Jones, Machen. 

Rev. W. Jones TliomaSy M.A« 

J. C. Kent, Esq. 

Rev. H. C. Key, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

J. Edward Lee, Esq., F.G.S. 

Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 

Dr. M'CuUou^h. 

J. Jones Memman, Esq. 

T. CUfton Paris, Esq. 

Evan Pateshallj Esq^ M.P. 

Edward Cambridge Phillips, Esq. 

W. Phillips, Esq.. Shrewsbury. 

Rev. Thomas Phillips. 

G. H. Piper, Esq. 

C. B. Plowright, Esq. 

Alfred Purchas, Esq. 

James Rankin, Esq. 

James Rennv, Esq. 

Colonel Scudamore. 

R. Vassar Smith, Esq. 

Rev. T. Thistlewaite, Smith, M.A, 

Rev. B. L. S. Stanhope, MA. 

Rev. W. P. S. Stanhope, MA. 

Elmes, Y. Steele, Esq. 

W. A. Swinburne, Esq. 

J. F. Symonds, Esq. 

Rev. Stephen Thackwell, M.A. 

Thomas Turner, Esq. 

W. H. West, Esq. 

Rev. C. J. Westropp, B.A. 

Rev. R. H. Williams, B.A. 

J. H. Wood, Esq. 



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LIST OF THE PLATE 

nOBKSnSD TO 

WORTHINGTON G. SMITH, ESQ., 
BY THE MEMBERS OF THE 

WOOLHOPE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
October 1st, 1874. 



Double Thread Pattern large Forks 8 

small Forks 8 

Dessertspoons 8 

Table Spoons 6 

Tea Spoons 12 

Salt Spoons 4 

Sugar Nippers 1 

Tripod Cream Jug 1 



48 



Inclosed in Oak Box with Silver Plate, bearing the Arms of thd 
Club, and this inscription : — 

** Pbesentsd bt tbb Mkmbbbs of thb ' 
WooLHOFB Club, 

TO 
WOBTHINOTON G. SMITH, ESQ., F.L.S., 

in pleasaht hehobt of 

Fungus Fobats, 

assisted bt his bxfebience, 

tllubtbated bt his pencil, and 

chbonicled bt his fen*" 



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52 

On the morrow, October 2nd, when the majority of the Woolhopians had 
gone away, nothing damaged by the fungoid soups and salmis, to their own homes, 
a staunch and privileged section set out in a coach and four for Gamstone Park, 
the seat of Major Peploe, M.P. Frequent storms of driving rain were borne 
with the more equanimity by the outside passengers, because occasionally, when 
these lulled, the country to the left of the Hereford and Kington road with the 
hills that bound it came out splendidly. Mycologists, as has been earlier re- 
marked, don't mind weather ; and the drive came to its end with a quickness 
which surprised the coach passengers, and spoke volumes tacitly for the pleasant- 
ness of the company, which consisted of Messrs. Broome, Plowright, Lees, 
Phillips, Drs. McCuUough, Bull, and Chapman, Mr. Greaves, Mr. Griffiths 
Morris, the President, and one or two others. At Gamstone'the party alighted 
in front of the modem castellated mansion, built by Nash, and were welcomed 
cordially by its hospitable proprietor. No time, however, was lost in beginning 
operations, though at times an umbrella or the shelter of a tree were necessities 
to the most ardent. The lawns and gardens were first inspected, with an eye 
primarily to rare funguses, but not without an interest in the Horticultural 
features which distinguish them. The flower garden is effective and uncommon ; 
but the chief thing to note at Gamstone— in the lawns and outside of them— is the 
fine growth both of conifers and deciduous trees, which have evidently a very 
congenial soil and a life entirely to their mind. Visitors of abori-cultural tastes 
could not help lingering behind the foray-party to note the Piceas and Pines, 
Cedars, and Junipers of rare sorts, and speculating on the future of a thriving 
young Picea Bracteata, or admiring the grace of a Pinsapo or Nordmanniana. 
On the croquet lawn — to return to our chief quest — were found three small rings — 
and very perfect rings, too, some two feet in diameter— of Hygroplwrtis Rusaocoria- 
ceui, scenting the air with a scent as of Kussia leather. Hard by them Mr. Renny 
found a fungns new to Great Britain, -4<7. {tri>cholom/x) lAxivius, a very interesting 
plant. Before quitting the lawn for the deer park the hunters came upon Clavaria 
rufa and Hygrophorus Colemcmniamu in abundance, and in the entrance of a small 
out-building, which need not be particularised, was pointed out a rare instance of 
Coprinus domesticus. Then the mycologists at length broke away for the hillside at 
the far end of the deer park, crossing acres of tmrf diversified and dotted with noble 
trees, which stand in couples, groups, belts, or quasi-avenues, with an effect that 
does great credit to those who dictated the thinning process. Scotch firs, spruces, 
elms, oaks, and chestnuts pose themselves by twos and threes, as if with a con- 
sciousness of their charm to the painter or the poet ; and it is long since we have 
seen so many or such perfect studies of tree-form. Many and curious si)ecies of 
cortinarius were met with en route to the hill, from which there was a very fine 
and panoramic view of West and North Herefordshire, and the hillfl that bound 
it, to say nothing of the sleepy but quaint little town of Weobley, just beyond 
Gamstone. On the frequent charcoal heaps met with in ascending the hill were 
found Ag, Carbonaritts with Ag, Pyxidatus and Caniharellus radicosua; and, when 
the ascent was made, Dr. Bull found Ag, (Entoloma) jubcUus, a very rare fungus, 
first figured as a British plant in the Woolhope Transactions for 1868. 



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53 

It may be noticed generally, as the effect of a very dry season up to three 
or four weeks ago, that many tribes of funguses, such as the Boleti, were almost 
absent. Still B. LaricinuSj only known within the last few years, was very 
abundant. B, elegans and B, fragrans, too, were beginning to api)ear. The very 
common Ag, fascicularis was scarcely to be seen, though its intimate relation, 
8uhl4Uerititt8, was frequent enough. Naucoria cucumis was very common, as also, 
even more, was the curious Hygroplwrus comus. In many places visited during 
the week this was noticeable with its odd and goatlike smell, amongst others in 
an orchard at Stoke Edith, near the station, where a ring of it was found some 
eight feet in diameter. Then, again, the great scarcity of all the tree polypores 
was remarkable, so much so, as, with the other absences we have referred to, to 
demonstrate the unusual unproductiveness of the season, in a mycological point 
of view, arising out of the impossibility of mycelium growth taking place in 
such very dry weather. 

Some such train of thought was passing through at least one mind, out of 
the thirteen or fourteen that visited Garnstone Park, when a summons to return 
to the mansion interrupted it. Here a handsome li»nch-dinner had been provided, 
to which, after they had inspected some admirable photographs executed by 
Major Peploe, the mycologists did thorough justice. It need not be said that 
they left Garnstone, between five and six p.m., with thanks on their lips and 
good will in their hearts towards their courteous host, who had done everything 
in his power to make the remembrance of their visit a pleasant one. As the coach 
drove off in one direction towards Hereford, with a lighter freight, yet not with 
lightened cheer, the President and Mr. Worthington Smith took their way, in the 
carris^e of the former, towards Moor Court, the best friends finding it a neces- 
sity to part sooner or later. This necessity was felt more widely on the morrow, 
when the Woolhopians and their guests mostly dispersed for their respective 
homes. 



(Saturday Beview.) 

A Bat with the Fungus Hunters.— Another fungus feast, and no 
casualties ! Once more have the mycologists, indigenous and other, hunted and 
harried the woods, fir-grooves and pastures of Herefordshire in pursuit of game, 
which squires do not care to preserve, and to which farmers do not raise the 
faintest objection. Once more have they returned towards dusk to the "faithful 
city," bearing bags and baskets filled with spoil destined to give variety to more 
than one cuisine. So far as the adoption of the study of mycology, as a special 
feature of the Woolhope Field Club transactions, tended in six years to 
*' Italianize " the tastes of diners-out in the matter of fungi, that we believe the 
excellence of a " Lycoperdon " fritter might be avouched by the highest ecclesi- 
astical dignitaries ; and, unless our eyes deceived us, the High Sheriff of the 
county of Hereford could certify the goodness of " Comatus " soup. It is not of 
course contended that among the results of the forays which made the woods of 



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Downton, Stoke Edith, Dinxnore, and Gamstone all alive in the first week of 
October there were not a number of diverse toadstools, wholly unfit for human 
food ; but a residuum of edible fungi was tried, tested, and not found fault with 
by the guests at the public dinner on the first of the month, who; though dis- 
appointed of the presence of the Bev. M. J. Berkeley, the chief of English myco- 
logists, included in their number those scarcely less eminent authorities, Messrs. 
Broome, Benny, and Houghton, to say nothing of that skilful delineator and 
describer of fungus-growths, Mr. Worthington Smith, F.L.S. The proceedings 
of the evening included a merited recognition of the assistance rendered to the 
Club by this gentleman, whose two sheets distinguishing edible from poisonous 
fungi, with the key appertaining to them (published by Hardwicke), are still the 
most useful guide to the amateur fungus-hunter, though for more advanced 
inquirers the manuals of Berkeley and Cook, and, for the more classically 
minded, the charming volume of Dr. Badham, are doubless more suitable. The 
delicately-served Marasmius oreades, or " Fairy Bing Champignon,** enabled the 
veteran Mr. Lees to return for the hundredth time to his " molar" theory as to 
fairy rings ; the orange-milked mushroom (Lactarius deliciosus) justified its title, 
after skilful cooking and a good deal of salting and peppering ; and if on this occasion 
we failed to experiment upon the scaly agaric (Procerus), the beef -steak that is 
cut to order from half way up the oak (Festulina hepatica), or the Boletus edulis, 
(not that in favour with the elder Boman gourmands, though very popular with 
their remote posterity), or even the Giant Puflfball (Lycoperdon giganteum), it is 
simply because, in the case of fungus-tasting as in everything else, "non omnia 
possimius omnes." The Lactarius deliciosus ought to be good, to judge from its 
name ; and its beauty of colouring and deep orange milk so completely dis- 
tinguish it from the dangerous L. torminosus, the deadly and ruddy L. rufus, the 
fragrant and rare L. glyciosmus, L, controversus (a species not uncommonly 
found under the black poplar, but on this occasion discovered by Dr. McCuUough 
under a Lombardy poplar at Gamstone), and the L. Vitellinus, which, notwith- 
standing its epithet, is not good for food, that there need not be slightest hesita- 
tion in tasting it, even raw. Dr. Badham*s plan of baking the Deliciosus, after 
due application of salt, pepper, and butter, for three-quarters of an hour in a 
covered pie-dish, is doubtless a preferable mode of experimenting upon this deli- 
cacy. Our own experience of it is not so fortunate as to enable us to rank it with 
the most appetizing of culinary fungi ; nor can we mention it in the same day 
with slices of the Giant Puff ball, when, after the removal of their outer integu- 
ment, they are dipped in yolk of egg, and then fried in fresh butter. In all such 
experiments it is obviously unfair to try other than quite fresh and young 
specimens, and there ought to be no necessity for cautioning even the uninitiated 
against cooking the Puflfball when it is yellow and rotten inside, or indeed when 
its snow-white exterior is beginning to change to a suspicious yellow. Several 
of the rarer Lactarii mentioned above were either found in this year's forays 
at Hereford, or were brought thither to adorn the sideboard at the festival. 

A word must be added about the " Comatus *' soup. What boy or girl 



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accustomed to roam over field and paatore does not know the quaint, cylindrical 
** Tall John," with a fleshy and patchy white wig, and a hollow stem with a 
white powdery fragile ring encircling it, known to mycologists as the ** Coprinos 
comatos," and sometimes as the '* agaric of civilization ;** but hardly less familiar 
to hundreds who cannot put a name to it, and who come across it and its gray- 
capped cousin 0. Atramentarias, in the open garden or at the base of stumps or 
palings ? This fungus has long been mixed with others in the composition of 
ketchup, and Atramentarius is said to make very good ink. It has been reserved 
for the Woolhope Club to demonstrate its value as the principal ingredient in a 
piquant and tasty soup, to outward appearance resembling green-pea soup, or 
perhaps more closely parsley and butter in a tureen. Whatever its semblance, it 
is too good an addiidon to our list of soups to be lightly forgotten ; and perhaps 
the day will yet come when those philosophers whose mental grasp can embrace 
nothing higher than the addition of another and another novelty to their gastro- 
nomic pleasures may learn to count amongst their benefactors the motley group 
of mycologists whom an inscribed festoon in one of the streets «t the recent 
opening of the Free Library at Hereford designates irreverently and illiterately 
as the " Fungi Fogies" After all, however, even putting the question of edibility 
aside, it is not difficult to find good reasons for prosecuting the study of mycology. 
Medicinally and industrially many fungi have their special purpose, as for 
instance the scaly Polyporus, which, dried and cut into stripes, supplies a capital 
razor strop, and the other species of the same group which are manufactured into 
and by the styptic known as Amadou or German Tinder. The medicinal substance 
known as ergot of rye is also, it need hardly be said, a true fungus. Grenerally, 
too, to quote the highest English authority on the subject, '* the office of fungi in 
the organised word is to check exuberant growth, to facilitate decomposition, to 
regulate the balance of the component parts of the atmosphere, to promote fer- 
tility, and to nourish myriads of the smaller members of the animal kingdom." 
Regarded in this practical light, the numerous family of funguses asserts a 
strong title to intelligent study, and cannot lightly be overlooked by any Field 
Club that deserves its name. An attempt to catalogue the fungi which line the 
woodland path, or have their habitation at the foot or amid the branches of the 
oak, ash, elm, the larch and fir, the birch and the poplar, would very soon ex- 
haust our paper. 

Amidst the things of beauty— though certainly not of joy to the incautious 
taster— in fungus life may be cited the Boletus luridus, umber-coloured above, 
and bright red or even vermilion below, and suspiciously changing, when broken 
or bruised, to a blue complexion. Or, again, the Fly Agaric Agaricus (Amanita) 
mtucaritiSf with its bright scarlet cap, worked, so to speak, with yellow or yel- 
lowish spots, and underlaid with a bright yellow flesh, which is succeeded, lower 
still, by a pervading white. Its stem is bulbous and marked by a distinctive ring. 
The Feziza aurantia is another periectly lovely tenant of the woods and heaths, 
a delicate crisping " lamina" of the brighest orange, which no one will forget 
who saw the other day a specimen of it, measuring eight and a hi4f inches 



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across, sent from Shobdon Court by Lord Bateman. Amongst the Bussulas, 
found freely this year as usual in Herefordshire, there is as great a variety of hue 
as of wholesomeness, from the pale pink and faint rose to the brilliant scarlet of 
B. emetica. Cortinarius cinnabarinus is a clustering group, of a bright orange or 
nearly vermilion, with a metallic lustre. The Cinnamon Mushroom (Cortinarius 
Cinnamoneus) appeals to the sense of smell as well as of seeing, and there are 
several fungi of which the recent expedition furnished specimens which make the 
former api^eal without any pretence to the latter. Before glancing at these we 
must just name the violet-capped Agaricus euchrous, found at Dinmore Woods 
on the 30th of September ; the Coprinus picaceus, or Magpie Coprinus, a rare 
roadside fungus met with near Downton, the membraned cap of which is varie- 
gated with broad white scales, whilst its gills are free and of an ashen black ; the 
mouse-gray Agaricus gloiocephalus, of which a large group was exhibited by Dr. 
Chapman from off the pastures of Burghill ; and the rare, pale yellow crisped 
Sparassis, which has been more than once imported into these shows from the fir- 
groves of Chetnrynd by Mr. Houghton. We must also say a word on the odorous 
fuugi, whether sweet savoured or the contrary. Of the first sort there were found 
at Stoke Edith, Lactarius glyciosmus, and Agaricus fragrans and odorus ; of the 
second, at Dinmore, the Agaricus cucumis, in an abundance commensurate with 
its strong odour, suggestive of rancid oil or stinking fish. Ag. saponaceus, too, 
was offered to our scrutiny, but pronounced, after deliberation, to savour more of 
fish-oil than of soap ; and the interest displayed in Dr. Chapman's fine group of 
Gloiocephalus was to a certain extent qualified by its exceedingly repulsive smell. 
Occasionally in the course of the forays one lighted on a family of fungi, such as 
Agaricus mucidus, the associations of which are more with the touch than the 
sight or smelL Unpleasantly slimy, it arrested the notice of the Woolhopians by 
its profusion at a certain point in Stoke Edith woods, both on the ground roots 
and on the tall, fine-grown beeches, which are its home. The mention of these 
silvan beauties suggests another element of interest in fungus-hunting— namely, 
the introduction it gives one to the finest timber in our land. As we have said, 
the fungi love the greenwood. And if, in the recent excursions around Hereford, 
the curious ii^such matters were too late by a couple of centuries to see at Stoke 
Edith the Elizabethan house of many gables, long since superseded by the present 
stately quadrangular mansion, or at Gamstone the original and characteristic 
mansion as appeared in 1675, and was represented in Dingley's sketch, known 
to readers of the Camden Society's publications, in the place of which is a castel- 
lated mansion built by Nash, yet in each case they might have made acquaintance 
with giant oaks and stately elms which perchance have been the silent witnesses 
of changes yet earlier than these; oaks and elms still betraying no traces of 
decrepitude, and still, as of old, giving grace, dignity, and picturesqueness to the 
landscape. It is not every day that one sees anything so perfect in its way as the 
great hall at Stoke Edith, the walls and ceilings of which were painted by Sir 
James Thornhill, or as the geometric flower garden designed by Nesfield ; and 
yet an explorer might be still better employed in threading the paths of the richly- 
timbered deer-park and making his way to the broad and lofty ridge of Seagar 



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Hill, whence he may look out npon the country towards Gloacerter, Monmoath, 
Abergavenny, Bromyard, and Salop, to say nothing of the hill and valley of Wool- 
hope nestling dose beneath his] standpoint. And so with the demesne of 
Gamstone ; the predominant charm is in the deer-park, and the heights that 
bound it, the latter commanding exquisite yiews of North and East Herefordshire, 
as well as of Shropshire and the mountain barriers of Radnorshire, the former 
affording a study of single trees and clumps and groups of extreme beauty, such 
as is not often to be met with. Here a couple of Scotch firs, there a noble spmoe 
or silver fir, arrest the eye by their perfectness of symmetry or their rich con- 
trast of form and colouring with their surroundings. Groups of Spanish Chest- 
nuts, clumps of elms, or avenue-like arrangements of . the same, promising 
Wellingtonias, and the like, show how much good taste may achieve, without the 
aid of a professional landscape-gardener, where the proprietor finds himself pos- 
sessed of an over-abundance of fine timber, and approaches the task of thinning 
as a labour of love. Within the lawn and sunk fence at Gamstone, the myco- 
logists were are as much struck with the thriving conifers of comparatively recent 
introduction as with the special denizens'of Ithe turf in quest of which they had 
come. There were -perlect samples, for their ages, of the Piceas, Nobilis, Cepha- 
lonica, and Pinsapo, as well as of the Calif omian P. bracteata, the leafy-bracted 
silver fir, a very promising young tree, which, perhaps on acooimt of a well-chosen 
aspect, shows here no tendency to premature starting into growth, and thus is less 
affected by late spring frosts. The complaint of this species generally is the ten- 
derness of its younger growths. 



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ON THE OCCASIONAL APPEARANCE OF RARE 

FUNGI, AND THEIR NON-PERSISTENCE, 

BY EDWIN LEES, F.L.S., F.G.S., 

President of the Malvern Naturalists' Field Club. 



T.fawflMm^ who had the happy art of arranging the forms both of animal 
and vegetable life in a systematic as well as an agreeable way, so as to attract the 
fancy as well as assist the memory, gave the name of Nomades, or Wanderers, 
to the tribe of Fungi, from the observed fact that their various families and 
spedes are like gipsies, for ever wandering about from one region to another, and 
seldom or ever certainly be found in succeeding years at the same place. 

This is generally true with respect to the Agarics and Boleti, as well as the 
members of several other genera, that appear and disappear so irregularly as to 
baffle any theory that may attempt to account for it. Indeed, like comets that 
suddenly appear in our system never to present themselves to our view again, so, 
many funguses may be noticed one year in a particular spot, and though diligent 
search may be made, they will never be found in that locality again. 

But with all funguses the idea of perpetual wandering about will not hold 
good, as the Polypores, for instance, when once attached to a tree remain there 
for life, or until the tree becomes a total wreck. A willow may often be seen 
loaded with Pclyporus igniaritia, which prejrs upon its juices ; and the ash 
in like manner is often annoyed with a still weightier load in Polyportis frctxmeus, 
or studded with the black charcoal-like balls of Hypoacylon concentricum. AU 
decaying wood, too, invites the insidious fungoid parasites, that like vultures 
delight in carrion, though in their case of a vegetable nature, but they do not fly 
off like vultures, but remain while there is any nutriment left for them to subsist 
upon. Thus a f allan trunk in autumn will be seen covered with the black glue-like 
Btdgaaia mquincms, or old decaying elder-trees are hung with the curious-shaped 
"Jews' Ears " ffemeola Auricula Judce), while the Polyparus versicolor is common 
enough on stumps in woods, and is as permanent as the stumps themselves. 
Other examples may be given in the " Roast-beef" Fungus (Fistulina k^xUicaJ, 
the corky Xylaria hypoxyUm, and the Dedalcea quvrcma^ not to mention the 
minnter families of SpJusriacece attached to old wood and other substances. 

But some of the Agarics, also, encamp upon the ground for a considerable 
time, especially those that establish themselves within the circumferential limits 
of a fairy ring. And here I must remark, that though several species of Agarics 
take i>08session of a ring, they do not themselves form it in the first instance. 
This, no doubt, the members of the Woolhope Club are well aware of from my 
former obflervations on fairy rings, and my paper printed in their transactions. 



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and I need not now enlaxge upon the mibjeot. Yet it is MtoniBhing how few 
mycologists folly understand the matter from want of attentive observation. 
Only a few weeks since a learned physician, at a meeting of th? Royal Horticultural 
Society, made some remarks upon the nitrogenous nature of ** the Agarics that 
formed fairy rings." It is cerainly a mistake to suppo3e that rings of considerable 
ble size, appearing suddenly, as they often do^which ia the only pretence for the 
ancient legend of fairies dancing — could be formed in a single night from the 
deposition of spomles from a single central agaric, besides which, entirely perfect 
circles are rarely to be met with, the so-called rings being mo3tly arcs or irregular 
waving lines. But whatever the modus operandi, whenever Agarics have colon- 
ized the exterior line of a fairy ring, they remain there as long as they can, and by 
their spreading mycelia enlarge it. This iei particularly the case with MaranniuB 
Oreades, and in a lesser degree with Tricholoma ganibosiu ; but the other inhabi- 
tants of rings are more or less fugitive. A crowd of Tricholoma grammopodiuB 
or Clitoq/begeotrupus may appear in a ring one year, and the next the ring will be 
entirely unoccupied, and not a single agaric be seen there. The MaraamiuB 
OreadeB, indeed, often lingers for years, forming a colony and making a wide 
brown space, not always, as is generally supposed, keeping to a circular form ; 
but as individual life, both animal and vegetable, must have a termination, so at 
last even the Oreades finds sufficient nutriment wanting and dies out. But though 
the mycelium of ring agarics, whether the Marasmius or others, certainly dies 
out after a time, what, it may be asked, becomes of the spores ? These must be 
very numerous, and one might think, would suffice to cover the field ; but they 
fail to do so, and, like winged seeds, they must fly off somewhere— no doubt to 
colonise other rings. 

I have at the present time no general theory to propose on the duration or 
spread of agaric life, for the remarks that I now make are only to be considered 
as pegs on which to hang the sketches of some curious or remarkable funguses 
that I have found at different times, and which have only once or twice come 
under my notice. Possibly more diligent or persevering fungus-hunters may have 
gathered them oftener in searching divers places, but, of course, I can only refer 
to my own experience ; and it certainly is a matter for wonder that a single fungus, 
or perhaps a group of a remarkable species, should appear to view at a particular 
spot and never be met with at that place again. This must be within the expe- 
rience of all practical mycologists, and I can only suppose that a peculiar nutri- 
ment that gave growth to the fungus was exhausted, and the spores of the fungus 
once observed flew off to find that nutriment elsewhere. Where fungi appear 
upon the dung of animals I think it may be weU presumed that in some way or 
other the spheres of such fungi must have been taken into the stomachs of the 
animals, and after deposition on the ground have soon after vegetated, the im- 
pulse being given them accordingly. I once gathered a moderate-sized yellow 
Pezka on some sheep's droppings in a cave on the Malvern Hills, and I after^ 
ward found on the same species of Peziza upon sheep's dung in Switzerland, 
but I never found it again on the Malvern Hills. A question may thus arise 



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whether, under similar conditionB, the same fungus may not appear in widely 
separated countries. 

Funguses, as well as other plants, require nutriment for their support, and a 
strong nutriment, too, that enlarges their cellular structure, and induces that 
impulsive sudden growth that fills the woods with Agarics and other fungi at the 
autumnal season in so short a time. The impulse is almost as sudden as the dis- 
charge of a gun, but exhaustion very soon follows, and some Agarics are so fragile 
after their expansion that a breath withers them, and others dissolve into liquidity 
very soon after gathering. The impulsive force that elevates an agaric or boletus 
must be very great, for instances have been known of their lifting considerable 
weights. Only a fortnight since the flag pavement in front of a tradesman's resi- 
dence in the High-street, Worcester, was lifted up and this so near his celler grating, 
that he believed that burglars had made an attempt upon his premises, and the 
police were sent for to investigate the matter. On the flag-stone being entirely 
removed, three huge mushrooms were found beneath it, having very thick com- 
pressed stalks, and these, in their efforts to see the light of day, had considerably 
uplifted a flag-stone of more than 80 pounds weight. The incident was inserted in 
the Worcester JffercUdf with the heading, "Attempted Burglary by Mushrooms." 

That certain funguses do suddenly appear— i)erhaps from peculiar meteor- 
ological conditions— and then disappear altogether from the locality they were 
noticed in, is certain ; but I must admit also, that imperfect observation may in 
some instances account for apparent anomalies— not, however in all Dr. Wither- 
ing, late in the last century, detected and described the Agarics and Boleti that 
grew in Edgbaston Park, near Birmingham, and several of these have never 
appeared again, though the park has been searched by myself and other observant 
botanists. Mr. Stackhouse, a correspondent of Dr. Withering, also mentions 
some rare Agarics that he gathered in Oaplar Wood, near Hereford, which 
we have since searched for in vain. Mr. Berkeley in his "Outlines of 
Fungology," mentions several species figured and described by Bolton in his 
" Fungi of Halifax," and by Sowerby, in his " English Fungi," which have never 
been again observed in this country. Indeed, it must be within the experience of 
every practical fungologist, that unless he gathers an uncommon fungus at the time 
he notices it, he will not find it again at the same spot another year. So that there 
is no certainty that localities put down for rare Agarics or Boleti, as well as other 
funguses, will reproduce them in successive years. I have been often disappointed 
in searching for rings of Tricholoma gamhosud and Clitocyhe geotropus where they 
were evident to view the year before, and so with many other of the rarer species 
of fungi I have, however been in the habit for many years past of sketching all 
funguses that came under my observation, and some of those that I have only been 
able to find once or twice through a lapse of years, may excite your curiosity and 
deserve attention for their rarity. 

[Mr. Lees then exhibited many careful drawings illustrative of his remarks, 
wUch induded ^^aricw ;f<i6eWt/ormis,Jifaraewtw« dlliaceu8,lNycUili8 paralitica, 



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Coprinus picacew, Polyporus gigarUeta and P. frondoms, StrobUomyces strohUaceta, 
Hydnum, graveolens, Lentiniu tigrimLS, Morckella semi-libera, HdveUa Ardenia 
and elastica, Mitrvla paludosaf Tulostoma mammosum, several Oecuters, Piziza 
reticulata^ and atro-rufaj and several others- With regard to the very local Can- 
thareUus ci/nereus, of which Mr. Berkeley had stated that it had not been met with 
since the time of Bolton in the last century, Mr. Lees observed that ten years ago 
he found it in some abundance in Perry Wood, near Worcester, and the same year 
received it from Dr. Bull, who had gathered it near Hereford, but strange to say 
neither of them had met with that Cantharellvs since.] 

Of course the spores of Fungi are taken up into the air, and are carried any- 
where and everywhere. Accidentally broken and trodden upon, we see how the 
spores of a puff-ball rise like smoke into the atmosphere, soon lost to sight, and the 
8x>ores of other species thus carried upward descend to the ground with rain. A little 
room of mine at home is unfortunately by a crack in the ceiling open to admit rain 
when it is continuous. Last autumn a quantity of rain rain down one side of the 
room, which is now blackwashed with the spores of Coprini, and a group of the 
Coprintu cinereua appeared upon the ceiling. So the Meruliw lachrynums gets into 
neglected rooms, and as I myself saw, intruded among the shelves of the cathedral 
library at Worcester, and even sported itself among the bindings of books— perhape 
not very often opened. No wonder, then, wherever damp or moisture exists, 
there fungi will penetrate in the shape of mould or mildew, covering the exterior 
of our jams and jellies, deforming the plants in our gardens and conservatories, 
eating up our potatoes, getting into our herbaria, and rendering our gathered 
fruits rotten. Air, earth, and water are all infested with fungi, and thus they 
claim admittance in every direction. I was once rambling with my late excellent 
friend Dr. G. Griffiths, then resident in Worcester, among the defiles of the 
Malvern Hills, when we were overtaken by a thunderstrom, during which a quan- 
tity of hail feU. I collected some of the hailstones on the spot, and placed them 
in a bottle, where they dissolved into a discoloured fluid, which, when placed under 
the microscope as soon as I got home, proved to be full of the spores of fungi of 
which I made a sketch. Thus, then, spores must fall abundantly with rain, or be 
dispersed by the winds in various directions. 

I must beg you to consider my remarks as only intended for familiar illus- 
trations, for I shall not enter on the microscopical organs of the fungi, or advance 
any theory of my own or other scientific mycologists as to their mode of fructifi- 
cation or commencement of growth. We must, however, consider them as meteoric 
plants, whose appearance depends upon temperature and conditions of the atmos- 
phere, and with the exception of the hard, persistent species attached to ligneous 
or manufactured substances, equally impatient of extreme heat or the frosts of 
winter. 

In a lower tribe of vegetation like this extensive mycological world, one 
might expect, if anywhere, to mark traces, if not actual examples, of those 
changes of form that Darwin has so descanted upon, and which has met with so 
many advocates. We do, indeed, find the common mould (AtpergUlus glauctuj 



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take diversified shapes, and the myceloid state of PerUdUium crtutaceum, com- 
monly called **the vinegar plant," would not be known correctly without study 
and observation ; while many minor mycological forms, at first properly considered 
as distinct species, have been observed to be only states of one, analagous to the 
caterpillar advancing to the winged butterfly. Thus the JScidium, of the bar- 
berry has been asserted to be really a form of the mildew (Pucciniagraminis)^ 
that attacks growing com ; and if this is proved to be truly the case, the farmers 
were right in believing the vicinity of the barberry detrimental to their wheat 
fields, and in rooting it up whenever they perceived it, as they have done in 
Worcestershire. The Isarioe and some other small fungoid substances described 
as species have also by systematic writers heen adjudged not to be autonymous. 
On these somewhat abstruse points I must refer you to Mr. Berkeley and other 
technical writers, British and foreign, who have treated on the subject in full 
detail. But though some forms of Agarics do apparently approach each other in 
a very puzzling manner I do not believe in changes or advances from one genus to 
another, for even the two ordinary kinds of mushrooms (Paaliota campeatris and 
arvensis) are easily distinguised by common people, and inviting as theory is to 
some minds, I am contented to see objects as they now appear, and do not believe 
that an Agaric can be induced to become a Polypore or vice vena. Still hypo- 
theses may be useful as eliciting research, and it is an excellent maxim to *' prove 
all things and hold fast that which is good." 

But though we may differ as to theory, and there is some difficulty as to the 
classification and nomenclature of the different genera and sub-genera of fungi, to 
say nothing of species, we shall all agree with Dr. Badham that fungus-hunting 
gives as much pleasurable excitement as any other hunting sport, and that it may 
be recommended to the naturalist not only for the beauty of the objects that are 
sure to be found, but it brings the wanderer out of beaten paths into striking 
scenes and romantic bowery spots of sylvan solitude that he would not otherwise 
have explored, and at the present period of the year, when the woods are arrayed 
in colorific glory, Woolhopeians have with joyous enthusiasm urged their Fungus 
Forays year after year, and I may therefore here fitly use the exciting language 
of Charles Mackay with a trifling alteration :— 

" Men of thought ! be up and stirring night and day, 

There's a fount about to stream. 

There's a light about to beam, 

There's a warmth about to glow ; 

Funguses can joys bestow, 

More than common minds can know ! 

Men of thought and men of action. 

Here can find full satisfaction ;" 

especially if they eat^te funguses they find by Dr. Bull's exquisite recipes. 

Shakespeare has said— 

"All things that are. 
Are with more spirit dias-ed than enjoyed ;" 

and to some persons there is more pleasure in the search for an object than in the 
attainment of it, but the fungologist cannot agree with this, for we search with 
the determination to find — and how exciting it is to the naturalist to find some- 
thing new—and our Fungus Forays are so productive both of delight in the search 



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aad the infitractio]^ that Is gained from what is gathered that I trost this pecaliar 
feature of the Woolhope Club will always be maintained as long as Autunm calls 
forth the favourite tribe that urges our pleasurable investigations (applause). 

Bilr. Elmes Y. Steele expressed the pleasure he had felt in seeing their old 
friend Mr. Lees present, and hearing his very interesting paper. For his own 
part, he did not quite concur with their friend in his theory as to the disappear- 
ance of species of fungus and dispersion of the fungus spores, and he hoped that, 
in justice to their friend, it would be fully discussed that evening. He was glad 
to see that Mr. Flavell Edmunds was present, because they had very interesting 
discussions at former meetings between him and Mr. Lees, on the subject of the 
formation of fairy rings, and other interesting questions. He remembered in par- 
ticular the discussion between them on the seeds of flowering plants, and the 
question whether the sudden appearance of plants in certain cases was to be 
attributed to these seeds having been brought to the surface after having being 
long buried, or to their having been transported by the wind. He was quite sure 
Mr. Lees would not feel satisfied if his paper were allowed to pass without dis- 
cussion, and 80 he had spoken by way of setting the ball rolling. 

Mr. Phillips being called upon by the President, said he hoped it may 
not be thought presumptuous in him to differ from his esteemed friend, Mr. 
Lees, on some of the views that had been advanced relative to the non-appearance 
of certain species of fungi found by himself and by some of the old authors. He 
thought his friend had exaggerated ideas with regard to this subject, and especially 
to the dying out of the spores. It must be borne in mind that fungi require very 
peculiar conditions of atmosphere for their growth, and the mycelium may be 
dormant or unproductive of the perfect plant till the fortunate moment when all 
the conditions are present. This may be illustrated by apple crops, for which 
this county is so distinguished throughout England. We all know that some years 
there are lacking such conditions as are required to produce a crop, but the trees 
are still there though the fruit is not present. So it is with fungi : the mycelium 
is in the old habitat, but conditions are not favourable to its full development. 
Then again, the existence of the mature plant is often so brief that unless the 
searcher happens to select the exact time in the year when all these necessary 
conditions alluded to conspire to produce the fungus he seeks, it is evident he may 
search in vain. Mr. Lees has instanced the case where some of the older English 
authors, as Bolton, Sowerby, and others, have described species of fungi which 
have never since been met with. One of the causes to account for this is that 
some of the earlier writers gave very imperfect descriptions, so imperfect as to 
render their identification with recently found species all but impossible, besides 
which they often described or figured mere monstrosities. The figures passed 
round the room this evening, executed by Mr. Lees himself, though very charac- 
teristic and faithful, comprised one that would puzzle an experienced fungologist 
to say what it was only for a very small specimen of the typical form that accom- 
panied it, of the Large-clubbed Clavaria {Clavcma piatilla/nsj which he says he has 
never met with since. He has evidentiy figured an abnormal form of this some- 
what common Clavaria, and when those figures are published to the world some 



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64 

fature advocate of this theory may quote this figure as a oonfirmatioii of his views. 
We may go year after year to particular old tree stumps and find the same species 
flourishing on it ; certain pastures in our own neighbourhood are well known for 
the production of mushrooms in every favourable year and even the rare cone- 
like Boletus fStrobUomycea strobUctceiLs), which he says never occurs two years in 
succession, he (the speaker) found last year after the Woolhope meeting, in the same 
spot, near Ludlow, in which he found it in the year preceding, and he had very 
little doubt it would be found again this year. On the whole, however, he agreed 
with his friend, and desired to give him his personal thanks for his interesting 
paper (applause). 

Dr. Bull briefly expressed the pleasure he had felt in hearing Mr. Lees' paper. 
He doubted, however, whether their friend was quite correct in supposing that the 
members of the club were converted to his views, even in the modified form in 
which they had been expressed. He observed that Mr. Lees had given up the 
molar theory of the formation of fairy rings. The disappearance and re-appearance 
of particular species was another point on which he did not quite agree with their 
friend. He remembered a case in which the uprooting of a tree, and the consequent 
disturbance of the soil, was followed by the appearance of a fungus perfectly new 
to Britian, and which was hailed by Mr. Berkeley and other eminent mycologists 
as a treasure (applause). 

Mr. Flavell Edmunds, having been called upon by the President, rose and 
was received with applause. He said that he had been greatly interested with the 
paper of his old friend, which like all his other writings was full of curious facts 
valuable in themselves, and explained with great clearness. As their friend Mr. 
Steele had said, it was well worthy of the attention of all who heard it, and of 
the careful discussion which was invited. Mr. Steele's reminiscence of former 
encounters between himself and Mr. Lees went back nearly 20 years, but his own 
reminiscences went back much further. Mr. Lees and he were friends of nearly 
thirty years' standing : and he remembered hearing his friend deliver in the year 
1845 some most admirable lectures on the Comicalities of Trees, in whicb he took 
up the grotesque forms assumed by trees, and by the aid of his ever facile pencil 
and his bright and cheery humour made what would otherwise have been a dry 
subject full of life, instruction, and amusement. He was glad to find all these 
characteristics still as vigorous as ever in their friend, as his paper and his sketches 
that evening abundantly proved (applause). He felt almost inclined to fling at 
him a well worn Latin quotation, but that he had a bit of a quarrel with the first 
and the last words of it. The Koman poet had said Foraan hcec olim meminisse 
juvdbit ; but whether he thought of his friend's past contributions to natural his- 
tory, or meetings like the present which he had helped to make pleasant, he dis- 
puted both the forsan and the future tense of the verb. There is no perhaps in 
the matter : it actually does now delight us to remember these things (applause). 
At the same time he must not be supposed as concurring in the supposition that 
the members of the Woolhope Club had been generally converted to Mr. Lees' 
theory of the formation of fairy rings, either in its former or its present form, 



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65 

He did not know of any one who accepted what had been wittily called the mole- 
colar theory, and he doubted whether any of the members were convinced of the 
cdrrectness of the explanation given to them that evening. For hia own part, he 
Btill held to the belief that fairy rings were formed by the spreading outward of 
the mycelium of the fungi from a centre. Within the last few days he had seen 
a very remarkable instance of the correctness of this theory in the park of Jjord 
Saye and Sele, at Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire. He handed to Mr. Lees a rude 
pendl sketch of this fairy ring, which was of large size, and was evidently in the 
process of enlargement. It is made up of a great number of concentric rings, the 
course of which is marked here and there by single fungi, the last survivors in the 
ancient seats of their race ; but the rings are being gradually obliterated towards 
the centre by the growth of darker grass. There is a considerable growth of fungi 
of the outer edge of the ring, which is complete with the exception of a space of 
about a foot at the west side. The fungi were all of one species. He mentioned 
this, because it was the latest fact of the kind which he had met with, but in 
former years he had met with many similar cases in the neighbourhood of Here- 
ford, at Canon Moor, Burcott, Lyde, &c, in none of which were there any tracea 
of the mole's action. Then, too, as to the disappearance of fungi He knew of 
cases in which Agaricus comatits and A, procerus had come up regularly near the 
same spot for years past, and he could always calculate safely on finding varioua 
species of Lycoperdon, Clavaria, and other genera of fungi in particular places. 
No doubt there are instances of the disappearance of plants, fungi as well as 
flowering plants, but he did not think that they could be traced to any one cause 
or set of causes (applause). 

The discussion here closed, the remaining papers being reserved to be read 
at the soiree, to which the President and members were invited by Mr. Cam. 



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NOTES ON THE STRUCTURE OF THREE SPECIES 

OF FUNGI NEW TO BRITAIN, 

BY WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 



That the study of Mycology is making rapid progress in the estimation of 
English botanists is proved by the fact that no less than three public exhibitions 
of fungi will have taken place during the present year, one in the city of Aberdeen 
a fortnight since, another in connexion with the Koyal Horticultural Society in 
London, and the present one in this room, under the auspices of the Woolhope 
Field Club. I believe I am correct when I say that the credit of originating such 
exhibitions belongs exclusively to your excellent Club, and more especially to the 
fertile brain of one of its chief ornaments. Up to a comparatively recent date 
this branch of botany was confined to the attention of a very limited number of 
students, while it was altogether ignored by what we are accustomed to designate 
*' an enlightened public" This was attributable mainly to the fact that our litera- 
ture, unlike that of France and Germany, contained few works adapted to smooth 
the way of a beginner, in this confessedly difficult study, at a price within the 
reach of ordinary persons. No sooner were such works published than the num- 
ber of students became greatly augmented, and as a necessary consequence our 
Mycological flora became rapidly enriched. In 1836 the fifth volume of '' Smith's 
English Flora" appeared, containing the first, anything like complete, list of 
British species from the pen of that distinguished botanist, the Bev. M J. 
Berkeley. This book brought together the information scattered through the 
works of Withering, Bolton, Sowerby, Grevelle, Purton, and other English 
botanists, enumerating and describing 1279 species. The beautiful drawings of 
Sowerby and Grevelle had thrown a charm over the study of Mycology and 
exalted it to a position of eminence it had not previously attained. English 
botanists became enamoured of the study, and they in turn infected a wide circle 
of followers, to whom the appearance of Mr, Berkeley's work was a great boon. 
The attention of others than professed botanists was thus attracted to this hitherto 
neglected world of vegetation, and men began to see that it comprised forms of 
surpassing beauty, colours the most brilliant and varied, structure the most com- 
plex and interesting. About this time the microscope became a more perfect 
instrument, so that bodies, which like ''nebulae " to the early astronomers, were 
perplexing enigmas, were seen to be well defined organs having each its special 
function, while some of the subtle processes of reproduction and growth could be 
carefully observed. M. Corda, a distinguished German Mycologist, in his splendid 
" Prachtflora," figures the strange and often fantastic, but always beautiful fonuB, 



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67 

assmned by the mueidince, and was himself so enraptured with them that he 
writes :— " These forms are so different from all other plants of a superior order 
that they appear to me as a benefaction from the Almighty to compensate the 
naturalist for the pain of being placed on the arid soil of Europe, deprived of the 
rich vegetation of the tropics." The fascination these studies exercised over the 
mind of this celebrated German was shared in by many of our own countrymen, 
one of the results of which was the addition, during the 22 years between the 
publication of "English Flora" and Berkeley's "Outlines of Fungology" in 
1860, of no less than 1101 species to the British list. Eleven years later Cooke's 
"Hand-book of British Fungi" came from the press, which gave an addition 
of 249 species, making a total of 2809 species. 

I need not say that the mere addition of new species to the British list is 
not the highest aim of a Mycologist, but you will concur with me when I say that 
every addition is of interest in a country of limited area such as ours ; it has 
occurred to me therefore that a brief description, accompanied with drawings,* of 
three species new to this country may not be unacceptable on this occasion. 

Peziea brunneola, Desm, is a minute species found growing on decaying leaves 
of the Oak and Spanish Chestnut not more than _3_ of an inch high, and very 

lOO 

similar in colour to the leaf on which"; it is found. The cup is supported on a 
short stem, giving the appearance of a microscopic acorn cup from which the acorn 
has fallen. It is coated outside with brown hairs, which towards the margin form 
a fringe. These hairs under the microscope appear to be hollow, divided within 
at certain intervals by partitions or septa : the summit is enlarged into a kind of 
knob on which is seated a mass of minute granules, the exact function of which 
has never been determined. Within the cup is the hymenium, consisting of a 
dense bed of asci and paraphyges. The peculiarity to which I wish specially to 
call your attention is the shape of these paraphyses, a character much more com- 
mon than is generally supposed in the section Dasyseypkce to which it belongs, and 
first observe, if I mistake not, by M. Desmazi^re. These paraphyses, unlike 
those usually found in Diacomycetes are nearly as broad as the asci, and twice the 
length, tapering upwards into a spear-like point, so that if the hymenium be 
viewed by a tolerably high magnifying power it is seen to be villose from these 
projecting paraphyses. This may hereafter form an excellent character for the 
grouping of these minute species. 

DesmaeiereUa adcola, Libt. is a Peziza-Hke plant found growing on the dead 
leaves of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestriaj. It was first described by a French lady, 
adame Libert, in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles," 1829, accompanied by 
an excellent figure. Finding it differ from every other known species of Peziza, 
she created a new genus for it, named after her celebrated countrj^man, M. 
Desmazi^re. This plant first appears on the pine leaves as a small ball of black 
entangled hairs, not larger than a pin's head, lying close to the surface of the leaf. 
After a time it opens at the top and gradually expands into a saucer-like form, 

* The drawings appeared in " Grevillea," vol. iii., pi. 42. 



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68 

about two lines across, presenting a dark olive-brown disc, or hymenium. The 
outer margin is furnished with long, rigid, black hairs, while below this fringe on 
the outer surface there is a coating of entangled, flexuous black hairs. If a small 
portion of the hymenial surface be placed under the microscope it will be seen to 
consist of asci, each containing eight rather small sporidia. Intermixed with 
these asci there will be seen a number of straight, pointed, brownish-black hairs, 
much longer than the asci, and giving the hymenium the appearance of being 
hairy. These hairs I regard as the paraphyBes, notwithstanding the character 
given by Madame Libert "without paraphyses," for if their structure be atten- 
tively observed it will be seen that they consist of a number of paraphyses united 
into bundles, branching off into bristle-like points, in the portion that rises above 
the asci, while the cells of this portion become carbonised. It is this peculiar 
form of paraphyses which justifies Madame Libert in placing the.sx>ecie8ina 
new genus. 

Pericomia FhiUipsii, B. and Leight, is the third species to which I would 
call your attention, but respecting which I have little to say. It was found by 
me growing on naked earth, in North Wales, in May last. A Thelocarpon, 
(Lichen) was growing in company with it. This fungus is so small that it is 
nearly undistinguishable to the naked eye, and belongs to the section DemuUiei, 
a very interesting order of plants, though very simple in structure. It consists 
of a short stem composed of elongated, parallel cells, aglutinated together, which 
separate and spread out at the top into a sphserical head, which bears a vast 
number of echinulate sphserical spores— these are the organs of re-production. 
The life history of this plant, like the majority of fungi, is involved in obscurity, 
and awaits the patient and pamstaking observation of the Myoological student, 
to bring it into the light. Let us hope that some member of this Club will direct 
his attention to these imperfectly understood growths, and confer a benefit on 
science by giving us their entire life-history. 



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ANNUAL MEETING, 
Monday, April 12rH, 1875. 



The Annual Meeting of the Woolhope Naturalists* Field Club was held at 
the Club Boom, Free Library, on Monday last The following gentlemen were 
present :— Bev. James Davies, President ; Bey. C. J. Bobinson, President-elect ; 
Bev. W. Jones Thomas, R M. Lingwood, Esq., Bev. H. 0. Key, Bev. H. W. 
Phillott, Dr. Bull, James Bankin, Esq., The Mayor, Dr. McCuUough, Bev. 
H. T. Hill, E. W. Colt Williams, Esq., Frederick Bodenham, Esq., Bev. B. H. 
Williams, Bev. H. B. D. Marshall, Bev. J. E. Jones Machen, Timothy Curley, 
Esq., C.E. ; J. Lloyd, Esq., Theo. Lane, Esq., Dr. Chapman, W. A Swinburne, 
Esq., Jas. Davies, Esq., Joseph Greaves, Esq., H. C. Moore, Esq., T. Clifton 
Paris, Esq., Bev. J. H. Jukes, Bev. J. F. Crouch, Bev. Thomas Fhillipps, 
Bev. James E. Grassett, J. E. Smith, Esq., Mr. Arthur Thompson, Treasurer and 
Assistant Serretary. 

Mr. Curley was requested to act as auditor of the accounts^ which were laid 
before the Club by the Secretary, Mr. Arthur Thompson. 

It was proposed by the Bev. C, J. Bobinson, seconded by Bev. H. T. Hill, 
and carried unanimously, that a sum of money be devoted annually to the purchase 
oi scientific books for the use of the Club ; and it was further proposed by the 
Mayor, and seconded by the Bev. W. Jones Thomas, and carried unanimously, 
that the Editorial Committee and Committee of Management be combined for the 
purpose of determining what books or periodicals be purchased in the present year, 
and to expend thereon a sum not exceeding £30. 

It was decided that in future the cost of taking the register of the height of 
the Biver Wye be defrayed by the Club, and that the prize scheme be amended so 
far as to exclude the collection of eggs. 

The Bev. W. E. Prickard, Vicar of Clyro, was elected a member, and the 
following gentlemen were proposed for membership : Bev. W. Wyatt, Vicar of 
Hope-under-Dinmore ; John Biley, Esq., Putley Court ; Bev, A. Young, 
Pembridge ; Charles Anthony, jun., Esq., and Lewis Sergeant, Esq., Hereford ; 
Bev. G. M. Metcalfe, Lyde Vicarage. 



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70 

The meetings of the Club for the present year were fixed as follows :— 20th 
May, Caerleon ; 15th June, Symonds' Yat and Monmouth (to meet the Cotswold 
Club) ; 13th July (ladies* day), Skenfrith, Grosmont, and Garway ; 9th August, 
Brecon. 

An exhibition of apples and pears (named) will be held in the autumn on the 
day of the Fungus Foray in the Club Boom, and members are invited to send 
specimens of rare and fine sorts. 

An interesting paper upon British spiders, their habits, economical use, &c., 
was read by Mr. Theophilus Lane. 

After the meeting had concluded, the Club dined at the Green Dragon 
Hotel, Where they were joined by Evan Pateshall, Esq., M.P., J. F. Symonds, 
Esq., the Key. G. M Metcalfe, &c. The cloth having been raised, the He v. J. 
Davies, MA., read his Betiring Address, which was as follows : — 

Gentlemen, — The time has arrived when I must really make my bow, and 
positively for the last time. When, a year ago, I went through the form of a 
retiring address, it was in the full consciousness that mine was only a partial 
eclipse, and that I was to shine out again, a full blown president, at the first 
field meeting of the year 1874. Very pleasant, to me at least, has been the whole 
tenour of my second year of ofl5ce, and marked indeed by two events, which I 
rejoice fell within the term of my presidency; but I do not think it v^ise or 
desirable that this institution should follow, in the case of its chief officer, a 
precedent set it by the Municipality of Hereford ; and, however much I may have 
got used to your kind words, and kind faces, and warm shakes of Mr. President's 
hand, when on duty or off duty, I feel that, in view of sub-division of labour and 
circulation of honours, it is high time that I should hand over the reins to my 
successor. Before doing so, however, I must comply with the custom of giving 
some account of my stewardship ; and in doing this, it will be most convenient, I 
think, to review, as shortly as may be, the field meetings of the year, and then to 
touch, as they suggest themselves, on the points of progress, the collateral events, 
and the various casualties of the year 1874, in which the Woolhope Club has had 
more or lesss interest. 

You will forgive nie, I am sure, if, amid a press of matter, I omit aught that 
should be commemorated; and, of your kindness, hear me patiently through an 
address which I promise to confine to moderate limits. Our first meeting a-field, I 
would remind you, was at Church Stretton on the 15th of May, and a rendezvous 
which proved very satisfactory when, in the year of Mr. Key's presidency, we 
explored the Longmynd, proved still attractive to those Woolhopians who re- 
visited it on a scarcely seasonable morning— for winter lingering still chilled the 
lap of May— m route for the Caradoc. We were fortunate, in the absence of any 
leader among our own members, in the friendly and experienced guidance of the 
Bevs. Donald Carr and William Elliott, the late and the present honorary 
secretaries of the Caradoc Field Club, and thus lost no time in ascending the grand 
" Caer Caradoc" by the path through the pass betwixt it and the Lawley HilL 
Despite the backwardness of the spring, our botanists found some small clients 



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71 

that had not succumbed to the biting frosts, and though the dog violet aad even 
the bilberry were stunted, and the cowslips of the pass froet-bitten, the mountain 
pansy (viola luteaj with its bright yellow enlivened the hill-turf, and sapplied an 
extempore bouquet for button-holes not strictly botanicaL The chief interest of 
the day, however, was divided between the archaeologists and the botanists. The 
former climbed a height of no small stiffness to inspect and interview a claimant to 
the honours of Caractacus's last battle, but this craze, so catching among U8 
borderers who have any sort of British earthwork within a few milea of us, was 
kept under due control on this particular May morning. 

It may be at once stated that Caer Caradoc, near Church Stretton, is a rude 
specimen of a British entrenchment, for the most part natural, but with so much 
of human handiwork as consisted in trenching across the ridge, below the i>eak 
connecting the crags, and the precipitous sides of the hill, and making a hollow on 
the other side of the peak. Neither in defensibility nor in natural water supply, 
were there the requisites for a strongly tenable position, and as to the faintest . 
identity with the heights depicted by Tacitus — the amnU vado incesto, the jvga 
imminentia and the heights above for the Britons to flee to — well ! the Breidden 
near Welshpool have no rival in Caer Caradoc ! Our geologists— a mere knot on 
this occaeion— were content to refresh their interest in their favourite pursuit by a 
general survey rather than by special fossil-hunting. Whilst the visitor unattached 
peered through the haze at the Wrekin and Stiperstones, and had to content 
himself with the clear home view beneath him and immediately around him, the 
''stone-breakers" realised Mr. Symond's description of the "tremendous fault" 
looking westward from Caradoc* and " the proofs that considerable earthquake 
movements have affected the whole country since the deposition of the Upper 
Silurians." 

Declining to investigate a limestone quarry—offering abundant specimens of 
Pentamenis Knightii— they descended the sheer hill-side to the north-west, crossed 
over the valley, and, with the exception of a detachment bent on re-visiting the 
slopes of the Longmynd, made their way back to Church Stretton. Here, while 
dinner was preparing, Mr. Wilson, the Rector, conducted them over his interesting 
church, and as for the dinner— I know not how it was— it sped so pleasantly that 
intending readers of papers had no other course than to pocket them, when, dictum 
factum, the President had almost in one breath to say grace after meal, propose 
the Queen's health, and give the word for the station. By favour of the belated 
railway train, indeed, we were able to convert the platform into an open-air 
chamber of science, and here, in the space of 20 minutes, the late Mr. Flavell 
Edmunds (upon whose presence with us at all our meetings a-field in the last year 
of his laborious and scantily recreated life I look back with peculiar pleasure), 
discoursed to us on the effects upon vegetation of the abnormal May frosts ; and I 
myself found time to exhibit and tell the tale of a bit of Deerfold pottery, which 
proves the former civilisation of that terra semi-cognita. 

It was a far finer day when, on the 19th of June, the Club set forth for 
Builth. Radnorshire never fails to prove attractive to Woolhopians, and I trust 



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our peaciefal forays on her side of the border leave a pleasaater and more dvUismg 
mark behind them than those raids of old across rock, river, and dyke, which 
kept up everlasting feud between the Celt and the Sazon. Our first point 
to make was Uechryd Station, where our brother Woolhopian, the Eev. W. 
John Thomas, a native of the district, and a brother of the Squire of Wellfield, 
which was to form part of the day*s excursion, kindly undertook our guidance. 
Hard by the junction of the Mid Wales and the Central Wales— which, strange 
but true, are not convertible terms in railway parlance— are divers traces of 
Llewellyn, the last Prince of Wales, but we left these un visited, to inspect the 
earthworks of Cwrt Llechryd, the etymology of which was matter of some 
discussion, though we are pretty safe if we take Mr. Thomas's interpretation that 
Llechryd means the ''Flat place of the Ford." The earthworks were to all 
appearance British, though it is probable that within the area they enclose was a 
Boman encampment, which may have served for a station long, long ago between 
Bannium and the nearest station on the north. I confess I did not quite realise 
the track of the war-chariots, so convincing to several of our body ; but I think 
none will doubt the existence here of a camp within a camp, such as may be seen 
frequently in the British entrenchments in the valley of the Axe in Devonshire, 
occupied at a subsequent date by the Bomans, though the construction of a 
nineteenth century station and junction has rendered harder to trace the stations, 
in this locality, of our rude forefathers and their subjugators. 

From Llechryd we pushed on to a great geological trysting place— Hooper's 
Quarry—and being met here by Mr. Thomas of Wellfield, were escorted by him to 
his hospitable mansion and his curiously timbered grounds, a study in themselves 
by reason of the finely-grown conifers, to a familiarity with which in past years, 
and a volunteer discipleship to their planter, your retiring President owes one of 
the greatest pleasures and interests of his vale of life. I ought to say, however, 
that the interest of the day consisted in a lecture on the geology of the district 
delivered here, as was well observed, amid groves, hills, and valleys, once the 
haunts of Buckland, Conybere, Murchison, and Sedgwick, by one who may be 
said to have earned a title to their descending mantles— our friend and fellow 
Woolhopian, William Symonds. I wish I could have said the " Oxford Greological 
Professor ** ; but, in this case, we may honestly solace our wounded amour propre 
at the preference of another geologist, by the trite Addison, in an adage 

Tis not in mortals to conunapid success. 

But we'll do more, Sempronious : we'll deserve it. 

I should hold it an impertinence to make extracts from his address, which 
will be printed m extenso in our next volume of transactions, but I will repeat 
what I have said again and again, as a looker-on and as a president, that there is 
no savant or professor, of whom I am cognizant, so gifted with the power of 
arresting and carrying along with him an audience with whom enthusiasm is 
infectious, as Mr. Symonds of Pendock. Passing over the wind-up of the Builth 
Meeting, the march to Penkerrig with its oaks and its lake, and the scenery 
of the district— the Carneddau which we have no time to ascend and the Wye 
scenery of the charming homeward after-dinner route— it needs but the leap of 



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a month to find oTiraelyeB on the 17th of July, on our way to Whitbhnroh 
and the Doward Caves, again Indebted to Mr. Symonds for ofaaperonage and 
instmction, whilst exploring the fossil produce of those curious bone caves, which 
modem geological research has made familiar to us. This was the ladies* day, 
and a large and goodly company of them and their squires availed themselves of 
the fine summer weather for an excursion, which after allowing a passing glimpse 
of Groodrich Court and Castle commence its real interest at the inn at Whitchurch, 
where, in preface to the ascent of the Doward, Mr. Sjrmonds and Mr. Scobell had 
arranged in the parlour a splendid collection of the cave bones, according to their 
quondam proprietors, whether manmioth, rhinoceros, cave bear, hy»na, cave 
lion, or bos-longifrons, with others. Here, too, were some flint knives and flakes, 
and the cores from which they had been chipped, at a period far later than that of 
the prehistoric quadrupedal cave-tenants. The scaling of the hill was too severe 
a prospect to allow of much lingering over these treasures, yet if any had been 
disposed to content themselves with the extemporized museum, and without 
inspecting the loctu in quo of their finding, they would have missed fine prospects 
of the Wye, the Forest, the Goodrich, Whitchurch, Boss, and Hereford' Country, 
and, above all, at one particular point of their toilsome march the sweetest view 
I ever beheld of the Town of Monmouth. It is caught through a valley between 
the hills, with the Wye towards Dixton to set it off, and I think the painter who 
could catch and reproduce the vista and the spires and glancing roofs at the end of 
it would not have to wait for a bid for his picture. 

On the western slopes of the Gruit Doward, Mr. Sjrmonds, who was 
accompanied by Sir James Campbell, the deputy surveyor of Dean Forest, 
introduced our company to King Arthur's Cave and one or two others, explaining 
the several sections, or layers, or floors, which carry us back and below the traces 
of human handiwork, and the silts of an ancient river, and a second accumulation 
of cave earth, to the relics of a glacial period and to those wonderful fossil remains 
in which these Doward Caves compete with Banwell and Cefn and other caves in 
Great Britain and on the continent. 

It should be noticed that the veteran Mr. Moggridge—the custodian and 
showman, if I may so call him without irreverence, of the Mentone caves— was 
with Mr. Symonds on this occasion, and afterwards joined our dinner party at 
Boss. I recall a conversation I had with him at the latter place about his talented 
son's " Harvesting Ants and Trap-door Spiders," a supplement to which has been 
recently published by Van Voorst— published too, alas ! posthumously ; for this 
acute and painstaking entomologist has been removed by death from the pursuits 
of science and the study of insect life, to which he was making such notable 
additions. I will but return to the Bone caves to say that Mr. Symond's valuable 
accoimt of them was reprinted in the Hereford Times, and will find an honoured 
place in our ** Transactions of 1874," and that the Ladies' Day passed off 
successfully from first to last, owing to the careful arrangements and courtesy of 
our guides, and those in whose province and property the caves are situate— 
Sir James Campbell, Mrs. Bannerman, and Mr. and Mrs. ScobeU. The botanists. 



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too (as our lamented friend Flavell Edmonds told me with gusto), had '* a good 
day." 

I pass to our fourth field meeting as one of exceptional interest— the visit 
on Tuesday, the 18th of August, to Lydney Park in Gloucestershire, and its 
extensive Roman remains. This was well attended by members of our club, and 
rendered in the highest degree pleasant and unlabourious by the perfect hospitality 
of Mr. Bathurst, the proprietor. No sooner did he learn that we meditated a visit 
to his Camps, and Temple, and Koman Villa, than he not only accorded the 
necessary permission, but offered to entertain our party at lunch, and undertook 
our reception in such wise, that we were his guests from the time our train reached 
Lydney station till we left it in the evening. At Lydney Park, where Mr. Bathurst 
had invited a party, amongst whom were Sir James Campbell, the (alas !) late 
Archdeacon Ormerod, the Rev. J. J. Trollope, and other kindred spirits to meet us, 
we had the prefatorial treat, as at Whitchurch, of a Museum to illustrate the local 
remains and scenes we had come to inspect— a Museum of singular value, as it con- 
tained not only all the evidences of high-class Roman refinement such as you would 
expect ii^^the villa of a great Roman official and his family, but also three actual 
inscriptions from the temple, adjacent to the villa, inscriptions decipherable and 
nearly perfect— inscriptions establishing as clearly as need be that this temple was 
dedicated to the British or Britanno-Roman ^sculapius, the god Nodons or 
Nudene, who is supposed to have his name from knots or joints, and to have been 
much in request in cases of gout and rheumatism. On these interesting relics and 
the places whence they were found, the several chambers of the villa and temple, 
which Mr. Bathurst had had unbaredKfor the occasion, that gentleman discoursed 
lucidly and solidly to us at their respective sites. Neither our reporter on that 
occasion nor the author of an article on the Lydney Remains in the Saturday 
Review on the 29th of August could speak with such firmness of assurance as one 
who has so strong hereditary knowledge of and interest in these special vestiges 
of Roman occupation, and our club cannot be suffi.ciently grateful to Mr. Bathurst 
for the thoroughness with which he not only opened to us his treasures, but also 
did his utmost to make us understand their nature and value. I feel that it is but 
due to him, before we publish another volume of Transactions— in which will appear 
a record of the Lydney visit— to submit to his revision the Woolhope notes of it, 
in order that our report may be worthy of the day, which was one of the pleasantest 
and most successful in our annals. As regards the inscriptions, an amount of 
certainty in interpreting them has been realised which is very unusual, and it 
would be a pity that it should not come forth as nearly accurate as possible in the 
records of our club, Between Mr. Bathurst's lucid account and Dr. McCauPs 
Britanno-Roman inscriptions such accuracy may, I feel sure, be approximated, 
and I shall be very ready to lend a helping hand, of course under correction of one 
who has on hereditary and personal acquaintance with these interesting memorials.* 

I will not linger in retrospect on the silvan beauties of Lydney Park and 

* Mr. Bathurst's death, in the fulhiess of years, since this address was delivered has unfor- 
nately interfered with its supervision. 



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the curious interest of a lesser and a larger camp in the precincts of a demesne 
which is said to have been the envy ol the Spanish in the days of Elizabeth ; nor 
will I dilate, lest it should seem fulsome on the hospitable welcome we received 
from its accomplished and scholarly proprietor, so completely keeping in view the 
enlightenment of our minds and the refreshment of our bodies. I wiU pass now to 
a more local theme, and to what is now, I might say, our great characteristic 
speciality in the way of meetings— our Fungaa Feast and Foray. This was 
formally solemnised on the 1st of October with the usual rites and ceremonies, but 
by the beginning of the week mycologists were gathering from far and near, and 
the preliminary forays, introducing our chief fungus finders by day to the grounds 
and groves of Downton and the wooded slopes of Dinmore Hill, whilst at nightfall 
private dinner-tables were rehearsing the crowning hazard of Thursday's fungus 
feast by cautious experiments on the edibility of toadstools. I cannot say the 
weather was entirely propitious : indeed, the rain of the early momiug of the first 
of October damped the ardour of many on whom we counted to accompany us to 
the delightful precincts and park of Stoke Edith, which by Lady Emily Foley's 
kind permission we were allowed to hunt over for our favourite game. It damped 
the ground also to such sloppiness as to be the cause of misadventures to ancles and 
knees no longer in their first youth. But you will not bid me, I am sure, **Infandum 
renovare dolorem" Is not the history of the collapse of the President and his 
mushroom, engraven and written in the truthful pages of the Graphic ? A very 
thorough account of the week's proceedings, the visit to Gamstone which finished 
it included, will be found in the transactions of the year, and thanks to our 
visitors— -amongst whom we lacked through temporary indisposition, the genial 
authority of Mr. Berkeley —the papers read after our feast, both in the dinner-room 
and at Mr. Cam's pleasant and now looked-for soiree, atone for a certain dearth of 
such kind of pabulum at the earlier meetings of the year. I shall therefore forbear 
to touch on the interesting experiences of the fungus week, whether a -field or 
a-feasting ; except so far as to note that the high festival of our great day waa 
graced by the presence of three ladies, all more or less experimental mycologists, 
all highly successful in the discovery, delineation, or dressing, by deputy, for the 
hospitable dinners of the Poole, of those edible fungi for which our county is 
famous. All three successes are in my humble opinion to be envied, and the last 
not least so ; and I think I can plead an authority you will all accept for this 
averment. 

At the close of a pleasant and instructive review of " Fungi : their nature, 
influence, and uses," in the Gardener's Chronicle of March 27, Mr. Worthington 
Smith not indistinctly sets the vital phenomena of fungi, and (note this) a know- 
ledge of those species which decidedly affect our health or food, above the discovery 
and determination of ths plants as mere species, and aa a more remunerating though 
perhaps less difficult study. The mention of Worthington Smith brings me to one 
of the two events of our Woolhope year, which make me rejoice in the second year 
of office. When I recollect how generous, suggestive, helpful, and enthusiastic 
has been Mr. Smith's assistance to us as a Club and as individuals — whenever we 
want a fungus named, or drawn, or engraved, or a Herefordshire forest tree 



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delineated or reproduced for our transaction pages^when I think what a gain it 
has been to ub last year, for example, to have such a friend at court to win us the 
pennission of the proprietors and editor of the Gardener's Chronicle to make use of 
their blocks of remarkable Herefordshire trees for the purpose of lithographing in 
the volume just put forth; and then recall the singular modesty which, in his case 
as in all genuine cases, is the unfailing concomitant of real talent, I cannot but 
rejoice that in a year when I had the honour to be President, the Woolhope Club 
deviated from its general rule, and paid Mr. Worthington Smith the exceptional 
compliment of a handsome testimonial It is when such marks of respect are thus 
reserved for rare merit, and are not as every day occurrences, as the nigger's idea of 
a *' collection," that they carry weight, and are the stamp of bondjide appreciation. 
I am sure I speak Dr. Bull's sentiments as well as my own when I further say that 
rarely, if ever, were subscriptions promised or paid so freely and spontaneously as 
in this instance. 

To the other event of our just closed Woolhope year I will advert very 
briefly. We realized its accomplished fact in our meeting to-day in the Free 
Library's Upper Chamber, the Woolhope Club Koom, the munificent gift of one of 
our past presidents, who truly recognises the right stewardship of ample means by 
promoting with them the good and the advancement and enlightenment of others. 
It is not for me, however, to utter an eulogium on him, but rather, now, to urge 
my brother Woolhopians to lay-to their hands to assist the formation of a museum, 
and their heads to the entertainment and cultivation of the readers in the Free 
Library by lectures, such as Mr. Rankin has set the example of. I would say to 
them Spartan quam nactus es oma, ''make the most of a great means of 
instruction." 

At our Fungus Feast we did a bounden and a good deed in admitting to 
honorary membership several distinguished friends and guests, to whom we owed 
a debt of gratitude ; but before I touch upon this topic, let me not forget that we 
have lost in last year several distinguished honorary members— some of them more 
and some less closely connected with our Club. Professor Phillips, Sir William 
Jardine, and JSir Charles Lyell, are names not to be passed over in our obituary 
list of 1874-5. The first was called suddenly from his work at Oxford by an 
accident nearly a year ago ; and Oxford lost in him a living pillar of its museum, 
one whose memorial will, I doubt not, be as enduring there as those diverse- 
coloured marbles which support its galleries ; one too, whose reputation was 
European, and who had been the main originator of the British Association. In 
this border city I doubt not there are a few of us who hold it an additional point 
for commemoration, that he was a Welshman ! It is not a little curious that the 
next in order of our losses—that of Sir William Jardine, the enthusiastic naturalist, 
illustrates like that of Professor Phillips the general healthfulness of scientific 
pursuits. Both had passed man's normal span, both were of the age of the century. 
What Sir William Jardine was to his frieflds and intimates it is for others to tell. 
To me he represents as he must to many here, the author-editor of that delightful 
series, the Naturalists' Library, which, appearing first in days when the world was 
Hot flooded with books (bad, indifferent, and here and there good), fed our youthful 
curiosity, luid made us take a livelier interest in the animated nature around us. 



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In Sir Charles Lyell, whose death in February last removed from the 
scientific circles, which he adorned, an almost octagenarian, many of our living 
geologists will have lost their first guide to the principles of their favourite science, 
and their best counsellor in their maturer researches. I suppose, too, that even 
an outsider like myself may be allowed to bear testimony to one characteristic in 
which his great works are unequalled— their peculiarly lucid style. This is a sure 
key to popularity, as indeed, considering the quantity of various work the well- 
informed man has now-a-days to squeeze into his curriculum, it well deserves 
to be. 

Well ! all these men of mark were amongst our Honorary Members : as was 
also one, less known, less great, but more local to us, a clever man, a kindly soul, 
a pleasant and congenial fellow-rambler— -on a Woolhope field-day, our friend 
Flavell Edmunds. He, too, is taken. He rests from his labours : but I think that 
few of us will forget the enthusiasm he imported into any meeting he attended, the 
multifariousness of his knowledge, whether the matter in hand was local nomen- 
clature, or field botany, or the seats, stones, and vestiges of the never-dying King 
Arthur. Most, too, can testify that he exhibited in disputation an excellent 
temper, and could agree to differ without looks of offence. Let us hope that, where 
freed from life's fitful fever he sleeps well ; no echoes reach him of newspapers' 
critidsm, calculated to disturb, as fables tell us very second-rate creatures may do, 
a sleeping lion. 

But —uno amilso, non <U;ficit cUter—and in the case of the first and foremost 
of our Honorary Members of the new creation—I think I may add Virgil's epithet, 
'* Aureus" Certainly Mr. Berkeley, the Nestor of Mycologists (unless, indeed, I 
am to endorse Mr. Worthington Smith's fancy, and call him the " Agamemnon of 
Mycenae"), deserved at our hands the highest honour at our bestowal, and that 
not only for his countenance and support in the Autumn of 1873 to our mycological 
foray and festival, but (shall I say) for the even more practical kindness he has 
spontaneously shown to our society in the matter of the apple-grafts which, as 
Chairman of the Fruit Committee at South Kensington, he so liberally and 
generously sent us in furtherance of our project of improving the pomological 
table-fruit of Herefordshire. That seasonsble and substantial kindness— for it 
amounted to no less than 97 grafts— I duly ^knowledged in my capacity of Presi- 
dent at the time ; but it also claims notice in this address, which would be of no 
use if it did not commemorate benefactors and benefactions. It is, I know, a poor 
compliment to so emiment a naturalist and botanist, the member of so many 
societies, to enrol him amongst our field folk ; and yet I cannot help thinking that, 
if we use the gift he has been instrumental in procuring for us aright, he may per- 
chance see some of the fruit of it ; if not, carpent ea poma nepotes, or in simple 
English, " the fruit of it will live after him." 

I look to our friend Dr. Bull to take up this question more in extento ; but I 
recommend to you, in passing, a plan which he has already broached to me in 
private, of circulating among garden-loving cottagers, through the medium of the 
parochial clergy, some of the young trees which, since Mr. Berkeley's kind inter- 
vention, a local nurseryman has grafted for us. On this head I will only say that, 



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so far as my experience goes, a petty freeholder, with his orchard of cider fruit, is 
a very likely man to harvest his fruit, make his dder, and then drink himself 
drunk upon it, doing no more work t»ll he sees the dregs of his cask. But replace 
his cider apples with pot fruit or table fruit, and you at once point the way to a 
profit and a reserve fund. And in the case of a renting cottager, you probably 
point the way to the rent as well as something more. I myself once realised this 
tsMt— apropos of one of my own cottage lettings — in the evidence of a tenant in 
the Assize Court at Hereford. 

But I am wandering from our Honorary Members. Let Mr. Berkeley stand 
A 1 of the new list. After him come names well known to botanists — Mr. Broome, 
Mr. Rennie, Mr. Houghton, Mr. Plowright, and Mr. W. Phillips— and all names 
worthy of high reverence from us, who know how much light they throw upon our 
autumnal rambles in quest of what the uninitiated are disposed to regard as our 
chronic delusion. Be that as it may, we honour them, and rejoice if they deem 
that so small a token as our opening our ranks to admit them as Honorary 
Members, in any slight degree evinces it. If I might be allowed to suggest an 
additional Honorary Member or two— and I don't think that such a suggestion is 
without precedent (for retiring Premiers make batches of baronets, and often a 
peer or two to boot)— I would suggest that in another portion of the field over 
which our society ranges we might do ourselves good service, and and pay withal a 
merited compliment to men like-minded with ourselves. The list of our archsBolo- 
gists would be advantageously supplemented by the names of the Kev. W. 
Bevan, of Hay, joint editor with Mr. Phillott in the volume elucidatory of the 
Mappa Mundi, and the Rev. T. W. Webb, of Hardwick, the son of the most 
remarkable of Herefordshire antiquaries, and the competent editor of the works of 
his sire. I cannot help thinking that my congenial successor, during whose Presi- 
dency we are likely to break out freely into archaeology, will aid and abet me in 
this proposition, and I ask those who cherish the old memorials of our forefathers 
in the district our club embraces, of their sympathy to support it. 

What I think in the retrospect of 1873-4 we have most lacked is a large 
and diversified supply of papers, to be read, or to be taken as read, and then printed 
in our transactions. In archaeology this was very conspicuous, and if my able 
successor will direct his attention to the cure of it, I doubt not this fault will 
disappear. It is the same, however, with other and more primary branches of our 
society's scope and object With the exception of Mr. Rankin's paper on Rodents 
at the last annual meeting, during the last year there have been few after-dinner 
papers read, except on the evening of our fungus feast, and on mycological subjects. 
Yet there are, I know, volunteers on ornithological subjects, on entomological (as we 
have seen in Mr. Lane to-day), and on botanical to any amount, who only want 
the assurance that we shall be glad if they would assist us in their own line, to take 
up some special feature, or section, or aspect of their favourite subject. Such 
papers are the germ of, or the vestibule to, more thorough compositions, and, tf we 
could know it, many of our greatest works in science and literature were developed 
from the tentative and unpretending essay. 



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I Bhould be glad to hear that our mierosoopiats were ready to give proof of 
their work in some contributions to our papers, and I leave the (I have no doubt) 
easy task of eliciting such, as a legacy to the new President. Several things have 
fought against us in the year past, and the delays of publishing our long-promised 
volume— delays over which the President and the Committee had no control or 
remedial power — operated as discouragements to the| collection of papers, as to 
which it was uncertain when they were likely to see the light. At last our volume 
is launched, and this I must say in candour, owing very much to the staunch and 
magnanimous way in which, as ever. Dr. Bull has taken the working oar. In 
experience, in resource, in real wit in cases of difficulty, but above all, in hearty 
helpfulness I have never met his equal. Mr. Clark, of Eaton Bishop, too, deserves 
my thanks for valuable and timely assistance. I think the Editorial Committee 
should address itself to the discovery of a better mode of publishing our transactions 
in future ; and that it would be well if our finances, which are hopeful, were 
revised by a collateral sub-committee. On the whole, and in conclusion, I see 
much whereupon to congratulate the club. Our numbers grow; there are no 
schisms in our body ; we have a local habitation found, and a museum in prospect 
Our reputation as a field club is so extended that the Natural History Societies of 
Bristol, Dublin, and Berwick-upon-Tweed write to us ever and anon through their 
Secretaries to ask for our new volume of transactions. 

I believe that Mr. Isbell*s movement in reference to a paur of thermometers 
and a rain guage at the Free Library has been taken up and carried out, and I am 
glad to think that we have satisfactorily accomplished a modest scheme of prizes 
for the encouragement of young naturalists. 

A prize for dried plants was awarded in January last to Miss Edith Jones 
Thomas, a daughter of one of our most active members, and also a smaller prize 
to a young Herefordian for a collection of bird's eggs. So much for the past. 
The future of the club ought not to be doubtful. I could name, were it not 
invidious, half-a-dozen or a dozen members who have not yet filled the office of 
President, yet who, if elected to fill it, as the years come round, would adorn the 
office and impart life, method, research, prestige to the doings of the club. For 
myself, I have striven in my two years' term, to make up for defects of special 
knowledge by accessibility to every member, and a study to understand and carry 
out the wishes of the whole body ; and I am vain enough to think that I have not 
wholly failed. But if this is so, a great part of the secret has lain in the ready 
help and great encouragement I have met with from every officer and every 
member of the Woolhope body, and in their loyal principle of lightening their 
President's labours by confidence and support. 

After the President had concluded, the Bev. W. Bevan (Hay) and Bev. T. 
"V/. Webb (Hardwick) were proposed by the President (Rev. Jas. Davies) and 
seconded by the President elect (Eev. C. J. Bobinson), and unanimously elected 
honorary members. 



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THE WOOLHOPE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 



At the recent meeting of the Woolhope Naturalists* Field Club, the following 
interesting paper was read by Theophilus Lane, Esq., of Hereford :— 

BRITISH SPIDERS. 

One Bummer^s afternoon, while hunting for insects in my garden, I saw one 
of the beautiful metallic coloured flies caught in a spider's web on a rose tree, and 
the spider was running out to catch it. Having at the time a powerful condensing 
lens with me, I focussed the rays of the sun close to the fly, so as to prevent the 
approach of the spider to her prey, and was curious to see what she would do. 
Directly the spider felt the heat she ran back again, then in a few moments made 
a second attempt, when using the condenser as before, the same result followed. 
My friend was not to be daunted, for after waiting a few seconds she again rushed 
out to the struggling fly, but still finding the focus unpleasantly hot, she hurried 
back from it. I still watched the spider closely, and was surprised at the ingenuity 
of the next move she made. She stood at the entrance of her nest, for a moment 
as if to consider the matter, and then ran down to a lower branch of the rose tree, 
and along the outer line of the web, so as to be able to get at the fly in the opposite 
direction. Being struck with admiration at the intelligence thus shown, I took 
away the condenser and allowed her to secure her prize, which she did, and then 
most intelligently mindful of her former difficulty, she carried it back by the same 
indirect way she got to it. I afterwards felt a sort of friendship for this spider, 
and supplied her with a fly or two nearly every day for some little time, but one 
morning going as usual to feed her, the web had been destroyed, and the spider 
was gone. 

From this time the spider tribe has proved to me a never-ending source of 
interest and pleasure ; and I have been induced to draw up this paper in the hope 
that other members of the Woolhope Club may be led to seek the same gratifica- 
tion in the study of their character and habits. British spiders are very numerous. 
They are divided into two tribes. The first, or eight-eyed tribe, consists of ten 
families, and the second, or six-eyed tribe ; consists of two families, and of these 
several families of true spiders there are many hundred genera known, Spiders 
are also popularly divided into the " sedentaries," or those who spin a net and wait 
for their victims to get entangled— the house and garden spiders for example— and 
the 'Wagrants" and '' hunters,'* who use no net, but lie in ambuscade, or roam 
about and spring upon their prey at some unexpected moment and thus resemble 
more closely the larger beasts of prey. Besides, there are other members of the 
arachnida family— the harvestman and the little red spider for example— which, 
though closely allied to them, are not spiders proper. 



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Spiders are not true insects. They rank higher in the scale of creation than 
the largest and most powerful insect The breathing organs, the circulation, and 
the mode of reproduction are far superior to those of the twelve orders of insects. 
The fear and dislike to spiders is very general, and it must be admitted that the 
prejudice is natural ; their very appearance, their ugly, ungraceful form, at once 
creates it, as has been rightly said ;— 

Their shape would make them, had they bulk and size, 
More hideous foes than fancy can devise. 

In the first place, it will be well to consider their structure. The body of the 
spider is divided into two parts. The fore part is formed by the head and chest 
united, and to this the legs are attached. This is called the cephalothoraz, the 
hinder part is called the abdomen, and contains the organs of animal life. The 
upper side of the cephalothorax has a covering called the shield, whilst the covering 
of the under side is called the breastplate. The shield and breastplate greatly 
differ in form in the different species. The eyes are situated on the shield. They 
are simple, and the grouping of them is of vast importance to assist in distinguish- 
ing the genera. They are sometimes stalked so as to be enabled to see above the 
mandibles which in some species are very long and curved. It is said, like cats, 
they can see by night. Below the eyes and above the mouth is a pair of jaw-like 
organs known as forceps, f alces, mandibles, or poison fangs, and terrible fangs they 
are. In all the English genera, except the crab spider, the poison fangs are 
attached to the face by joints, either in a perpendicular position or with a slight 
inclination towards the breast, and have a movement like the jaws of insects. In 
the crab spider they are horizontal, and move up and down ; they are composed of 
two parts, the base and the fang. The fang is hard, sharp curved, and moveable, 
and is attached by a joint which has a groove on the inner edge, into which the 
fang is folded down when not in use. A row of teeth is generally on one or both 
edges of the groove. Their object is to catch and hold the prey, which they also 
poison. The poison gland is at their base. The poison is of an acid nature, as we 
may learn by making a spider angry and holding a piece of litmus paper to him, 
which he will bite, causing the paper to turn red, as far as the fluid emitted 
extends. The mouth is furnished externally with an upper and under lip, and a 
pair of jaws. These jaws are placed in each side of the lower lip, and are furnished 
with a pair of long palpi or feelers, which vary in the two sexes. In the female 
they resemble small legs, and have one very small toothed or plain claw at 
the tip. In the male the terminal joint is very much enlarged, and presents a 
complicated structure. The legs are eight in number, and are connected by joints 
to the cephalothorax. The foot has two, three, or more curved claws, toothed like 
a comb, though they are met with plain in some species. The first objects to be 
noticed in the hinder portion of the spider's body are the breathing organs. These 
consist externally of two or four brown, white, or yellow scales, having a small 
transverse slit at their hinder edge. These breathing holes are of the nature of 
true gills. The layers which compose them are best to be seen in specimens which 
have been dried, or over which boiling water has been poured. 



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The heart of the spider is of a spindle shape, furnished with valves. It 
sends o£F arterial branches through which the blood circulates. The last, but by 
no means the least important part of the structure of the spider, is the spinnerets. 
These organs are of great interest. They are placed at the extremity of the 
abdomen, clustered together, and consist of two, three, or four pairs, are jointed, 
and differ in form and length. In some they are cylindrical, the upper pair being 
very long and having a free motion ; in others they are nearly equal in length, 
short and cylindrical, or conical ; while in others they are short and bent towards 
each other, and look much like a rosette. The sides of the cones are covered with 
hairs, and on the summits are a number of fine homy tubes, at first sight 
resembling hairs. These form continuations of the spinning vessels. Sometimes 
the lower portions of the sides of the cones are furnished with spinning tubes, the 
remainder being covered with hairs. Each tube consists of two parts, a thick 
basal portion and a thin terminal portion, from the orifice of which the substance 
of the fibre exudes. The number of these spinning tubes differs according to the 
species, sex, and age of the spider. 

In the garden spider there are more than a 1000 to each nipple or spinneret. 
In others 400, 300, 100. These spinnerets contain a viscid fluid, a kind of clastic 
gum which becomes hardened by exposure to the air, and is expelled at the will of 
the spider. From this viscid fluid the web filaments are formed, and as the 
filaments from each spinneret are projected outwards they agglutinate together to 
form a perfect thread, and thus each thread is composed of at least 4,000, and 
sometimes 6,000 filaments. It is affirmed that a filament is so slender as to require 
4,000,000 to make up a thread as thick as one of the hairs of a man's beard. Kirby 
and Spence also say that ** The holes in the spinnerets are so fine and so crowded 
together that there are 1,000 of them in the space covered by the point of a needle. 
These filaments unite about the tenth of an inch from the spinnerets to form the 
thread with which the webs are made." The strength of the web varies greatly. 
The threads of some exotic species possess a far greater power of resistance than 
ours do. Travellers state that in some countries spiders' webs are so strong as to 
arrest .humming birds as a net would, and that a man only breaks them with 
difficulty. Dr. Livingstone says, " In some parts of the country (Africa) there 
are great numbers of a large beautiful spotted spider, the webs of which are about 
a yard in diameter. The lines on which these webs are spun are suspended from 
one tree to another and are as thick as coarse thread. The fibres radiate from a 
central point where the spider waits for its prey. The webs are placed perpen- 
dicularly, and a common occurrence in walking is to get the face enveloped in them 
as a lady is in a veil. Another kind of spider lives in society and forms so great 
a collection of webs placed at every angle that the trunk of a tree sm'rounded by 
them cannot be seen. A piece of the hedge is often so hidden by the spider that 
the branches are invisible. Another (species) is seen on the walls in the inside of 
the huts among the Makolols in great abundance. It is round in shape, spotted, 
brown in colour, and the body half-an-incli m diameter. Tlie spread of the legs is 
an inch and a half. It makes a smooth spot for itself on the wall covered with 



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white silky substance. There it is seen standing the whole day, and I never could 
ascertiun how it fed. It has no web but a carpet, and is a harmleBB tho' an ugly 
neighbour.*' 

In Central Africa there is a spider which makes paper of a very fair quality. 
After selecting a spot for her nest she walks backwards and forwards over a square 
inch of surface until the space is covered with pure white paper ; in this she places 
from 40 to 50 eggs, she then makes a strip of paper about a quarter of an inch . 
broad and with it carefully glues the square together. She wages a fierce war with 
cockroaches or any other insect that comes near. After three weeks of unremitting 
watchfulness, she leaves her nest in the day-time to hunt for food, but she elways 
returns at night until the young are strong enough to cater for themselves. 

The colour of the silk of our spiders is mostly of a dirty grey, but in 
tropical countries the colour varies, red, yellow, and black, and with these they 
form a tri-coloured web, which they interweave with great skill. The threads 
forming the webs of spiders are not all alike. The radiating filaments are but 
little elastic, and are composed of one thread, whilst the more numerous concentric, 
or spiral circles, are extremely viscid, and the reason is this :~The threads of the 
cables and radfi are perfectly simple, while the spiral threads are closely studded 
with minute globules of fluid like drops of dew which, from the elasticity of the 
thread, are easily separated from each other. These globules are very viscid, as 
can be easily proved by touching one or two with the finger, to which they 
instantly stick, or by throwing a little dust over the web, when the spirals, will 
be found clogged with dirt while the radiating lines remain unsoiled. The viscid 
lines alone have the power of detaining unfortunate clients when they accidentally 
touch the web. Blackwell states that in a web of an average size there are as 
many as 87,360 pearly drops, and in a snare of 14 to 16 inches diameter there are 
120,000, and yet a spider makes such a web as this, if not disturbed, in less than 
three-quarters of an hour. 

There is scarcely a more interesting sight connected with this part of natural 
history than to watch a spider begin and finish its web. Take a female Ilpeira or 
garden spider for instance, and suppose she has selected the most favourable spot 
she can find for her home under a leaf of a rose tree, where she makes a silken 
gaUery, most frequently open at either end, to enable her to rush forward or 
retreat with equal facility. The next step is to extend a horizontal line between 
the branches. To enable her to accomplish this she exposes her spinnerets to 
the air and expels the fluid lines. The air drives them forward and they come in 
contact with a neighbouring branch, to which they adhere by their own stickiness. 
This is the beginning of the framework, which is finished by her ladyship 
dropping and swinging from point to point, or at other times, assisted by the air, 
she places a thread wherever she touches. The framework finished she ccmies to 
the middle of the horizontal line, attaches a thread to it, and drops on to the line 
which forms the lowest side of the framework ; here she fastens the other end of 
the thread. She next walks up tiU she reaches the middle, and this is to be the 
centre of the snare, and here another thread begins. She thtei runs up the 



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perpendicular thread, and draws out the new one as she proceeds till she reaches 
the upper line, which she runs along to the spot which she sees fit to fix a radiating 
line to the web. She then returns to the centre and repeats the same process each 
time walking up 'the last formed radiating thread till the whole area is filled with 
radiating lines. In some instances the spider forms the radiating lines on the 
opposite sides of the web alternately. Having finished the radiating lines, she 
now begins the spiral lines, or the meshes of the net. She goes to the centre 
of the web, fixes a thread ; she then turns round, drawing the viscid fluid from 
the spinnerets, which she attaches to the radiating lines with the assistance of the 
hind legs. She goes further and further from the middle, until the spiral line 
extends to the circumference of the web, where she places another thread and 
reverses her method of working by drawing a second spiral line from the circum- 
ference to the centre. From her nest a strong line runs to the centre of the web, 
this web not only forms a path but tells her when a victim is caught, the motion of 
the line caused by its struggles being thereby communicated to her in her home — 

" The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine^ 
Lives in each thread, and feels along the hne." 

It is well known that spiders leave the nest and make snares for themselves when 

very young. An eminent naturalist states that a young epeira seven weeks old 

makes a web the size of a penny which has the same beautiful symmetry as that 

of a full grown spider. And the question is asked — Do the young spiders build 

their first nest by instinct ? that is to say, independently of all teaching or personal 

experience, or do they copy the nests in which they were hatched ? But there is 

no doubt they are taught by instinct from observations that have been made. 

Spiders keep their webs remarkably clean, otherwise, owing to the viscid 
portions of the spiral threads, they would be very often stuck over with foreign 
substances, which would in all probability warn the flies of their danger, therefore 
the spider is generally found cleaning or strengthening the web. If there is. too 
large a piece of rubbish in the web for her to clear away, she cuts the meshes out 
flvhich contain it, and drops it all to the ground. At other times, finding some of 
the threads very dirty, she rolls them up in a small compass, and drops them out 
of the web to the ground. When she lets herself down by a line to ascertain the 
strength of the web, or the nature of the place below her, on her return she always 
coils the line into a little ball and flings it away, and her claws, as we have seen, 
are beautifully adapted for these p\n:poses. 

To watch the female house-spider prepare her nest, or cocoon, for her eggs, 
is very interesting. Nearly, if not all, the species cover their eggs with silk, 
forming a round ball. The mother slider uses her body to measure the size and 
form of her nest in the same way as a bird does. She first spreads a thin coating of 
silk as a foundation, taking care to have this circular by turning her body round 
and round during the process. In the same way she spins a raised border round 
this foundation, till it takes the shape of a cup. She now begins to lay her eggs 
in the cup, and not being content merely to fill it even with the top of the cup, she 
piles up a large round ball of eggs as high as the cup is deep. The under half 
is covered and protected by the silken sides of the cup, but the upper eggs are still 



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bare. She next beginB to coyer these by spinniiig a thick web round them, and 
when she has completed this task there is a ball of eggs much larger than her body. 
The eggs are beautifully marked. 

Nothing can exceed the affection the female spider has for her cocoon. It is 
the one great and amiable trait in her character. Those spiders who carry their 
eggs about with them wiU sooner part with life than their bag of eggs. When it 
has been taken from them by force and placed at some distance, they have been 
seen to take them up and fasten them to their bodies with the greatest care. 
Bonnet, the naturalist, says that he one day threw a spider with her eggs into the 
pitfall of an ant-lion. The spider tried to escape, but he threw her again to the 
bottom, and the ant-lion, being more nimble than he was the first time, seized the 
bag of eggs with its jaws, and tried to drag it under the sand. The spider made 
the greatest efforts to keep her eggs, but the gum which fastened the bag to her 
not being strong enough to withstand such violence, gave way, and the ant-lion 
began to carry off his prize. But again the mother seized it with her jaws, but the 
ant-lion being the strongest, dragged it under the sand. The mother, robbed of 
her eggs, might |;iave saved her life, as she could easily have escaped — ^but she chose 
to be buried alive along with her eggs — as the sand concealed what was going on 
below, the naturalist laid hold of the spider, leaving the bag with the ant-lion. 
But the affectionate mother would not quit the spot where she had lost her treasure, 
and life seemed to have become a burden to her. 

The same naturalist also observes that he tried his utmost to beat off a 
spider from her Jt>ag of eggs, after he had detached them for a long time ; at last, 
to his surprise, he found she no longer resisted, and when he put the cocoon near 
to her she retreated from it. On closer examination he found that several of the 
young ones were hatched, and their numbers increased so rapidly, and they all ran 
towards their mother, and climbed upon her body, some on her back, others on 
her head, and many on her legs, so that she was completely covered with them, 
and appeared to bend under their weight, not so much from being overladen as 
from her feeble condition, and she very soon died, while the young spiders remained 
in a group upon their parent to suck the juices of her body. Aftetwards Bonnet 
tried to prove whether a spider of the same species could distinguish her own eggs 
from those of a stranger. He interchanged the eggs of two individuals, which he 
had placed under inverted wine-glasses, but both showed great uneasiness, and 
would not touch the strange bags. One of the mothers was then placed into the 
glass containing her own eggs and the other spider, but even then she would have 
nothing to do with them, which was believed to be in consequence of the presence 
of the other, as all spiders nourish mutual animosity. However, upon removing 
the stranger, she showed the same indifference to her eggs, and it was concluded 
that after having lost sight of them for a short time she was no longer able to 
recognise them. 

Nearly every one has noticed fine floating webs, which seem sometimes to 
cover the earth, and almost fill the air, on still summer and autmnn days. These 
webs are produced by the Gossamer Spider. In favourable autumns they are 



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foond in myriads ^Boattered and borne everywhere on their airy webs miles distant 

from their starting point. These little creatures hare the power of shooting out 

lines of gossamer from their spinnerets, so as to render themselves buoyant and 

lighter than air; and these lines are carried upwards and onwards by aerial 

currents, and convey the little spiders with as much safety as if they had wings, 

and hence they are popularly called " Fliers.'* They can coil and thicken the lines 

In the air, and by this means, as well as by the lines crossing and tangling with 

each other, the webs are sustained in the air, and cause us much discomfort when 

we find ovr faces suddenly covered with this filmy veil. White, of Selbome, tells 

us he was one day prevented from hunting, the dogs being blinded with the webs. 

Towards the end of October, meadows, hedges, stubble-fields, and even whole 

districts appear covered with a fine, spangling, silvery gauze. These little 

creatures do not make webs, but extend their threads from one place to another. 

The threads are so fine that we cannot see them unless the sim shines upon them. 

One of ihem to be visible at any other time must be composed of at least six 

ordinary threads twisted together. In the fields a person with a quick eye, or by 

the assistance of a lens, may frequently see among the stubble, grass, &c., such a 

multitude of these little fairy weavers extending their threads that the fields 

appear to be alive with them — 

Stretched from blade to blade, 

The wavy net-work whitens all the field. 

When several of the single threads become tangled so as to form flocks and balls, 

they are known in Grermany by the name of " The Flying Summer," because the 

summer seems to fly away at the same time. The gossamer elevates its spinnerets, 

sends forth its thread, and saHs away faster than the eye can follow it. The uses 

to which spiders and their webs have been placed are very various. They have 

been used in medicine from very early times. Albin, the author of "Natural 

History of Spiders, 1736," says that Bame Hughes, of Tottenham Court Eoad, 

had a Tertian ague for three years, and that he cured it by giving her the web of 

the house spider mixed with mithridate. He also states that he has cured several 

children of ague by hanging a large spider confined alive in a box about their neck, 

reaching to the pit of the stomach, without giving any internal remedies. Dr. 

Watson in 1760, made trial, by the advice of Dr. Gillespie, of the web of the cellar 

spider, with great success. He also made his patients swallow spiders gently 

bruised and wrapped up in a raisin or spread upon bread and butter, also keeping 

a spider suspended from the patient's neck till it died. Dr. Gillespie afterwards 

advised Dr. Jackson to make use of it, and in 1801 he cured many cases of ague 

with it. Here the question may be asked, might not these cures have been the 

result of fright? Granted, we know there have been cures effected by terror, but 

still thanks are due to the spider, be the cause from what it may, the beneficial 

results that have been mentioned were the same, and we must feel convinced that 

it was more disagreeable to the spider than it was to the patient. 

Shakespeare, in "Midsummer Night's Dream," alludes to the web 
stopping bleeding. In the first acene of Act the third he mak^ Bottom say, " I 
shall desire yon of more acquaintance, good Master Cobweb, If I cut my finger 
I shall make bold with you." 



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87 

Theiii«Ddibl68of thegreatorab spider, Woodsays^ are eolarge that^hey 
are removed from the creature and set in gold and need as toothpicks as they are 
believed to poosess virtue enough to drive away the tooth-ache. 

The most serious obstacle in making the silk of spidets useful is that the 
cieatures themselves are such dreadful cannibals, which makes it practically an 
impossibility to keep them. Place a large (or any) number in a box, and they 
will soon be reduced to one or two. Finding, a long time ago, some very pretty 
spiders, and not knowing anything about them, I put them in a box, covered it 
with gauze, and gave them some flies ; but, though they had the flies, they preferred 
to eat each other, and the flies were not touched. The survivor was in such a 
mangled state I killed it. 

It has been estimated that 27,648 females are required to make one pound of 
silk, whilst 2,304 silk-worms will make the same weight. True, instances are 
recorded of spiders' silk having been turned to account. Louis XIV. had a dress 
made of it ; but its want of strength soon disgusted him, though the silk of some 
of the American spiders possesses power of strength to admit of its being made use 
of. Al D'Orbigny had a pair of trousers made of it, which lasted a long time. 
Next, a Mr. Bolt received a medal from the Society of Arts for obtaining silk from 
the garden spider. The gossamer was obtained directly from the spinnerets, and not 
from the egg, or cocoon silk. He connected a small reel, with the steam^ngine of the 
factory in which he was engaged, and putting it in motion at the rate of 150 feet 
par minute, found that a f uU-g^wn spider, would, during from three to five 
minates, continue to give an unbroken thread. The spedmens of this silk which 
Mr. Bolt presented to the Society, were wound off from 24 spiders in two hours. 
Its length was calculated at 18,000 feet, the colour white, and the lustre was of 
mftt^p^w brillian<7, owing most likely to its great opacity. 

In 17d7 a work wad published by Quatre Mbre Disjouval on Arachnology^, 
or the art of interpreting weather, from changes in the webs and motions of the 
spiders. The author had beguiled the weary hours of his imprisonment by watching 
the movements and proceedings of spiders, as connected with atmospheric changes, 
and had thus obtained the materials for his work. And in times more recent, Una 
heUa ragna on his dungeon wall became the pet of Silvio Pellico, and was thus 
useful, so to speak, in providing consolation to the mind of the mhappy 
prisoner. 

In Jamaica, spiders are encouraged in dwellings, since they are found to be 
very useful in keeping under the cockroaches ; and a humorous gentleman, living 
in London, writes in Science Oomp that he keeps a spider in his bedroom to kill 
the pestilence that walketh in darkness. It has been observed, that the female epeira 
has completed her ten changes of skin inaboutsix months(one of which takes place in 
the cocoon) and at the end of eight months she is 2,700 times as heavy as she was at 
her birth. The slough is cast in the most perfect condition, with every hair, the 
fangs, the feelers, the legs with all their joints, and even the comeoe of the eyes. 
It can be examined readily, and with a good cleaning and drying makes an exeel- 
leiit objfect for the microscope. The moulted skin oa& generally be found iSkm to 



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or in the web. This is far better than trying to prepare a spider for moanting» as 
it requires great skill and patience in dissecting. Should a spider lose a fang or 
feeler, or any other part, it is reproduced and grows larger every fresh moult till 
it reaches its proper length. It has not been ascertained how long spiders live. 
Many writers say four, five, and more years. I have known one to live three 
years, and then it came to an untimely end. The Cardinal spiders are the largest 
we have in England. One was weighed in Gloucester some time ago, and the 
weight of it is said to have been close upon half an ounce. The chicken spider of 
South America, however, is described as being as large as the fist. It measures an 
inch across the head part, and spins a cocoon three inches long and one broad. It 
is not certain whether it belongs to the hunting or working spider. The muscular 
force of this spider is so great that it is very difficult to make it let go the object 
which it has seized, even when the surface does not allow of a purchase either to 
the hooks with which its feet are armed, or to the fangs which it employs to kill 
the birds and the tree lizards. The pugnacity and hatred which it shows in fight- 
ing stop only with its life. 

A spider has lately been discovered in Assam, and has been described before 
the Entomological Society. " It is as large as a small mouse, and is capable of 
TOA-Tring a noise, which is produced by rubbing together some of the organs attached 
to the mouth, the sound is grating, its bite is very venomous. It is named Mygale 
Stridulans." 

With regard to the tenses of spiders not much is known. They have those 
of sight, touch, and taste. These two latter organs are situated in the feelers, and 
anecdotes are related which seem to show that they have hearing also. It has 
been affirmed that spiders have come down from the ceiling during concerts and 
returned directly the music ceased; and a specific instance may be given of a 
gentleman who used to play the piano every evening at a certain hour, had always 
an auditor in the shape of a spider, who stationed itself on the instrument as long 
as he played, and ran away directly he finished. In this case, however, the musical 
vibrations may have been felt as readily as they were heard. It is different, how- 
ever, with this anecdote. M. Pellison, when a prisoner in the Bastille, tamed a 
spider in his cell, and taught it to come for food to the sound of his flute. 

Spiders possess great inteUigenee, as has already been shown. It will be 
further proved by the following anecdote .-—Wood, in " Homes without Hands,'' 
gives an account of an ingenious method adopted by a garden spider on a tempes- 
tuous day. He says : ** These spiders have a most singular plan of strengthening 
their web when the wind is more than ordinarily violent. If they find that the 
wind stretches their nets to a dangerous extent they hang pieces of wood, or stone, 
or other substances to the web, so as to obtain the needful steadiness. I have seen 
a piece of wood which had been thus used by a garden spider, and which was some 
two inches in length, and thicker than an ordinary drawing pencil. The spider 
hauled it to a height of nearly five feet, and, when by some accident the suspend- 
ing thread was broken, the little creature immediately lowered itself to the ground, 
attached a fresh thread, ascended again to the web, and hauled the piece of wood 



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after it. The spider found this balance weight at some distance from the web, and 
certainly must have dragged it for a distance of five feet along the ground before 
reaching the spot below the web. There were eight or ten similar webs in the same 
verandah, but only in this single instance was the net steadied by a weight.*' 

The perseverance of the spider is proverbial, and is shewn in all her actions 
—in spinning, in cleaning her web, in attacking her prey, or in endeavouring to 
accomplish any object that she has set her mind upon. Man may learn a lesson 
here ; and it has been learnt, at least on one memorable occasion, if history is 
truthful. The Scottish hero Bruce, when hiding in a cave from his enemies, took 
courage from the perseverance of a spider. He noticed that it failed six times to 
attach its thread, and still made a seventh effort, which was happily successful. 
He may thus be said to have hung his own decision and the fate of Scotland on the 
persevering efforts of a spider. 

Chambers in " Anecdotes of Spiders," says, " Upon throwing a large lively 
fly on a very large net in front of a simmier-house, which was trellised with a rose- 
bush, the spider was sheltered in a crevice, but the web was open and free. The 
fly was no sooner on the net than the spider was instantly out, threw round the 
buzzing wings of his game a few coils of gossamer and then seized him and 
struck the fatal wound. By struggling, the fly had entangled itself pretty largely 
in the net, so that it could not be dragged to the den without rending the net from 
the centre to the circumference. The spider perceiving this dilemma cut the sur- 
rounding meshes and the fly fell, not to the groimd however, for a strong thread 
had been provided and it merely dangled a few inches under the net. The spider 
then hurried to the mouth of its den and drew up the fly without difficulty or 
impediment— could human reason have done more ? " 

Wood gives the following account of a battle between a spider and a cock- 
roach, he says : ''In this case the cockrc'.ch struggled furiously and was nearly 
escaping had not the spider bethought itb^^lf of a new manoeuvre, we had noticed 
him frequently attempt to bite through the sheath armour of the cockroach but he 
seemed to have failed in piercing it. He now seemed determined to catch the two 
fore legs that were free. After twenty trials at least, he noosed one of them and 
soon had it under his control. This pair of legs was more delicate a great dieal 
than the others ; he instantly bit through the captured one. The poison was not 
sufficient to affect the large mass of the cockroach a great deal, but the leg seemed 
to give it much pain, and it bent its head forward to caress the wound with its 
jaws, and now the object of the cunning spider was apparent. He ran instantly 
to the old position he had been routed from on the back of the neck, and while the 
cockroach was employed in soothing the smart of the bite, he succeeded in envelop- 
ing the head from the back in such a way, as to prevent the cockroach from 
straightening it out again and in a little while more, had him bound in that posi- 
tion and entirely surrounded by the web. A few more last agonies and the cock- 
roach was dead, for the neck bent forward in this way, exposed a vital part beneath 
the sheath, and we left the spider quietly feeding upon the fruit of his weary 
contest. The battle between brute force, and subtle sagacity, lasted one hpur and 



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a half. It is a pity it could not have been added that the spider immediately 
invited his friends and neighbours to the feast, but obsenration as yet, records no 
such instance. Spiders as they have the power of fasting for months without 
apparent injury, socanthey gorge themselves inordinately when they have the oppor- 
unity. A naturalist writes, " Some years ago, when living in a lonely way, I took 
pains to cultivate the acquaintance of a remarkably well developed spider, who had 
formed a symmetrical web in one comer of my room. In order to propitiate his 
favor, I fed him with such food as I thought best adapted to his taste, and after a 
while he seemed to rely entirely upon me for his supplies, relapsing, as human 
beings often do, under similar circumstances, into luxurious ease and inactivity. 
One morning by way of testing his [temper, I threw a small piece of wet tobacco 
into his web. He supposing it to be his usual morning fly, rushed towards it with 
hungry avidity, and instantly ran away to a remote comer of his premises with 
still greater velocity. I was aware that the presence of such a nauseous substance 
as this in his domicile would be very offensive, and I also knew that he would not 
vulture so near a second time as would be necessary in order to remove the artide, 
aoMl my curiosity was excited to see what course he would pursue. After awhile 
he crawled to the upper part of his web, and shook it with all his might but was 
unsuccessful in dislodging the offending substance. He then returned to his 
accustomed place in the centre of the web, and for a few moments appeared to be 
thinking the matter over. At last he stepped out with an air of confidence that 
satisfied me he had hit upon something, altho* I was unable to coi^ecture what it 
would be. Trae enough he had solved the problem, and accordingly went to work 
to sawing away a circle round the tobacco until the whole concern fell out altogether. 
After which he repaired the damage, and all was right again. I think, however, 
that from this time my spider friend never gave me his confidence." 

A spider attacked an ant into the body of which he plunged his poison fangs, 
he at one recoiled showing signs of great distress, left the ant, which was not dead, 
and running to an earthem flower pot seized its edge between his fangs and remained 
some time in this position. At length he let go his hold, leaving on the surface of 
the pot a wet blotch more than half an inch in diameter, went back and finished 
killing the ant. He had evidently imbibed some of the formic acid from the ant 
and that was the mode in which he sought and found relief. 

Some time ago I fed a garden spider occasionally, but one day while 
smoking my pipe I treated her to a puff of tobacco smoke. She immediately let 
herself down some distance from the \ . eb, and remained motionless for a few 
moments. She then ran up again rs fast as she could, cut her web all to pieces so 
that it was hanging in shreds, and then left the spot. I felt sorry for what I had 
done. 

Dr. J. Lawrence Hamilton gives the following incident of the spider's 
instinct which he witnessed ^— " A boy removed a small spider to place it in the 
centre of a big spider's web which was hung among foliage, and distant some four 
feet from the ground. The large spider soon rushed from its hiding place under a 
tef to attack the intrader, who ran up one of the ascending lines by whioh the 



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web was seonred. The big insect gained rapidly upon its desired prey. When the 
little spider was barely an inch in advance of its pursuer, the small spider cut with 
one of its posterior legs the line behind itself, so that the stronger one fell to the 
ground, thus affording time and opportunity for the diminutive spider to escape 
along the ascending rope of the web. 

Many similar anecdotes might be given to show their sagadty. Spiders in 
common with many other animals above and below them, are often observed to 
assume the appearance of death. They draw up their legs, and roll helplessly 
down, and will even allow their bodies to be injured with Spartan or Indian 
equanimity without throwing off the deceit until they believe the danger to be past 
or suspect the deceit to be found out. 

The loves of the spiders is a tragic chapter. To all who choose to 
watch them closely, this subject will prove one of unflagging interest. Spiders 
scorn ''the gentle dalliance of love." The affection of the mother seems 
to exhaust itself in the love for her eggs ; she cares little apparently for her 
own lover. The gentleman spider, always much smaller than the lady, runs a 
most terrible risk in his wooing. Should his attentions not be well received, woe 
betide him. He will require his utmost activity to prevent being eaten up whole- 
sale without remorse. Should his attentions be accepted, the danger is scarcely 
less great. He is obHged to be exceedingly alert to escape his lady's ferocity. This 
is said to account for the small number of males in comparison to the females. 
It is computed that there are nearly one hundred females to one male spider. If 
the eggs of the female were not so numerous, and if she did not exert her utmost 
care to save them, spiders might probably become extinct. 

"Gloomily retired 

The villain spider lives, cunning and fierce.'* 

The general character of the spider will have been gathered already from the 

many observations that have been given. Their ugliness, their ferocity, their 

selfish unsocial habits, their life-long greed of prey, the glutinous nets they spin 

for their victims, and the poison they kill them with, all tend to create a dread and 

prejudice against spiders that cannot find words too strong to express itself. 

Murder is the common charge against them. But spiders are not murderers, they 

are hunters in the strictest sense of the word, for they hunt and kill but to eat— 

" Like warlike as the wolf for what we eat 
Our valour is, to chase what flies.'* 

With what ingenuity and skill do they spread their nets. How industriously they 
work ; with what assiduous care do they clean their webs ; with what unflagging 
perseverance do they watch for their prey, and when once the game appears, with 
what energy and boldness do they attack it, however large it may be. If they use 
the poison nature has given them, it does but deaden the sensation of the victim to 
the fate that awaits him. A clever writer has compared mankind to spiders, and 
it must be confessed that in their hunting proclivities the comparison is uncomfor- 
tably close, and he concludes with the idea that if the spider is somewhat wanting 
in sentiment and amiability, at any rate it has neither " pride nor avarice," which 
ore the marked attributes of mankind. 



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Gone, the liaturaliBt, gives an amuBixig incident that oocurred to him. He 
was one day riding in an omnibuSy in the comer of which sat a butcher, "A man 
got in whose blue gingham coat also indicated the same trade. They were soon in 
conversation. 'Do you know Jackson'? asked A. 'No' replied B. 'Where 
does he slaughter ' ? This reply, says G-osse, gave me a new idea. These men 
evidently considered slaughtering as the only occupation worthy of man's thought. 
Spiders are just the same. If an Epeira were to meet a CluMona probably the first 
interchange of civilities would be, Where do you slaughter ? " This again is unfair 
to the spiders since they slaughter only for their own repast. Nor is it exact, for 
■piders are not given to gossip. The Epeira would have eyed the Clubiona with war- 
like propensities, and had either killed the other, she would have eaten her up 
forthwith without hesitation, for spiders are true cannibals. There is no want of 
energy or strength of will in the spider character. Most characteristically does the 
family bear the name of the unfortunate Arachne. Skilful in spinning, and confident 
in their work, they have the courage that would have challenged Minerva herseli. 
And now as if overcome in the trial as she was, they show still the same strong 
feeling of Misarachnos malice that led Arachne in despair to drown herself. I 
must, however, just mention in conclusion that there is one exception to this 
general want of amiability and only one British species, so far as I know — the 
Grass Spiders. They pair, spread their geometric nets, hunt in concert, and live 
in such steady, domestic harmony and peace as to form a bright contrast to the 
general habits of the family, and deserve the^ observations of any one who will 
attend to them. 



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94 
NOTES TO TABLE L 1874. 



The Latitude and Longitude of Hereford Cathedral are as follows :~ 
Latitude 62" „ 3' „ 13.9" N. 
Longitude 2* ,. 42^ ,. 53".6 W. 
The height of the Cathedral yard above sea leyel is 184.38 feet. This altitude 
was ascertained by connecting the railway levels with the Ordnance bench-marks 
at Hay and following the railway levellings, by means of the working section, all 
the way to Hereford. For this semce we are indebted to Mr. Roberts, C.E., of 
Brecon. The altitude thus obtained agrees closely with that found by barome- 
trical measurement. 

1. Longtown is 18 miles and 3 furlongs S. W. of Hereford. The altitude of 
the gauge at this station has not yet been determined, but Fandy Railway Station 
is 848 feet above the sea, and Longtown is certainly higher than Pandy. 

2. Lynhales is 14 miles and 4 furlongs N.W. of Hereford, but the altitude 
of the rain guage station has not yet been determined. Lyonshall (or Lynhales) 
at the "Turnpike by Old Tramway Crossing" is, according to Mr. Roberts, 666 
feet above sea leveL 

3. Rocklands is 14 miles S.S.E. of Hereford. The rim of the gauge at this 
station is 97 feet 7 inches above sea level. This altitude was ascertained by follow- 
ing the railway levels from the Ordance bench-marks at Hay to the platform of 
the Kern Bridge Station, and levelling from thence to the gauge by aneroid. 

4. Leysters, at Leysters Pole, is 15 miles and 1 furlong N.N.E. of Hereford. 
The road at|this point is 702 feet above sea leveL (Ordnance Survey.) 

5. Staunton-on-Wye is 8 miles and 6^ furlongs N.W. of Hereford, and the 
height of the gauge above sea level is stated to be 255 feet. This altitude was 
obtained, I believe, by levelling by aneroid from the nearest bench-mark or rail- 
way station. 

6. Bryngwyn is 6 miles and 2 furlongs S. by W. of Hereford and, according 
to two barometrical measurements, 415 feet above sea level. 

7. West Malvern is 16 miles and 2 furlongs E. by N. of Hereford, and 
according to the Observer, Mr. Hartland, 850 feet above the sea. West Malvern 
however really belongs to Worcestershire, (Altitude ascertained by barometer 
and boiling water.) 

8. Wigmore is 19 miles and 2 furlongs N.W. by N. of Hereford. I know 
nothing about the altitude of this station, but Ordnance benchmarks will be 
found at the neighbouring village of Walford, a distance of 2^ miles in a straight 
line. The ground at the cross-roads in Walford village is 398 feet above the sea, 
an^ the Ordnance mark on the East battlement of Leintwardine Bridge 395.5 feet. 
—See Woolhope Transactions for 1872, p.p. 56, 57. 

9. Whitfield is 6 miles and 2 furlongs S. W. of Hereford and, by barometer, 
(one measurement only) 427.78 feet above sea leveL The rails at St. Devereux 
Station are 282 feet above the sea. It will be well to try the difference of altitude 
between the Whitfield guage and the rails at this station. 

10. The Graig, Ross, is 11 miles and 2 furlongs S.E. by S. of Hereford and, 
by barometrical observation, 200 feet above sea leveL '^ 

11. Stretton Sugwas is 3 miles and 1 furlong W.N.W. of Hereford, anlfflat 
least. 200 feet above sea-level, i.e., at the Vicarage. The rails at Credenld^ are 
251 feet above sea level and this station is about 1 mile and 3 furlongs fr(9i the 

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Stretton rain goage ; there will therefore he no difficntly in finding the exact 
altitude of this rainfall station. 

12. Bromyard is 12 miles and 7i furlongs N.E. of Hereford, and, from 
Oheervation by aneroid, the observer (the Rev. Nash Stevenson) believes the 
altitude to be 880 feet. The rails at Leominster are 230.97 feet above sea level, 
and if the Bailway Engineers will kindly tell us the difference between this altitude 
and that of the new Bromyard Station, they will very greatly oblige the Here- 
fordshire rainfall observers, who, at present, have no other means of obtaining 
this information by spirit levelling.* 

13. Stoke Bliss is 16 miles and 4 furlongs N.E. of Hereford, and 400 feet 
above sea level, according to Barometrical observations made by the observer. 

14. Brockhampton is 14 miles and 6 furlongs N.E. by N. of Hereford. 
Altitude not yet ascertained. 

15. Leominster, West Lodge, is 11 miles and 7 furlongs nearly due N. 
of Hereford, and at the junction of Dishley Street and West Street, 262 feet above 
sea level. (Ordnance.) 

16. Careswall, Much Marcle, is 9 miles E.S.E. of Hereford and, by 
barometrical measurement 423 feet above sea level. I have made one measure- 
ment only of this altitude. 

17. Hereford. The Latitude and Longitude of Hereford are given above, 
as well as the altitude. There are two gauges, viz., one near the White Cross, 
kept by Mr. Davison, and one in my garden at 3, Richmond Place. The rim of 
the White Cross gauge is 202^1 feet above sea level and that of the Richmond 
Place gauge 178 feet. 

18. Hampton Court is 7 miles and 6 furlongs nearly due N. of Hereford ; a 
little to the E. of N., as Leominster is a little to the W. of N. ; but the alitude 
is nowhere given. The true altitude of the Leominster rails being known (230.97 
feet) that of Hampton Court can be determined very easily. 

19. Fownhope Vicarage is 5 miles and 3^ furlongs S.E. of Hereford, and 
192 feet above the sea, (barometrical measurement). 

20. Hagley Park is 3 miles E. by N. of Hereford and 301 feet above the sea, 
(barometrical measurement. 

21. Sellack Vicarage is 8 miles and 4 furlongs S.S.E. of Hereford and, to 
the best of my belief, from observations made in the years 1869 and 70, 240 feet 
above the sea. 

22. Tupsley is IJ miles E. of Hereford and 233 feet above the sea, (barome- 
trical measurement). 

23. West Bank (Ledbury) is 12 miles and 5 furlongs E. by S. of Hereford, 
and is estimated (on very good grounds) to be 410 feet above sea leveL 

24. Hephill (Lug^ardine). I cannot find Hephill marked in the Ordnance 
Map but the distance and bearing from Hereford must be nearly the same as the 
distance and bearing of Hagley Park. The altitude also probably differs but little 
from that of Hagley Park.* 

N.B.— All the above measurements of distances from Hereford have been made on 

the Ordnance Map in perfectly straight lines. 

EDWIN J. ISBELL. 

*Accordin&; to recent measurements, made by means of standing barometers of the best construc- 
tion, the (^te-house at Hephill appears to be 300 feet above the sea, and the gravel in front of 
Hagley Park House 301 feet. Also, since these notes to Table I. were written, correct informa- 
tion respecting the altitude of the rails at Bromyard has been furnished by the Rev. Nash 
Stevenson, who received the same from the Engineers of the Worcester and Bromyard Railway. 
The laik at the new Station are, it appears, 441 feet above sea level. 



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96 



TABLE n. 

A Table Bhewing Monthly and Yearly Totals of rainfall measurements in 
Herefordshire during the last 57 years. 



Team. 



Jan. 



1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 



Feb. 



y 



PQ 



-§ 



1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 

1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1866 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
J873 
1874 



In. 

2.20 
3.64 
2.67 
2.23 
0.72 
3.74 
0.45 
0.94 
1.97 
1.43 
4.86 
0.74 
1.36 
3.06 
1.12 
0.67 
5.33 
1.18 
1.92 
3.33 
2.45 
1.28 
3.55 
3.72 
2.94 



Mar. Apr. 



In. 

1.62 

3.66 

1.37| 

0.42 

2.29 

2.97 

2.95 

0.92 

4.34 

0.76 

2.14 

1.53 

1.48 

2.43 

1.06 

6. 

1.05 

3.17 

1.34 

3.74 

3.40 

1.35 

2.81 

2 87 

1.87 



In. 

1.52 

1.05 

0.57 

3.66 

1.37 

0.91 

2.19 

1.94 

1.94 

3.58 

0.92 

1.31 

0.63 

2 75 

1. 

1.55 

0.54 

2.64 

4.65 

1.37 

1.48 

2.09 

0.05 

2. 

2.70 



0.56 1.10 
1.77 1.38 
3.24 2.78 
L56 2.97 
2.711 0.96 
3.12 1.41 



May 



In. 

5.81 

2.31) 

1.22 

2.81 

2.97 

2.36 

1.55 

2.02 

1.04 

0.60 

4.23 

4.81 

3.70 

2.83 

1.22 

2.46 

1.61 

1.00 

2.70 

1.58 

1, 

2.08 

0.53 

1.87 

0.21 



June 



In 

2.34 

3.63 

2.78 

1.32 

1.55 

2.21 

1.28 

2.13 

1.38 

2.40 

4.16 

33 

2.98 

1.65 

2.37 

0.80 

1.35 

3.04 

0.41 

1.14 

3.84 

0.97 

2.15 

3.53 

2.45 



July Aug. 



3.01 
0.54 
3.10 
1.78 
5.22 
5.57 



3.81 
2.87 
0.29 
a 18 
2.12 
0.44 
1.46 
4.75 
0.81 

aoo 

4.82 
L47 
3.75 
5.64 
5.15 
4.92 
9.04 
3.17 
2.69 
5.65 
6.11 
4.01 



1.25 
4.23 
1.28 
2.07 
0.44 
2.70 



0.86 
0.89 
1.22 
2.78 
1.40 
1.27 
1.65 
0.66 
4.46 
0.96 
0.94 
1.34 
2.07 
3.23 
2.52 
1.91 
3.65 
3.47 
2.33 
4.95 
1.18 
3.431 



2.42 
3.95 
1.55 
4.02 
1.27 
2.25 
1.97 
3,15 
1.09 
0.82 
4.15 
0.40 



0.89 
0.68 
1.79 
1.60 
2.32 
0.87 
2.85 
3.02 
2.73 
4.98 
1.27 
3.29 
0.88 
3.03 
4.77 
2.42 
2.20 



3.00 
0.32 
3.52 
0.43 
1.80 
3.67 
1.79 
a 24 
a57 
4.19 
1.58 
0.60 



0.38 
1.80 
0.34 
0.60 

ao6 

2-49 
4.72 
3.21 
1.37 
0.60 
2.73 
1.80 
0.88 
0.51 
2.26 
2.93 
2.74 
1.00 



In. 

1.43 

2.51 

LOl 

1.55 

0.40 

1.47 

3.31 

1.31 

0.03 

0.78 

1.59 

3.82 

4.68 

1.50 

a CO 

3.59 
1.91 
2 74 
1.47 

2.17 
5.59 
5 56 
207 
2.53 
2.29 



0.92 
2.72 
4.33 
0.18 
1.40 
2.08 

ao5 

0.77 
2.59 
1.70 
1.14 
1.83 



In. 

1.22 
1.54 
2.35 
a67 
5.U4 
4.33 
1.33 
0.38 
1.44 
1.73 
4.85 
5.42 
2.84 

a 30 

1.03 
1.49 



Sept 



In. 

0.50 

0.88 

176 

2.75 

1.72 

ao8 

1. 

3.25 

1.34 

1.49 

a26 

4.19 

2.91 

1.14 

4.41 

0-71 



7.49 ai9 



2.01 

2.71 

2.32 

1. 

5.92 

1.17 

199 

2.36 



2.30 
5.15 
a78 
0.83 
2.43 
a 01 
1.48 
5.18 
0.72 
0.85 
1-37 
4.88 



1.571 0.42 
1.96 3.23 
2.871 2.81 
4.30, 0.90 
97l 1.92 



lo. 



1.89 

ao8 

2.48 
3.41 
2.95 
1.66 
2.32 
1.37 
a27 
1.39 
a94 
075 
0.84 
2.42 
0.96 
a34 
139 
3-93 
1.66 
0.86 
1.76 
2.12 
1.05 



2.05 
2.47 
2.29 

2.3() 

a 50 

2.80 
1.57 
2.65 
1.97 
1.58 
3.57 
2.26 



5.37 
a55 
1.96 
2.68 
1.24 
1.46 
0.99 
2 26 
7.12 
2.48 
a81 
4.27 
1.51 
1.60 
2.39 
1.09 
0.33 
1.00 
0.44 
2.01 
a 20 

a 12 

1.50 



2.02 
1.93 
4.67 
2.16 
2.66 
1.47 
3.70 
1.99 



Oct. 



Nov. 



5.64 
0.90 
2.18 
2.44 
3.55 
3 40 
1.37 
5.46 
1.23 
1.74 
1.68 
5.66 



2.87 

4 

a 54 

3.93 

1.32 

2.22 

1.50 

1.92 

1.70 

6.56 

2.19 

U.71 

C.84 

a 15 

1.54 
2.75 
0.42 
0.41 
1.38 
4.17 
6.69 
2.74 
1.11 



In. 

2.94 

2.04 

1.15 

4.38 

1.39 

1.18 

a 48 

1.96 

4.72 

3.17 

a 32 

4.20 

a41 

3.31 

0.75 

1.87 

2.06 

4.22 

2.31 

1.99 

1.80 

5.57 

2.22 

5.80 

a56 



5.13 
2.80 
0.56 
2.11 
a 02 
1.52 
2.20 
2.39 
a 67 
0.65 
0.75 
2.49 



4.78 
2.55 
0.67 
1.60 
5.57 
a23 
2.47 
.a 40 
4.95 
0.65 
1.72 
2.87 
0.82 
4.01 
a 28 
1.80 
5.52 
1.07 
1.47 
2.38 
2.36 
4.21 
2.93 



In. 

2.67 

1.63 

4. 

2.53 

5.71 

5.07 

5.57 

2.86 

1.99 

ai8 

2.50 
1.10 
0.53 
5.45 
a56 
a44 
1.24 
4.79 



2.64 
2.39 
4.12 
2.11 
a 35 
1.06 



Dec. 



In. 

4.20 
1.65 
1.50 
a85 
5.38 
2.11 
3.06 

ai2 

1.54 

2.56 

1.92 

0.63 

5. 

L68 

a97 

2.24 

2.16 

4.80 



In. 
0.82 



In. 

27.27 



2.2526.78 



a 63 4.41 



2.09 

6.81 

5. 

6.24 

4.45 

7.38 



a65 

1.18 

6.28 

2.55 

1, 

4.89 

4.65 

5.U9 

a78 

1.95 

2.03 

ai8 



ao() 

2.07 
1.23 
2.41 
a 19 
2.27 
1.97 
a 91 
2.85 
2.51 
4.37 
4.13 
2.91 
0.06 
8.50 
1.73 
4.86 
5.75 
1.67 
7.06 
2.30 
1.70 
4.70 



4.91 
6.37 
a71 
a23 

a 15 

2.08 
1.73 
1.34 
2.10 
a 14 
0.55 
9.52 



4.04 

aoo 

2.40 
4.42 
2.64 
a 94 
4.03 
2.86 
2.17 
2.41 
4.39 
4.00 
2.38 
5.52 
2.56 
a 52 
2.06 
1.89 
4.71 
2.83 
4.21 
2.36 
a26 



1.67 
6.04 
L72 
4.42 
4.C1 
a73 

aoo 

5.28 
4.30 
0.66 



22.43 
35.21 
30.26 
33.85 
31.76 
24.56 
25.33 
26.96 
38.05 
28.74 



3.3232.87 



5.18 
1.87 



1.16 
0.52 

an 



2.36 
a 15 
0.33 



1.11 



a33 
4.37 
1.25 
0.97 
4.10 
0.54 
5.92 
a 81 
3.28 
2.23 
2.10 
4.44 



34.28 
26.84 



2.9528.63 



29.09 
32.13 
30.59 



3.1030.14 



35.64 
40.63 
24.70 



2.9939.78 



29.92 



35.10 
33.38 
36.47 
23.69 
29.69 
30.77 
29.99 
37.85 
28.38 
22.70 
24.58 
43.53 



9.48 

2.U5 

1.66 

0.70 

0.70 

2.35 

1.02 

4.32 

a 52 

a72 

0.93 

2.38 

3.95 

4.38 

1.95 

1.18 

3.05 

1.71 

4.15 

0.74 

6.81 

2.58 

2.41 



4.46 

0.95 

0.70 

2.07 

4.33 

0.72 

2.44 

4. 

5.39 

a 53 



36.27 
30.19 
19.42 
25.12 
32.56 
26.18 
24.04 
33.53 
40.771 
31.8 



2.2535.27 
1.38|29.3a 
2.0522.28 



4.09 
1.83 
0.77 
7.51 
6.48 
2.09 
a21 
5.01 
0.77 



2.9980.: 



32.44 
37.17 
31.55 
37.13 
38.13 
26.20 
33.47 
48.68 
32.09 



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97 



REMARKS ON TABLE II. 1874. 



This table gives at a glance a perfect view of rainfall exi>erienoed in the County of 
Hereford during the last 57 years. 
The stations are :— 1st, Fool Cottage, situated on the shoulder of Aconbury 
Hill; 2nd, Burcher Court, near Titley ; 3rd, Rocklands, 4 miles W.S.W. of Ross. 

1st, Pool Cottage is 4 miles and 6 furlongs S. by W. of Hereford, and, by 
barometrical measurement, 485 feet abovesea level. 

The mean of the rainfall totals for 25 years is 30.65 inches. 

The dryest year (1820) gave a total of 22.43 inches, and the wettest year 
(1839) a total of 40.63 inches. 

The observer was the late Captain Pendergrass, who appears to have been 
the leader of Meteorological observers in this county. 

2nd, Burcher Court, near Titley, is 16 miles 7 furlongs N. W. of Hereford, 
and (by Ordnance, BoMway, and Aneroid levelling combined) 597 feet above sea 
leveL 

The mean of the rainfall totals for 12 years is 31.24 inches. 

The dryest year (1850) gave a total of 22.70 inches, and the wettest year 
(1852) a total of 43.53 inches. 

The observer was the late R B. Boddington, Esq., a most careful and trust- 
worthy recorder of meteorological phenomena^ 

We have in the Burcher Court series a record of the rainfall of 1852, next 
to 1872 the wettest year recorded by Herefordshire observers ; indeed that year is 
the last on the list of Mr. Boddington's printed rainfall report. This printed 
report contains the monthly and yearly totals of 12 years only, but after Mr. 
Boddington's death the rainfall obsetvations were continued at Burcher Cottage, a 
residence very near Burcher Court but about 40 feet lower, and the yearly totals 
will be found at p. 50 in the Woolhope Transactions for 1872, with the exception 
of 1864, 1865 and 1867. 

The mean of the rainfall totals for 30 years is 31.66 inches. 

3rd, Rocklands is 14 miles S.S.E. of Hereford, and (by BaiH/way, BwtWMr 
trtcal, and Aneroid levelling combined) 97 feet 7 inches above sea level. 

The observer J, M. Herbert, Esq., commenced this valuable series of obser- 
yations, in 1852 so that it dates its beginning from April Ist in that remarkable 
year. 

The mean of the rainfall totals for 22 years is 3L72 inches. 

The dryest year (1870) gave a total of 26.20 inches, and the wettest year 
(1872) a total of 48.68 inches. 



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In 1872 the total at Titley was 49.54 inches. Hitherto Bocklands, Titley and 
Pool Cottage stationa, alone of all Herefordshire stations, have yielded means of 
SO inches or more. Doubtless Longtown will now take the lead, unless a fresh 
observer in a wetter locality shall enter the lists. Lynhales will also, I doubt not, 
always stand in the foremost rank as it has very high land to the West and North 
West Leysters too, the highest rainfall station in the county, will probably 
take a place among the stations having 30 inches or more of mean ramf aU. 

With respect to the three stations, the immediate subjects of the present 
remarks, — 

1st The neighbourhood of Fool Cottage doubtless owes its comparatively 
large amount of rainfall to its elevation and the influence of the high land and 
extensive wood of Acombury. This hill is at least 916 feet above sea level, and 
its summit is not a mere peak but two ridges, each a mile in length at least, one 
facing N.N. E. and the other W. by N., very nearly, and meeting to theN.E. 
The wooded land too is very extensive. 

2nd. Titley of course feels in a still greater degree the effects of the more 
lofty Radnorshire mountains, and the altitude of the Titley gauge was more than 
100 feet greater than the gauges at Fool Cottage. 

3rd. Eocklands is low, but it is surrounded by the high lands and woods of 
the Forest of Dean ; it is situated in a river vaUey ; and it is within 11 miles of 
the estuary of the Severn. All these causes combine to increase the amount of 
rainfall in this neighbourhood, so that the mean of all the yearly totals at Bock- 
lands, only 97 feet above sea level, is found to be somewhat greater than the mean 
of the Titley yearly totals at an altitude of 600 feet 

EDWIN J. ISBELL, 

September 8rd, 1875. 



'— *— s:SS^^e?W5^bw— — 



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99 



ALTITUDES SENT BY MR. ROBERTS, C.E. 

Height above flM-]«yel 



Hereford, Borr's Court Station 



„ Barton 


ditto 


Holm Lacy 


ditto 


Fawley 


ditto 


Ross 


ditto 


Mitcheldean 


ditto 


Longhope 


ditto 


Grange Court 


ditto 


Level of rails at Hay 




Whitney 


Station 


Eardisley 


ditto 


Moorhampton 


ditto 


Credenhill 


ditto 


Moorfield 


ditto 


Rails on bridge over Canal at \ 


Tram Inn 


Station 


St. Devereux 


ditto 


Pontrilas 


ditto 


Pandy 


ditto 




ditto 


Abergavenny 


ditto 


Rhayader 


ditto 



Dolau Chapel, near Nantmel 

Nantmel School 

Llanbadam-fawr Church 

Llandegle Church 

Sumlnit on Road from New Radnor to Bmlth 

Ditto ditto ditto to Penybont 

"Castle Trot "Tumulus 

Forest Gate House 

Leynhilyn Pool 

lianvihangel Nantmelan Church 

New Radnor, Base of Sir Geo. Comewall Lewis's Monument 

Kington Station platform 

Lyonshall, on Turnpike by Old Tramway Crossing 

Titley Station platform ... 

Presteign, on sill of entrance to County Gaol 

Kinsham, on road north side of bridge over River Lugg ... 

Lingen Village ... 

Berkeley Cross Turnpike Gate ... 

Leintwardine Village, near the bridge 

Hopton's Heath Station platform 



Infeei. 

... 174 

... 176 

... 201 

... 198 

... 128 

... 348 

... 222 

... 55 

... 254 

... 259 

... 290 

... 337 

... 251 

... 179 

... 184 



... 845 

... 472 

... 296 

... 712 

... 703 

... 687 

... 622 

... 809 

... 1242 

... 1275 
...1273 

... 1146 

... 1212 

... 987 

... 752 

... 492 

... 566 

... 489 

... 500.4 

... 413 

... 476 

... 567 

.. 397 



Digitizi 



|6G16;2B 



583 

454 



100 

ALTITUDES SENT BY MR BOBEBTS, C.E.— Con«»«ed, 

Height above sea-leyel in feet. 
dimion Village ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 515 

don, near Hospital 
Broom Station platform ... 
Crayen Anne Station platfonn ... 
Pembridge Station 

For all these altitudes we are indebted to Mr. Roberts, C.E. : They were 
determined by connecting the Railway leveUings at Hay with the Ordnance bench 
marks fouid at that place, as already stated in notes to Table I. It will be seen 
above that Mr. Roberts gives 174 feet as the altitude of Barr's Court Station, and 
the acooraey of his statement is proved in the most satisfactory manner by follow- 
ing the ndlway levellings to the Ordnance bench marks at I^ominster, thus : — The 
bench mark on the front of Leominster Town Hall is 250*478 feet above sea-level, 
and 19*6 feet above the rails at the Leominster Station. The rails at Leominster 
Station are therefore 230*987 feet above the sea ; and, by Railway levelling, they 
are 57 feet above the rails at Barr*s Court, Hereford. Therefore the rails at Barr*s 
Conit are 173*978 feet above the sea. 

EDWIN J. ISBELL. 



METEOROLOGICAL NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS FOR THE 
YEAR 1874. 

Instead of drawing up the usual tables of barometrical readings, tempera- 
tures, and daily direction of the wind, I have this year reproduced the monthly 
meteorological notes already given to the public in the pages of the Hertford Times. 
In these notes the reader will find all he could have found in the tables, and, in 
addition, some facts and remarks which would not have appeared in them. A few 
corrections and necessary alterations have been made, but the notes are substan- 
tially the same. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the year 1874 is 20*767 
inehes, the readings being corrected for temperature and error, but not reduced to 
sea-level. 

The cistern of my own standard barometer being 187 feet above sea-level we 
may add 0.20 inch to bring the above mean to sea-level reading, and then we shall 
come very dose to the yearly mean of the barometer at sea-level on the British 
coasts, viz., 29*95 inches. 

The most remarkable atmospheric pressure during the year occurred on the 
6th of March, when the barometer, corrected but not reduced to sea-level, read 
80*631 inches at 9 a.m. 

The lowest 9 a.m. reading during the year (28*433 inches) was registered on 
November 29th. 

The mean temperature of the whole year was above the average, being 49*59 
degrees, while Mr. Glaisher*s average year shows a temperature of 49*02 degrees. 
X will here place in parallel oolumns the mean temperatures, Ist of the months in 



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101 

that wonderfully hot year 1868, 2iid of the months of the past year, and 3rd of tht 



iths of Mr. Glaisher^s averacre year :— 












Mr. Glaiaher'* 




1868. 


1874. 






Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Degrees. 


January 


... 38-82 


... 41-86 ... 


86-9 


February ... 


... 4410 


... 3912 ... 


88-7 


March 


... 4400 


... 44-82 ... 


417 


April 


... 4775 .'. 


... 50-59 ... 


46-2 


May 


... 56-90 


... 51-48 ... 


B2-9 


June 


... 60-84 


... 68-65 ... 


691 


July 


... 65*97 


... 64-82 ... 


61-8 


August 


... 61-29 


... 60-74 ... 


61-2 


September ... 


.. 67-94 


... 56-70 ... 


66-6 


October 


... 46-82 


... 5101 ... 


60-2 


November ... 


... 41-24 


... 42-10 ... 


43-2 


December ... 


... 4614 


... 33*20 ... 


39-8 



50-98 49-59 49*02 

In 1868 the hottest day at Hereford was July 22nd, when the thMmometer 
in shade, at 4 feet from the ground, stood at 96*1 degrees. 

In 1874, the hottest day was July 19th, when the thermometer in shade, at 
4 feet from the ground, stood at 94*2 degs. But on no other day in this year did 
the mercury reach 90 degs., while in 1868 it exceeded 90 degs. on four days in July, 
and four in August. In fact, the only remarkable high temi>erature this year 
occurred in April, from the 20th to the 30th, and in July, from the 2nd to the 20th. 

December was a very cold month, the thermometer in shade, at 4 feet from 
the ground, sinking to 5*3 degs. at Hereford, and lower still in more exposed situa* 
tions. But this severe cold did not last, for January of the present year had a 
mean temperature much above the average. 

The rainfall total for the whole year is below the average quantity. We 
usually adopt the mean of the late Mr. Lawson's rainfall measurements as the 
mean average for Hereford. He observed for 16 years, but we have the records for 
15 years only, the record for 1834 being lost. The mean calculated from these 
records is 27*48 inches. 

The difficulty, however, of establishing the mean yearlyrainfallfor any place 
is well known, and therefore, when I say that the mean yearly total is below the 
average, I wish to be understood as speaking of the mean of the lato Mr. Lawson's 
yearly totals. The mean of my records during the last seven yearo is 28*68 inohes^ 
although the rim of my guage stands five feet eight inches above the ground. It 
is true these seven years include the wettest year recorded in Herefordshire 
rainfall, but then it is equally certain that they include the dryeet year alsa The 
Whitecross rain-guage, kept by Mr. Davison, gives a mean of 29*82 inches for the 
last six years ; and these six years also include the wettest and dryest year recorded 
by Herefordshire observers, viz., 1872 the wettest, and 1870 the dryest since the 
late Captain Pendergrass commenced his rainfall observations in the year 1818. The 
rim of Whitecross guage stands one foot from the ground. 



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102 

•I found OOl inoh or more of rainfall in my guage on 190 days during 1874. 
I say TOMk^aXl^ but in many cases there was no rain, properly speaking, the deposit 
being caused by condensation of fog or dew. Snow is simply frozen rain, but I 
allude to fog and dew in order to show the necessity of examining the bottle of the 
rain-guage every morning without fail, even in the dryest weather. A deposit of 
0*01 inch from dew will be frequently foimd when least suspected, and this should 
be always recorded. In fact, unless observers examine their guages every day, 
ihey should not make a return of wet and dry days (so called), because their 
figures will in the end lead to wrong conclusions. 

The following figures will enable the reader to compare the rainfall of the 
past year with the dryest year and the wettest year since rainfall observations 
were oommenced in this county : — 



NFALL, MkASUBBD 


BY RiOHMOND-PLACE GUAQK ; RiM, 5PT. 


8lN. ABOVE 


BGDliip, AND 188ft. 


ABOVE Sea Level. 






1870. 


1872. 


1874. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


January 


1-964 


4-663 


... 2-587 


February 


1-966 . 


3-371 ... 


... 2-615 


March 


1-408 


1-781 


... 0-787 


April 


0-642 


2-723 


... 1-721 


May 


1-020 


1-377 


... 1-057 


June 


0-220 


3-571 


... 0-693 


July 


1-194 


5-839 


... 0-884 


August 


1-048 


2-202 


... 2-184 


September 


1-464 


2127 


... 4-317 


October ... 


3-881 


4-091 


... 2-719 


November... 


2-398 


5-567 


... 2-362 


December 


1-426 


4-947 


... 2-494 




18-631 


42-259 


24-420 


MONTHL 


Y METI 


30R0L0GICAL NOTES FOR 1874. 




JANUARY. 





The mean of all t&e 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month of 
January is 29*825 inches. 

The highest 9 a.m. reading (30*370 inches) was registered on the 28th, and 
the lowest (29*032 inches) on the 3rd. 

The barometer continued high dining the last seven days of January, the 
9 a.m. readings ranging from 30-210 to 30-370 inches. 

All the barometrical readings given in these notes are corrected for error and 
capillarity of instrument, but not reduced to sea-level. The height of the barome- 
ter-dstem above sea-level is 187 feet. 



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103 

The mean temperature of the month was 41*86 degrees, being 4*96 degrees 
higher than the average temperature assigned to January (from a comparison of 
fifty years) by Mr. Glaisher. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (55*3 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 27th, and the lowest readings (25 degrees) on the 6th and 7th. 

The mean degree of humidity was 92*9 degrees, complete saturation being 
100. 

The rainfall total is a fair amoimt for January— that is, at Hereford— but 
no remarkable falls have occurred. The greatest fall in 24 hours (0*465 inch) be- 
longs to the 9th. The January total is 2 "587 inches. 

There was a depossit of water in the rain-guage to the amount of '01 inch 
or more on 19 days. 

The winds, at 9 a.m. daily, were as follows :— N. 1 ; N.E. ; E. ; S.E. 3 ; 
S. 8 ; S. W. 5 ; W. 3 ; N. W. 9 ; uncertain, 2. 

There was a remarkable fog on the 22nd ; but the chief meteorological fact 
to be remembered is the extraordinary mildness of the month. During January 
we have enjoyed an average March temperature, the average for March being 417 



FEBRUARY. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*800 inches. 

The highest 9 a.m. reading (30*439 inches) was registered on the 4th, and the 
lowest 28*832 inches) on the 26th. 

The mean temperature of the month is 39*12 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's average 
temperature for February being 38 '7 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (54 degrees) was registered 
on the 14th, and the lowest (21*8 degrees) on the 10th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 88.5 degrees, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall total is 2*615 inches. A large amount of rainfall was measured 
on the morning of the 27th (0*620 inch). 

There was a deposit of water in the rain-guage to the amount of *01 inch or 
more on 15 days. 

The winds, at 9 a.m. daily, were as follows :— N. ; N.E. 2 ; E. 2 ; S.E. 7 ; 
S. 7; S.W. 1; W. 0; N.W. 9. 

The points most worthy of notice during this month were the high readings 
of the barometer from the 1st to the 11th, the very low readings on the 26th and 
27th, the gale on the night of 25th— 26th, and the heavy fall of rain on the 26th. 



MARCH. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month of March 
is 30*000 inches. 

The highest 9 a.m. reading (30*621 inches) was registered on the 6th, and the 
lowest (29*436 inches) on the 9th. 

The barometer stood above 30 inches on 15 days. 

The mean temperature of the month was 44*88 degrees, Mr, Glaisher's aver- 
age for March being 41*7 degrees. 



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104 



The highest reading of the thcnnoneter in shade (697) was registered on the 
23rd, and the lowest reading (23*5) on the 11th. 

The mean degree of humidity was 84*2 ; complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall is very small, being far below an average fall for March — only 
0787 inch. 

There was a deposit of water in the rain-guage to the amount of O'Ol inch 
or more on 11 days. 

The wmds at 9.0 a.m. daily .were as follows :— N. 1 ; N.E. ; E. 2 ; S.E. 4 ; 
S. 4; S.W. 6; W. 7; N.W. 7; cahn, 1. 

The chief point of interest during this month was the great atmospheric 
pressure on the 6th« The following readings were registered during the day : — 



At 4.0 a.nL 
7.45 
8.45 
9.0 



Inches. 
30508 
30-569 
80-581 
30-621 



At 11.45 a.m. 
12.30 p.m. 
4-45 p.m. 



Inches. 
, 30-587 
. 30-578 
. 30-562 



APRIL. 



The mean of all the 9.0 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*660 inches. 

The highest reading (30*110 inches) was registered on the 29th, and the 
lowest (29*041 inches) on the 3rd. 

The mean temperature of April is 50*59 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's average 
temperature for this month being 46*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (82-1) was registered on the 
27th, and the lowest (31*9 degrees) on the 5th. 

The mean degree of humidity for April this year is 78*4 degrees ; complete 
saturation being 100. 

The rainfall which was almost entirely confined to the first half of the 
month, amounts to 1*721 inch ; the greatest fall in 24 hours (0-385 inch) occurring 
on the 2nd. 

There were 16 days in which 0*01 inch or more felL 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 3 ; E. 2 ; S.E. 4 ; 
S. 3 ; S.W. 6 ; W. 3 ; N.W. 4 ; and 3 days uncertain. 

There were gales of wind on the nights of 1st— 2nd, and 2nd — 3rd, the 
direction being S. W. to N.W., and back to S.W. 

The temperature of the last eleven days of April was extraordinary, the 
maximum readings being as follows : — 



20th 
21st 
22nd 
23rd 

24th 



nches. 




Inches. 


72*1 


26th 


807 


77-9 


27th 


821 


70*1 


28th 


74*1 


77*4 


29th 


70*0 


66-2 


30th 


... 74*1 


68-3 







During this period, however, the nights were cold and the frosts on the grass 
sharp, even when the air was not quite cold enough to lower the thermometers in 
the stand to 32 degrees. 



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106 

MAY. 

The mean of all the 9.0 a.m. barometrical readings for May is 29*768 inches. 

The highest reading (30198 inches) was registered on the 18th, and the lowest 
(29*042 inches) on the 20th. 

The mean temperature of May is, this year, 61 '48 degrees, Mr. Glaisher^s 
average temperature for this month being 52*9 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (72*4 degrees) was registered 
on the 27th, and the lowest (29*1 degrees) on the 11th. 

The mean degree of humidity for May, this year, is 77*6 ; complete satura- 
tion being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 1*057 inch ; the greatest fall in 24 hours (0*530 inch) 
occurring on the 22nd. 

There were 11 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The widds at 9.0 a.nL daily were asfoUows :— N. 4; N.E. 11 ; E. 2 ; S.E. 2 ; 
S. 0; S.W. 6; W. 1; N.W. 4; calm, 1. 



JUNE. 

The mean of all the 9.0 a.m. barometrical readings during the month of 
June is 29*984 inches. 

The highest reading of the barometer during the month (30*898 inches) was 
registered on the 15th, and the lowest (29*457 inches) on the 27th. 

The mean temperature of June was 58*65 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's average 
temperature for June being 59*1 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (85*2 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 9th, and the lowest (37*3 degrees) on the 18th. 

The mean degree of hxmiidity was 77*4 ; complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 0*693 inch only ; being a very small total for June^ 
There has been almost an entire absence of dew. 

There was a deposit of water in the rain-gauge to the amount of 0*01 inch, 
or more, on 9 days. The largest rainfall measurement was. made on the morning 
of the 25th (0*318 inch). 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. daUy were as follows :— N. 1 ; N.E. 11 ; E. ; S.E. 3 ; 
S. 4; S.W. 4; W. 2; N.W. 0; cahn, 5. 



JULY. 

The mean of all the 9.0 a.m barometrical readings during the month is 
29*792 inches. 

The highest 9.0 a. m. reading (30*098 inches) was registered on the 6th, and 
the lowest (29*402 inches) on the 28th. 

The mean temperature of the month is 64*82 degrees, Mr. Grlaisher's average 
temperature for July being 61*8 degrees. 

The highest temperature in shade (94*2 degrees) occurred on the 19th, and 
the lowest (42*6 degrees) on the 6th. 

The mean degree of humidity was 72*8 ; complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfaU total is small, being only 0*884 inch. The greatest fall in 24 
hours (0*28 ingh) occurred on the 24tfa. 



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106 

There was a deposit of water in the rain-guage to the amount of *01 inch, or 
more, on 12 days. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. d; '^y were as follows :— N. ; N.E. 1 j E. ; S.E. 6 ; 
S. 5 ; S. W. 4 ; W. 3 ; N. W. 6 ; 1 days calm ; 2 uncertain. 



AUGUST. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m barometrical readings during the month of August 
is 29739 inches. The highest reading of the barometer at 9 a.m. during the 
month (30*305 inches) was registered on the 2l8t, and the lowest (29*212 inches) on 
the 14th. 

The mean temperature of the month is 60*75 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's average 
mean temperature for August being 61*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermoneter in shade (86*4 degrees) was registered 
on the 20th, and the lowest (43*8 degrees) on the 5th. 

The mean degree of humidity for August is 80*8. 

The rainfall total at Hereford amounts to 2184 inches. The greatest fall in 
24 hours (0*388 inch) occurred on the 28th. There was a deposit of water in the 
rain-guage to the amount of 0.01 inch or more on 18 days. 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows— N. 0; N.E. 2 ; E. ; S.E. 6 ; 
S. 6; S.W. 9; W. 2;N.W. 7. 

SEPTEMBEK. 

The mean of the 9.0 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 29*694 

inches. 

The highest reading (30*138 inches) was registered on the 14th, and the lowest 

(29*275 inches) on the 9th, 

The mean temperature of September, this year, is 56*7 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average for the month being 56*6 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (77*1 degrees) was registered 
on the 26th, and the lowest (40*4 degrees) on the 14th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 84*7 ; complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 4*317 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (1*235 
inch) occurring on the 30th. 

There were 21 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9.0. a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 3 ; E. 1 ; S.E. 4; 
S.7;S.W.6; W. 3;N.W. 2. 



OCTOBER. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month of 
October is 29*646 inches. 

The highest reading of the barometer during the month (30*115 inches) was 
registered on the 3l8t, and the lowest (29*033 inches) on the 2nd. 

The mean temperature of October this year is 51*01 degrees, Mr. Glaishers' 
average temperature for the month being 50*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (63*0 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 11th, and the lowest (34*2) on the 20th. 



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107 

The mean degree of humidity for the month is 87*4, complete saturation 
being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 2 '72 inches. There was a deposit of water in the 
rain-guage to the amount of 0*01 inch, or more, on 23 days. The largest amount 
in 25 hours (0*70 inch) fell on the 6th, and there was another large fall of 0*60 inch 
on the 27th. 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. ; N.E. 5; E. 0; S.E. 
0; S. 8 ; S.W. 8 ; W. 3; N.W. 4 ; uncertain, a Early on the morning of the 
2lBt it began to blow heavily from the west, and the gale increased as daylight 
came on. The wind continued in the west, and the storm was a widely extended 
and destructive one. There was a considerable fall of the barometer. At 9 a.m. 
the mercury stood at 29*329 inches, whilst, on the previous day, at the same hour, 
it was standing at 30*036 inches — a fall of 0*707 inch. One of the large trees at 
Moor House, Widemarsh Common, was blown down, and fell N.N.E., being 
turned in its fall by the tree which stood on its east side. This tree was about 12 
feet in circumference near the ground, and 102 feet in height. 



NOVEMBER. 

The mean of all the 9.0 a.m. barometrical readings during the month of 
November is 29*721 inches. 

The highest reading of the barometer during the month (30*307 inches) was 
registered on the 8th, and the lowest (28*433 inches) on the 29th. 

The mean temperature of November this year, is 42*1 degrees, Mr. Grlaisher*B 
average temperature for the month being 43*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (58*2 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 5th, and the lowest (24*3 degrees) on the 24th. 

The mean degree of humidity for the month is 92*2, complete saturation 
being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 2*362 inches. There was a deposit of water in the 
rain-g^age to the amount of 0*01 inch or more on 22 days. On the 28th there was 
a fall of 0'81 inch in amount ; this was the greatest quantity which fell in 24 hours 
during November. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 9 ; E. 1 ; S.E. 6 ; S. 0; 
S.W. 1 ; W. 2 ; N.W. 8 ; and 1 day uncertain. 

The great fall of the barometer on the 28th was followed by a gale of unusual 
violence ; wind S.E. to W. 



DECEMBER. 

The mean of all the 9.0 a.m. barcmetrical readings during the month is 
29*635 inches. 

The highest reading (30*083 inches) was registered on the 18th, and the 
lowest (28*618 inches) on the 11th. 

The mean temperature of December, this year, is 33*2 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average for the month being 39*8 degrees. 

P 



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108 

Tb» highert reftding of the thermometer in shade (53*2 degrees) was vegis- 
tered on the 0th, and the lowest (5*3 degrees) on the 3Ut. 

The mean degree of humidity is 92*9, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 2*494 inches, the greatest fall (snow) measuring 
072 inches. I measured melted snow on the 15th, 27th, 29th, and 30th. The 
great fall occurred on the 15th, when the depth of undrifted snow was 8 inches. 
Three perfect cylinders of snow, equal in diameter to the diameter of my rain- 
gauge (8 inches), were taken from a good situation, and caref uUy melted. Measured 
as rainfall, the average quantity was 072 inch very nearly. The ordinary 
rain-gauge was sufficient to measure the other falls. 

There were 13 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. daily were as follows .^N. 5 ; N.E. 3 ; E. 3 ; S.E. 2; 
S. 2; S.W. 2; W. 8; N.W. 4; calm or uncertain, 6. 

EDWIN J. ISBELL. 



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109 



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LIST OP NEW MEMBERS ELECTED IN 1874. 



Garless, Mr. Henry. 

Cobbold, Rev. K. H. 

Fielder, Trevor, Esq. 

Graves, Joseph, Esq. 

Lane, Theophilus, Esq. 

FhiUips, Edward Cambridge, Esq. 



Piper, Greorge Henry, Esqt 
Powell, Eev. Richard. 
Sandford, Dr. 
Scobell, Edwin C, Esq. 
Severn, John Percy, Esq. 



HONORARY MEMBERS, DECEASED OR RETIRED. 

Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S. &c., deceased. 

Edmtmds, Flavell, Esq., deceased. 

FhilllpB, Fiofeaaor John, F.R.S., F.a.S., deceased. 



Capper, Rev., D. 
Collins, John Stratford, Esq. 
Downing, Mr. J. B., deceased 
Evans, E. Middleton, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Feilden, Lieut. Colonel, deceased. 
Lightbody, R, Esq., deceased. 
Thomas, John E., Esq., F.G.S. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1875. 



President : 
Rev. C. J. Robinson, M.A., Norton Canon Vicarage, Weobley. 

Vice-Presidents : 

B. Haigh Allen, Esq., CliflFord Priory, Herefordshire, R.S.O. 
Rev. Samuel Clabk, M.A., Eaton Bishop Rectory, Hereford. 
Rev. E. Du BuissoN, M.A., Brienton Court, Hereford. 

F. W. Hebbebt, Esq., CredenhiU Park, Hereford. 

Central Committee of Management : 
Thomas Cam, Esq., Hereford. 
Timothy Cubley, Esq., C.E., F.G.S., Hereford. 
John Lloyd, Esq., Huntington Court, Hereford. 

C. G. Mabtin, Esq., Hereford. 

J. Gbiffith Mobbis, Esq., Hereford. 



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OFFIOEKS FOB THE YEAR 1875— (ooBTnmED.) 

Editorial Committee : 
Bey. James Dayieb, M.A., Moor Court, Kington. 
Bev. C. J. BoBiNSON, M. A., Norton Canon Vicarage, Weobley. 
Bev. Sir Cr. H. Cobnewall, Bart., M.A., Moocas Court, Hereford. 
Bev. Samuel Clabe, M.A., Eaton Bishop, Hereford. 
James Bankin, Esq., Bryngwyn, Hereford. 
B. M. M'CuLLOuaH, Esq., M.D., Larohfield, Abergavenny. 
Bey. H. Coofeb Ket, M.A., F.B.A.S., Stretton Bectory, Hereford. 

Honorary Secretary : 
Bey. Sir Gr. H. Cobnewall, Bart., M.A., Moocas Court, Hereford. 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary : 
Mr. Abthub Thompson, 12, St. Nicholas Street, Hereford. 



FIELD MEETINGS APPOINTED FOB 1875. 

Thubsdat, Mat 20th Caerleon. 

Tuesday, June 15th Symonds Tat and Buckstone, to meet the Cotteswold 

Naturalists' Field Club. 

Tuesday, July 18th (Ladies' Day) Skenfrith, Grrosmont, and Grarway. 

Monday, August 19th Brecon. 

Thubsday, Ootobeb14th A Foray amongst the Funguses. 



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®h^ M^alhop^ ^atuplte^ c^idd Oflulr. 



MEETING AT CAERLEON, 
Thubsday, May 20, 1875. 



The Field Naturalists have, on the occasion of their first meeting this year, 
given a very liberal interpretation to their name, and have enlaiged the area of 
their investigations, so as to include not only man, but also his works at all periods 
of history. Those members who joined in the excursion to Caerleon on Thursday, 
the 20th instant, are not likely to find fault with this divergence from the original 
scope of the Club, for it enabled them to make acquaintance with a district 
teeming with objects of antiquarian interest, and peculiarly rich in poetic and 
legendary associations. The day was unfortunately showery, and Isca, true to its 
etymology, gave its visitors a watery reception ; but the unfavourable impression 
which was thus produced was speedily effaced by the warm welcome bestowed upon 
the Club by John Edward Lee, Esq. — the learned author of Isca SUurum, and 
the hospitable successor of S. Dubritius at the Priory. Under his gxddance the 
contents of the museum were carefully examined by the Club, the members of 
which were thus prepared to listen with greater attention and appreciation to the 
subsequent address of their cicerone. The museum contains a vast number of 
Boman remains found either at Caerleon or at Caerwent (Venta Silurum), and in 
the collection are included a series of monumental and other inscriptions, coins 
from the time of Otho down to that of Valens, fibtdce of curious workmanship, 
amulets, ant^/ioca, enamels, Samian ware of foreign and domestic manufacture, 
stone coffins, amphorce, flue bricks, tiles, and tesserw, with other objects too nimie- 
rouB to mention. After an hour had been spent very pleasantly in viewing this 
curious collection (which has been brought together chiefly through the zeal and 
munificence of Mr. Lee), the Club proceeded to the grounds of Dr. WooUett, 
which enclose the site of a Boman villa and the scanty remains of a mediceval 
castle. The lofty mound at the end of Dr. WooUett's garden was ascended, but it 
was Impossible to ascertain whether it had once supported the " gigantic tower " of 



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Arthnrian days or the more substantial keep which in mediseval times must have 
been attached to the castle at its base. Suffice it to say that the view from its 
summit amply rewarded those who showed themselves indifferent to the wetness 
of the grass, and the exertion of climbing rendered them better able to do justice 
to the good fare that awaited them at the Priory. " Many have told of the monks 
of old," but few can have partaken of better cheer than was spread before the 
Woolhopians within these monastic walls by their hospitable owner. In truth 
there was nothing in the scene to remind one of the cell or cowl, and the graceful 
presence of several young ladies rather carried one's thoughts back to those earlier 
and more romantic days when at Whitsuntide King Arthur 
" Held Court at old Caerleon-upon-Usk." 

Dinner over, it devolved upon the President (Rev. C. J. Robinson) to convey 
to Mr. and Miss Lee the very cordial thanks of the Club for the sumptuous enter- 
tainment of which they had partaken, and to request Mr. Lee to unfold, as far as 
possible, the past history of the military capital of SUuria. As Mr. Lee has kindly 
permitted the Club to print the paper, it will be enough to add that it was listened 
to throughout with the greatest attention, and that the writer has fixed its salient 
points upon the minds of his auditors by kindly presenting to each of them a series 
of appropriate illustrations. 

The weather having now become bright and warm an excursion was made 
to the site of the old amphitheatre, where, beneath the grassy covering, may still 
be traced the tiers of seats. Nor is it difficult to recall the time when, from some 
bmlding on the adjacent ground (still known as the Bear House Field), there issued 
into the arena *^the man and beast for deadly contest trained." It may perhaps 
be doubted whether the gladiatorial combats in which ** man was slaughtered by 
his fellow man " ever took place on this fair scene ; but in the museum of Caerleon 
there is a fragment of a stone slab upon which is sculptured a fight between a mastiff 
(of the old English breed), and some wild animal — depicting possibly a fierce 
struggle which the Roman inhabitants of Isca desired to have commemorated. 

The fragments of Roman masonry, which yet form part of the city wall, 
having been duly inspected, the Club divided itself into two sections, of which one 
ascended the hill, visited Christchurch, and surveyed the Bristol Channel and 
smoke of Newport, while the other, led by Mr. F. Moggridge and other local guides, 
made a close examination of certain antiquarian objects within the limits of Caer- 
leon. These consist chiefly of a ruined tower upon the river side, which com- 
manded the bridge of boats ; the upper parts of the house now called the Hanbury 
Arms (wherein, it may be noted, Lord Lytton and Arthur Tennyson have both 
lodged), and the parish church, in which are imbedded a Norman arch and pillar 
of rude design, and part of which rests upon foundations of Roman masonry. 

The pleasant day came at length to a close, but not before the Woolhope 
Club had again experienced the hospitality of the modem Silurians, and at the 
houses of the Vicar and of Dr. Woollett fortified themselves against the fatigues 
of the homeward journey. 

It was announced that the Fungus Foray this year would be on Thursday, 
the 14th of October, 



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Among those present were the following :— Rev. Charles J. Bobinson (Presi^ 
dent). Rev. James Davies, James Rankin, Esq., Rev. H. C. Key, Rev. H. W. 
Phillott, Colonel Byrde, Rev. C. J. Westropp, Rev. T. E. Grasett, J. T. Owen 
Fowler, Esq., Rev. J. Crouch, Dr. Taylor, Rev. T. T. Smith, Dr. Chapman, J. 
Grifl&th Morris, Esq., J. Greaves, Esq., Theo. Lane, Esq., Mr. James W. Lloyd, 
George H. Piper, Esq., Stephen Vernon, Esq. (Newport), J. W. Lukis, Esq. 
(President of the Cardiff Naturalists' Society), Rev. F. C. Stebbing, Mr. Hamil- 
ton, J. M. liewellin, Esq., Miss Lee, Mrs. Moggridge, Miss Llewellin, Miss 
Edwards, the Mayor of Hereford, W. Adams, Esq., F.G.S., Rev. J. H. Jukes, 
Mr. A. Thompson, and Rev. J. E. Machen Jones, to whom, as well as to J. E. 
Lee, Esq., F.G.S., F. Moggridge, Esq., and Dr. Woollett, the thanks of the Club 
are largely due. 

The Assistant Secretary announced that since the annual meeting he had 
received a small parcel of pamphlets from the University of Christiana, per Mr. 
Thomas Butler, Assistant Secretary to the British Museum ; and the Assistant 
Secretary was authorised to convey the thanks of the Club to Mr. Butler. 

The following gentlemen were unanimously elected anntial members of the 
Club : — The Rev. William Wyatt, Hope-under-Dinmore, Leominster ; John Riley, 
Esq., Putley Court, Ledbury; the Rev. Arthur Young, Pembridge, Hereford- 
shire ; Charles Anthony, Jun., Esq., The Elms, Hereford ; Lewis Sargeant, 
Esq., Hereford ; the Rev. G. M. Metcalfe, Pipe and Lyde, Hereford ; Richard 
Thomason, Esq., Drybridge House, Hereford. 



ADDRESS ON THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF CAERLEON, 
BY J. E. LEE, Esq., OF TORQUAY. 

It is somewhat singular that though there can be no reasonable doubt as to 
this place having been for centuries a very important station both in and before the 
Roman times, yet very little is known of it from actual history. And yet it was 
the capital of the Silures, the tribe of ancient British inhabitants which was the 
very last to yield to the Roman power, and besides this it acquired its mediaeval or 
rather post-Roman name from having been the almost permanent quarters of the 
Second Augustan Legion — one of the best known in the Roman army ; the name 
of Caer-leon being evidently a corruption of Castrum legionis. How then are we 
to explain the fact of so little being actually recorded as to Isca Silurum, the name 
by which it is known in Roman times ? Possibly from the fact of the place being 
so much on the borders of civilisation, that no one of a literary turn liked to spend 
his leisure time here and record the doings' of the so-called barbarians. I know 
that this will be called a very doubtful explanation, but I can think of no better, 
and the difficulty is now mentioned as an apology for what I mean to do during 
the few minutes which are at my disposal, viz., instead of giving you history, 
which is only ideal or tradition resting on no certain ground, I will simply describe 
the place as it is believed to have existed in Roman times, and then mention a few 
of the more interesting antiquities. 



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Now, if we ima^ne,— and this is no ideal picture, but one borne out by his- 
tory, — that in those days the primaeval woods were dense upon the hills and reached 
down probably to the plains, so that the larger trees dipped their branches into the 
Usk, we should find it a very different landscape from that of the present day, 
when the trees are cut down for timber, and the undergrowth for charcoal, and 
thus the beauty of the country is sadly lessened. 

I well remember the lament of the late owner of Llanweme House, at the 
enormous change, since he was a boy, in the country between Llanweme and 
Chepstow, where the finest timber flourished luxuriantly, and, as he said, the turn- 
pike road led through a bower of trees on either side. Such, in fact, must have 
been the appearance of the country in Roman times. Dense wood clothed the 
mountains, and the only cleared places were the plains where tillage could be carried 
on or where villas had to be built. Such was the country round Isca. What was 
the city itself ? Of its condition in pre-Roman times we have no knowledge. 

Sir R. C. Hoare says that Venta SUurum, or Caerwent, was the native capi- 
tal, and it is very certain that in Roman times Venta Silurum, or Caerwent, was 
the mercantile city, while Isca Silurum, or Caerleon, was the military capitals 
The second Augustan Legion came here, it is believed, under Ostorius the latter 
part of the 1st century, and though by some inscriptions found on the Scotch 
Roman wall (commonly called the wall of Antoninus) it evidently had at one time 
been taken to the north, yet it remained here at Isca for its head quarters nearly, 
but not quite, as long as the Roman power existed in Britain. Under this long 
occupation it is of course to be expected that the place would be almost entirely 
Romanised — and such in fact we may venture to say it was. There are few 
stations in Britain where more Roman inscriptions have been found than here ; 
but still, strange to say, though nearly all of them are of great interest, they do 
not in many cases give us positive and definite dates. The earliest inscription 
found here mentions the names of Severus and his sons, A.D. 193 to 197, and the 
latest that of Gallienus about A. I). 260. The objects in the Museum, which you 
have just visited, will have shown you how completely the city was Romanised. 
An invading nation cannot have taken full possession of the capital of a barbarous 
people, and colonised it for some hundred years, without making it almost a foreign 
city. You will accordingly find that nearly all the antiquities are Roman. I 
have lived here — ^nay in this very house — nearly five and thirty years, and have 
been constantly on the watch for antiquities of every kind, but the exceptions to 
those of Roman date hardly amount to a dozen, while every trench cut within the 
walls, every excavation for the foundations of a house, every railway cutting brings 
to light some evidence of Roman occupation. I must, however, descend rather 
more to particulars, but as ours is a Natural History Society, and it is only by a 
certain stretch of the imagination that man and his works are considered natural 
objects, I will be as brief as possible. 

Lake most other Roman stations or towns, Isca Silurum was in the shape of 
what is called by some people a long square with the comers rounded off. The walls 
may with some difficulty be traced on the east side ; but to the south, and more 



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especially to the west, which we can see from this very room, the walls, or rather 
the lower parts of them, are actually in existence. The Romans generally 
fashioned their stones into rather short squares, and in many cases they built with 
these stones three or four tiers, and then placed upon them a layer or sometimes 
more of flat tiles or bricks, repeating this alternation until the walls had a very 
peculiar ** liny " appearance. Nothing of the kind, however, is to be seen in the 
walls of this place. One part of them, nearly opposite to the Priory, is still faced 
with the square stones mentioned above ; but from the fact that some years ago I 
found on the outward face of one of them Roman mortar with pounded brick it 
seemed to me that this work was not Roman but of mediaeval age, rebuilt, in fact, 
with Roman stones ; but when Mr. Albert Way, a most distinguished antiquary, 
whose loss we have recently had to deplore, came here and examined the walls 
in question, he considered them to be Roman work ; and, as in duty bound, I gave 
up my opinion to the judgment of so distinguished an antiquary ; still it is a curious 
fact which is worth recording. And this leads me to remark on the Roman custom 
of mixing pounded brick with their mortar. There can, I believe, be no doubt 
that the best mortar is made in this manner. Whether the angularity of the brick 
fragments hold the mortar better together, or whether there is any advantage from 
the quicker absorption of the moisture by the dry pounded brick, I cannot say ; 
but it is a fact that the best Roman mortar was always made in this way ; and yet, 
if the truth must be told, very little of the mortar found here was thus made. 
The whole of that in the large villa, formerly in the grounds now belonging to Mr. 
Woollett, was without pounded brick ; and the same may be said of that of the 
tpwn walls, with the exception of two of the comers. If we have time enough 
to spare you shall be shown one comer of th^ ancient walls, where the undoubted 
remains of Roman masonry, still in situ, may be seen, and the stones are united 
with mortar mixed with brick ; but if you walk 20 or 30 yards on either side the 
brick ceases ! and you find it nowhere else in the walls except at the opposite 
comer. This comer, however, is in the turnpike road, near the upper turnpike, 
and you have walked over it without being aware of it ; but after a very wet day, 
when the ground has been well washed, you may see the present pavement (which 
in fact is a portion of the old Roman wall) made of stones joined with mortar of 
pounded brick and lime. 

Let us now mention a very few of the more interesting objects which we 
have just seen and we will begin with the inscriptions. Almost every one of these, 
if this were an antiquarian society, would give scope for a long dissertation. I am 
not, however, going to weary you, but will merely mention two or three, and tell 
you why I have thus selected them. The first is one' of the finest Roman inscrip- 
tions in Britain, the chisel marks in the letters are still clearly visible. It records 
the rebuilding of the barracks of the seventh cohort by the lieutenant of the 
Emperors Valerian and Gallienus. The chief point of interest in this inscription 
is that it gives us a new Latin word " centurias " for barracks.* Turn the inscrip- 

*Subsequently the Rev. James Davies, of Moor Court, Kington, mentioned that the word 
was to be found m Cicero de Leg. A£y. II. 13, but that the commentators were evidently 
pazzled with it. 



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tion as you may, nothing else will answer ; and this interpretation has stood 
the test even of Grerman criticism, and yet you will find the word with the inter- 
pretation of the ''quarters" of a century or company in no Latin lexicon or 
dictionary whatever. 

The second is a short inscription and is chiefly remarkable for the rade de- 
lineation below it of the eagle and the capricoms, the devices of the second Augus- 
tan legion. 

The third is a memorial stone erected to a veteran of the second Augustan 
legion by his wife. Fray remark the curious mode (well known in lapidary inscrip- 
tions) of writing a double II for the letter E. Thus in the word or abbreviation 
LEG, there is first L, then a double I, and then Gr. This is not ideal, it is a well 
known fact. You will find it again in the last inscription to be brought before you.' 
And hereby " hangs a tale." It has been repeatedly published but never deciphered 
till lately, nor was it understood when I first published it in a quarto volume in 
1845. At that time not knowing what to make of it I wrote to the late Sir 
Samuel Meyrick, who it appears was equally puzzled and asked whether it might 
not be " Bardic!" an idea with which I could not agree, as the lines surrounding the 
inscription are evidently Roman. It was, therefore, published without explanation. 
But when writing the ** Isca Silurum " in 1862, I corresponded with several other 
friends about it ; and it is most singular that the truth seems almost at the same 
moment to have flashed on Mr. King at Cambridge, on Mr. C. Boachsmith near 
Bochester, and on Br. M'Oaul at Toronto. May I therefore ask you to look at it 
in two positions ? The first as it was formerly published makes it unreadable. 
Now turn it and you wiU find that it can be nearly if not entirely decjrphered, the 
figure or " siglum " being the mark for " centurion " >, like a V placed sideways ; 
then C.Ivli, and the second line, though the letters are rude, may (if you bear in 
mind that the II is frequently used for E) be read Caeciniani, so that the whole 
inscription may be read clearly, looked at in its correct position, as " The century 
(or company) of Caius Lucius Caecinianus. 

We will now mention a few of the more remarkable antiquities which have 
been found here, without taking them in any very particular order. Every one 
knows what wainscotting is, but every one knows also that at present it is made of 
wood. You have, however, seen some specimens in the museum which show that 
the Bomans used ornamented slabs of stone for this purpose. I remember seeing 
these stone facings in their original position in the villa in Mr. WooUett's grounds. 
They are by no means common. The pottery found at Isca is very interesting. 
The red polished Samian ware, covered with figures, reveals a great deal of the 
social life of the Bomans. 

Amongst other things (if indeed it can be called social) you will find combats 
of gladiators armed exactly as mentioned by the ancient authors, you will find 
combats of wild beasts both amongst themselves and with human victims, and on 
some of the fragments you will see elegant designs made of leaves and tendrils. 
In one case you will see a winged figure playing on the double pipe. The coarser 
yessels were often sepulchral 



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In one case not a hundred yards from this place there was found (what is 
exceedingly rare) an earthen jar containing burial bones, which had been buried 
within the limits of the city. This was quite contrary to Eoman customs, and 
indicates a time when the city was besieged by enemies, and when burials could 
not be conducted according to the usual plan. In one case a very large vessel (21 
inches in diameter) had been used for burial, and within it there were found a 
small patera or kind of saucer and a piece oi copper coin which was fixed to the 
bottom by oxidation. This coin was doubtless to pay the fare over the ferry to the 
other world ; but it is singular that in no other case have we found a coin in a 
sepulchral vase. Some of the glass cinerary urns which you have seen in the 
museum contain the original burnt bones, and are in a fine state of preservation. 
Not so, however, are the remains of what is called ''pillar-moulded glass," 
generally in the form of fragments of bowls. It is singular that soon after the time 
of the Romans this manufacture was lost, and not very long ago a patent was 
taken out in England for this very process ! I must leave it to the h^al gentlemen 
present to say whether the patent would stand, as these very specimens in our 
museum would show that the process was in use sixteen hundred years ago. 

In an excavation made in the Priory garden some very pretty fragments of 
pillar-moulded glass were found of a beautiful mottled colour. These are rare. 
The Romans knew the art of enamelling as is evident from several of the specimens 
which you have seen in the museum. Amongst the greatest rarities in our museum 
are the two carved ivories, one representing a tragic mask and the other possibly 
Pomona placing a basket of fruit on Cupid's head. What they originally formed 
is uncertain. They may have been part of the ornamentation of a chariot, as you 
may see the holes by which they were riveted to something behind. Bone pins for 
fastening up the hair were found in abundance, one of them ornamented with gold. 
Bone counters for games were also not uncommon, and bone needles of all descrip- 
tions. The bronze objects are very varied, fibulae or studs, earrings, chains, armill 
or bracelets, and small figures of various sorts, knives, styli for writing on tablets, 
shears, part of a small balance and a bell, spoons, keys, and last, not least, a 
Roman foot-rule which is doubled up, but the two sides together measure exactly 
as they ought to do, 11.604 of our inches. ^ 

While speaking of Roman bronze objects, and more especially shears, some 
astonishment has been expressed at bronze being used as a cutting material, but it 
may not be generally known that it is very easy to harden bronze ; a very small 
percentage of iron will have this effect. It is even said that bronze melted in a 
crucible previously used for melting iron will become exceedingly hard. Some 
years ago a brass founder in London took out a patent for hardening brass so that 
it would not wear, adopting this very plan, and he meant to use it especially for 
the brass of quadrants and sextants, but his scheme fell to the ground, as he found 
the brass so hard that he could not engrave upon it. 

Of coins a large number have been found here. I will mention one fact 
which will show this. Occasionally when labour was scarce at Caerleon I have set 
two or three men to work merely to dig a trench in the Priory garden, and in every 
instance was well rewarded by coins and other remains. The last trench dug here 
product half a dozen coins of Carausius, and a couple of Allectus. 



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These details will have tired you. May I venture, in ooncluBion, to bring 
before your "mind's eye," if I may use the expression, one or two scenes of the 
olden day. But first, just consider how long it really is since these Koman times. 
I have lived in this house about 35 years. Now as the Romans were here 1,600 
years ago, it would require a succession of fifty men as old as I am to have lived 
one after the other, to reach up to the olden time we are speaking of. And when 
you have in imagination thrown yourselves back sixteen centuries, just think of 
the difference — the city population crowded together in houses within the walls, 
only the temples and the governor's house with space around them ; while between 
the walls and houses a broad and open street ran round the city. This can be 
proved. Can you not imagine in peaceful times the citizens walking round the 
walls, from which the view of a Roman villa here and there in the neighbourhood 
broke the monotony of the dense wood on the hills ? And, if you like to carry your 
imagination still further, {fancy for one moment the excitement attending the 
arrival of the vessel from Abone (now Sea-mills-on-the-Avon), bringing supplies 
for the garrison from that more settled province ! Can you not imagine that you 
see the vessel gliding slowly with the rising tide, just kept in mid-stream by an 
occasional dip of the single bank of oars ? 

All this you will say is fancy. I will conclude with giving you another 
scene, which is not fancy. The Romans were great brick and tile-makers. Now, 
at Yenta Silurum, or Caerwent, there was a great tile-yard ; and " once on a 
time,** as the novelists say, the military overlooker walked out to see how "the 
work went on." The day was hot, the man was lazy, and, instead of going round 
the brickyard he crossed over the bricks, still not dry, and he left the impres- 
sion of his nailed sandals upon them. Here is one — ^the actual impress of a Roman 
soldier's sandal sixteen hundred years ago. But this is not all. He wanted some- 
thing to do when he rested on one side of the brickyard, and in a fit of idleness he 
scribbled his own name again and again on one of the large tiles. Here is the tile. 
His name, Bellicianus, has thus, by his idle fit, become immortalised amongst the 
descendants of what he then considered a barbarian tribe. This is no fancy : it is 
an actual account of what must have happened. And surely there is— there must 
be — a great interest in looking back thus for centuries, and seeing, as it were, the 
actual events of those times. History gives them, it is true : but archaeology paints 
them as in a picture; and, though not so really important as any of the exact or 
the natural sciences, yet it is undoubtedly of the greatest importance as a hand- 
maid to history. 



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i:JH M00lh0p^ latut[alt8ts^ 4idi (JIulr. 



SYMOND'S YAT AND BUCKSTONE MEETING. 
June 15, 1875. 



The following is a list of the members of the Woolhope and Ootteswold 
NaturaUsts' Field Clubs present at the joint meeting at Boss, Symond's Tat, The 
Buckstone, and Monmouth, on Tuesday, the 15th instant . — 

Woolhope — Key. G. J. Eobinson (president) and friend, H. 0. Moore, Esq., 
T. Clifton Paris, Esq., W. A. Swinburne, Esq., Revds. G. H. Clay, T. P. Mon- 
nington, A. Gr. Jones, R. H. Williams, W. Wyatt, Stephen Thackwell and friends, 
Captain Underwood, Mr. Pechell and Mr. Arthur Thompson (treasurer and assis- 
tant secretary). 

Cotteswold Club— T. B. LI. Baker, Esq., F.S.S. (Hardwicke Court), Thomas 
Wright, Esq., M.D., r.R.S.E., F.G.S. j(Cheltenham), vice-presidents; William 
Henry Paine, Esq., M.D., F.G.S., F.M.S. (Stroud), honorary secretary; Major 
Barnard, Mr. John Bellows, Rev. E. Comford, Edward Cripps, Esq., Ernest 
ELartland, Esq., George Hepworth, Esq., Thomas Jjancaster, Esq., F. D. Longe, 
Esq., Thomas Marling, Esq., and son; J. Price Moore, Esq., John Daniell Thomas 
Niblett, Esq., Rev. E. R. Nussey, Greorge Serrocold, Esq., John Hooke Taunton, 
Esq., M.I.C.E., F.G.S., Charles Wethered, Esq., Edward Wethered, Esq., J. P. 
WUton, Esq., Captain Winthrop, RN., E. Witchell, Esq., F.G.S., Dr. Bond, Mr. 
Walker, Mr. William R. Paine. 

They were met by the following members of the Woolhope Club at Symond's 
Yat Station : — Colonel Byrde, S. R. Bosanquet, Esq. (Dingestow Court), and W. 
W. Phillips, Esq., and also by the following at dinner at the Royal Hotel, Ross : 
— lieut. -Colonel Symonds, Timothy Curley, Esq., Alfred Purchas, Esq., and 
Lewis Sargeant, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were elected annual members of the Woolhope 
Club :— J. W. Lukis, Esq. (president of the Cardiff Naturalists Society), Mr. W. 
Watkins Old, WiUiam W. PhiUips, Esq. (The Grange, Raglan), Rev. F. C. Steb- 
bing (Kingstone, Hereford), Stephen Vernon, Esq. (Newport, Monmouthshire), R. 
F. WooUett, Esq., M.D. (Castle House, Caerleon). 

After dinner a paper on the Botany of the district was read by Mr. Henry 
Southall, 



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ON THE BOTANY OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF ROSS, AND THE 

LOWER PORTION OF THE WYE VALLEY, 

Bt Mb. Hbnby Southall. 

In giving some account of the more interesting plants to be found in the 
above district, there will be no attempt to present an exhaustive essay on the sub- 
ject, or even to furnish a complete list of its flora, but we shall confine ourselves 
to a hasty sketch of what has come under our own notice in the course of rambles 
in the locality extending over a period of more than twenty years. Many of these 
have been so pleasant and delightful that it is more than possible that an undue 
partiality may be shown to what we shall be excused for considering one of the 
most rich and varied in its vegetation of any equal area in the United Kingdom, 
viz., the Doward Hills, Symonds' Yat, and the Ooldwell Rocks. 

In this locality, in a geological point of view, perhaps the most interesting 
feature may be the junction of the Old Red Sandstone with the Mountain Lime- 
stone, of which latter formation most of the Crags over-hanging the Wye are 
composed, whilst large masses of conglomerate obtrude in places from the hill 
sides, occasionally forming blocks in the bed of the river, where no doubt they have 
roUed, when loosened from their former beds. 

I mention this as explanatory of the character of the soil, upon which so 
much depends as regards the plants and trees growing on it. 

Another noticeable feature of the neighbourhood is the large extent of wood- 
land and the luxuriance and the great variety of the trees with which the tops and 
sides of the hills are clothed, in this- respect presenting a marked contrast to 
Yorkshire, where the timber, especially in Wharfdale, is pretty much confined to 
the valley, leaving the higher ground nearly bare. 

Indeed much of the beauty and picturesqueness for which the Wye scenery 
is so celebrated, particularly in Spring and Autumn, is due to the different colors 
and foliage of so large a number of almost every kind of tree, many appearing to 
be indigenous to the soil. 

Two or three varieties of the Oak are met with. Mr. Babington, however, 
does not admit that there is more than one species of Quercus in Britain. 

The beeches, sycamores, chestnuts, and birches attain to great size. The 
large and small leaved varieties of the lime are seen growing close together. 

The Yew is very abundant and seems to favour the line of the conglomerate 
strata. 

The genus Pyras is not only represented by the Crab Tree (PyruB nuUuaJ 
and the mountain ash (Pynu aucupariaj but by the service tree (Pyrm tormindlisj 
as well as the Pyrus sccmdiea andPyrualoHfoUus, and the white beam {Pyrus mia) 
remarkable, not only for its bunches of white blossoms when in flower, and of 
berries when in fruit) but for the whiteness on the under sides of its soft and 



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downy l«aye6, which when shaken by the wind present qnite a striking appearance. 
The sloe and bullaoe (Prunvs spinoaa and ifuitiUa) the dwarf and wild Cherry 
(PrunuB cerastu and avium) ere common, but the bird Cherry {Prunw Padua) is 
very local. The two Buckthome (Bhamnus cathaHicua and frangtjUa), the spindle 
tree (Euonymua EurqpcBua), the dog wood {Comua tanguinea), the Guelder Bose 
{Viburnum opulua), and the wasrfaring tree (VibiMmum lantana), together with an 
almost endless variety of Boses and Bubi (amongst them some considered very 
local by Mr. Baker), these with the black and red Bryony (Tamua communis and 
Brptmia dioicaj the Honeysuckle and the Elder, of which three separate kinds 
may be noticed, of which the Danewort is most curious — ^are specially ornamental 
either from their foliage, fruit, or blossom. And if we add the poplar and willow, 
the former often filled with mistletoe, and the latter with its never ending varie- 
ties, puzzling even those who have made them a life-long study, together with the 
common and Wych Elms, the Ash, Maple, Alder, Hazel, and Hawthorn, as well 
as the Scotch, Spruce and Larch Firs, we shall have made a considerable selection 
from our list of Forest Trees. And now whilst on the subject of woods we may 
inquire what ferns and other plants are to be found growing in them. Not to men- 
tion particularly those which are almost universal, such as primroses, anemones, 
blue bells, &c., we may note the cow- wheat (melampprum pratenae)^ the wood 
aanide (SanicuJa EuropceaJ, the sweet woodruff, wood Betony, the Ltusula forateri, 
borrerif and piloaa, three not very common species of the wood rush and the Spurge 
(Euphorbia amydaloideaj as almost everywhere exceedingly abundant. The Caper 
Spurge {Euphorbia lathyria) has been found recently near Welsh Bicknor, and the 
only locality in Britain for the Euphorbia Stricta is near Tintem. 

The wood laurel (Daphne Laurtola) occurs frequently. The bear's foot 
(HdUborua viridiaj, with its handsome digitate leaves and green flowers, is found 
in one locality only. The setterwort (Helleborua fcetidua) grows in two or three 
places, some very fine plants of which have been seen this year. The lily of the 
vaUey {Convallaria majalia) and the Solomon's seal (Polpgonatum muUifiorum) in 
two or three places only. The herb Paris, plentiful in a few localities, but rather 
shy. The barberry {Berberia vulgaria) and the box, also scarce. The colmnbine 
(AquHegia wlgaria) is another interesting plant, and one of the commonest of all 
is the traveller's joy or honesty [Clematia vitalba) covering the hedges with its 
feathery masses. The two periwinkles, vinca major and minor, several of the 
orobanchea or broom rapes, with their brown, weedy, withered-looking flowers, and 
parasitical on the roots of hazel, the singular tooth-wort {Lathrcea aquamaria), and 
under the beech trees occasionally in autumn, the yellow bird's nest {Monofy/vpa 
hypopUya), 

The lesser winter green (Pyrola minor) very shy, but very graceful, and 
near it the pretty little Mubua aaxatUia are to be found at the Wynd Cliff, as well 
as Sedum rupeatre and Saxifraga hypnoidea. The wild lettuce {La^ituca viroaa) 
grows on Doward, as well as the small teasel, or shepherd's rod {Dipaaeua piloaua). 
We have also a fair sprinkling of orchids. The fly, frog, and bee orohis are abun- 
dant in some yeani» while in others soaroely to be met with. 



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The butterfly and bird*s nest ditto are generally very plentifuL The trua 
O. Bifoluiy however, is only found in a place or two, as likewise the pretty little 
ladies' tresses {Spirantfies autumnalu). The Helleborines, OephcUarUhera eMifolia, 
and grcmdifloraf and Epipactia ovalis are quite rare, and found (only occasionally. 

As an illustration of the curious way in which orchidaceous plants spring 
up suddenly in fresh spots, we may mention the finding near Bromyard a few 
years ago of the Epipogon aphyUum, which has never before or since been gathered 
in Britain. 

In addition to the above we may include the aromatic Orehut conopsea, the 
rare pyiwfaidalU with its beautiful close crimson spike, also Orchis utttUata and 
latifolia. One other scarce plant may be noticed as growing very sparingly in one 
spot, on a very thick part of the woods, the CynoqUmum morUcmum at wood 
hound's-tongue, the other species being particularly common. 

About 27 species of ferns (not including the minor varieties) are to be found 
round Itoss, that is if we extend the boundary as far as the Black Mountain, where 
the Asplenium viride and Aspidium ThelypterU are both found. 

The Koyal fern, 0. regalis, however, can scarcely be said to grow now, as it 
appears to have become extinct, one lady in her zeal (as it is reported) having sent 
a wagon to transplant it to her fernery. 

Fragilis was plentiful a few years since on the Coldwell Bock, but is now 
nearly gone. Bobertianum or CcUcareunif the limestone polypody still abundant, 
although a very good locality has been temporarily destroyed by railway quarrying. 

The sweet-scented (Emula has hitherto only been found very scantily grow- 
ing under the base of a rock. The adder's tongue and moon- wort, both grow near 
us. The " oak " fern is plentiful on the borders of the Forest of Dean, but the 
"beech " fern much more rarely. Perhaps in few places do the " hart's tongue " 
and other commoner ferns grow in greater profusion or strength than in our woods. 
Several rare grasses are met with, such as the Bromus erecttis, Melica nutaru^ 
Hordeum sylwUicum, Alopecurus fidvus, Bromus secodinus and vdutinus, Bracky- 
podium, pinnatum, CcUamintha epigejos, or the wood reed, &c., &c. The " drunken 
darnel," as it used to be called {Loliuni UmuUntum) the only poisonous grass in 
England, sometimes comes up in the rectory glebe near Boss. 

We have also the Gagea liUea, or yellow star of Bethlehem, apparently 
wild; the other species Ornithogalum nutans and umhellcttum being apparently 
garden escapes. The evergreen alkanet {Anchusa sempervirens) with its intensely 
blue flowers, and the Deptford pink {Dianthus armeria), are both good plants. 
Then of plants used for medical purposes, in addition to some before named, we 
have the DigitaUs in profusion ; the deadly nightshade {Atropa beUcuUmnaJ with its 
potato-like haulm, its dull purple flowers and black currant-like fruit. 

The Elecampane {Iwula Selenium) with its soft downy leaves, two feet long, 
and its large sunflower blossoms. The Henbane [ffyoscyamus nigerj scarce and 
uncertain in its growth. The mother's wort, or as it is called by the villagers 
" the Hand of God " (Leonwus cardiaca) a plant held in great veneration by some. 



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The eoidUeum, valerian, and gentian and many others. The Valeriana rubra is 
Tery fine on the Chepstow rooks, where a white variety also occurs. 

And now as we have pretty well explored the woods, let us take a peep at 
some of the projecting ledges of limestone rock, and we shall find in very early 
spring the Carex dandeMUna, montana, and digitata, and the Hutckinsia petrcea or 
rock cress, all very scarce plants. Later on, the pretty little dropwort (Spircea 
JUipendtUa) the rock rose (Cistus Heliantkemum) and a profusion of Cranium 
fanguineum, sometimes quite a splendid sight, as also the horse-shoe vetch 
{HippocreptB eamosa). 

Water plants are perhaps not quite so numerous as some other kinds, from 
the comparative absence of bogs and wet places. We can boast, however, of a 
pretty large variety. The arrow head, and flowering rush, are both found in the 
Wye, and on its bank?. 

The celery (Apium graveolena), meadow rue f Thalictrum Jiavum), the purple 
loose strife (Lythrum saficariaj, the yellow ditto (Lysimachia vulgaris J, the large 
Campanula kttifolia, also C, Patula and rapunctUtu, 

We have also the bog bean, bog asphodel, sun dews, butter wort, mare's 
tail {Hippuris vulgaris), cotton grass (three species), equisetum, and chara, &c. 
Also a considerable number of maritime plants on the tidal banks of the river, 
which are scarcely worth mentioning. We must not, however, forget one relic of 
monkish times, found in the meadows near Tintem Abbey. The purple goat's 
beard, or " Gro to bed at noon " (Tragopogon porrifolius), so called from its shutting 
up after mid-day. 

But we have already extended our ramble far enough, and, fearing we may 
have tired you, have only to offer our humble apology. 



t-^-SXS^iK^*^ 



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MEETING AT syENFRITH AND GROSMONT. 

July 18th, 1875. 



The third field meeting of the Woolhope Naturalists' Club was held on 
Tuesday last, in the Yale of the Monnow. The curious columbarium of the 
Knights Hospitallers at Garway was inspected, and a visit paid to the adjoining 
church, which contains among other features of interest a chancel arch, the outline 
of whosesoffit is cut so as to form a series of projecting trefoils. It has a rather 
Saracenic look, and is probably unique in construction. A suggestion was made 
by the Rev. H. Cooper Key that the segments of the arch had once formed, or had 
been designed to form parts of a pillar, and that their unique appearance was due 
to their position. However this may be, it is tolerably evident that this peculiar 
arch has been attached to the Norman arch at a later period— possibly when the 
rood loft was added In the passage leading to the detached belfry, a stone cross 
of unusual character was found some years ago. In its centre is a lozenge within 
which is carved a hand with three fingers uplifted, supposed to have been an 
emblem of the Knights Templars who preceded the Hospitallers in their occupa- 
tion of G-arway. It is much to be hoped that this stone, which is now in the cus- 
tody of the Vicar of the parish, will be restored to the church without delay. 

The Club next proceeded to Skenfrith Castle and Church — the former a 
border fortress of trapezium shape with a circular keep, but too much shrouded 
with trees and ivy to admit of close examination ; the latter, an interesting build- 
ing with a very picturesque half timber tower. Among its features was noticed 
an incised slab to the memory of John Morgan, and Anne his wife, (1557-1564) ; 
and in place of an altar cloth, a velvet cape beautifully embroidered in gold thread, 
with designs of angels, fleurs de lys and oriflammes. Skenfrith Castle was often 
visited by John and Henry III. and probably fell into ruin after Glyndwr*s 
rebellion. 

The same fate befell the neighbouring and more important fortress of Gros- 
mont, which was next visited by the Club. Within its walls was bom the heroic 
Duke of Lancaster, known as Henry of Grismont, (stiU the local pronunciation 
of the name) ; and outside them Prince Henry (afterwards Henry V.,) defeated 
the insurgent Welsh in 1405. The history of the district was detailed in the fol- 
lowing paper by the President : — 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, READ AT SKENFRITH. 

We hold our Meeting to-day in a district remarkable not only for the beauty 
of its natural features, but also for the historical interest which attaches to it. We 



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we in what wm formerly called the MaroheB of Wales, and as the history of the 
name is in thie^as in so many other cases— the history of the thing, I must ask 
you in the fiiat place to listen to a little etjrmological discussion. 

About the year 685 an Anglian Chief named Crida (who is thought to have 
left hia name in Credenhill) crossed the Severn and subdued the Silurian tribes, 
which occupied the country between that river and the Wye. He erected the 
conquered country into a kingdom to which was given the name of Myrcna-rio 
(Latinised as Mercia), because it formed the frontier province between the Angles 
•nd the Welsh. The same name — Marcia— is borne by a province in Spain and 
for the same reason. In both cases it meant the district of the ** march " or 
mmrffin, the demarccUion between two alien races. And we find the term entering 
into the composition of the names of similarly situated districts throughout 
Europe. Thus Denmark was the Danish frontier, Finmark and Lippmark the pro- 
vinces wrested by Scandinavian invaders from the Fins and Lapps, Steyermark (or 
Styria) the boundary between the Crermans and the Croats. Single places also 
bore the name. La Marche in the Yosges used to be one of the border towns of 
Alsace, but of course has now been annexed to Germany, and in England we have 
March in Cambridgeshire, situated on the division line between the Danish and 
AnglUn settlements, and the same name applied to part of Herefordshire and 
Shropshire, and forming the title borne by the noble family of Mortimer. 

Our own Mercians or March people were a decidedly aggressive race, and 
by the middle of the 8th century they had absorbed the territory of the Hwiccas 
(Worcestershire and Gloucestershire), the S. Angles and the M. Angles — in-fact, 
they had gained possession of all the central part of England. Of course with this 
extension of territory the original significance of the name was impaired, and when 
— ^two centuries later— Athelstan crushed both Britons and Danes, it was 
merged in the general term England. Not that it then finally disappeared, for the 
province of Mercia continued to exist, governed first by ealdormen and then by 
earls, until the great change which was brought about by the Norman Conquest. 

But the Marches— using that term in its more precise and earlier significa- 
tion—retained their former character even though their dimensions were curtailed. 
They were still a border district, the scene of incessant strife, harassed by alter- 
nate raids and reprisals, and suffering almost as much from the exactions of the 
feudal lords who claimed dominion over them as from the invasions of their hostile 
neighbours. Monmouthshire, it must be remembered, was not constituted a 
county, until the 12th century, thus at the date of Domesday Survey (1086) the 
town of Monmouth, the Castle of Caerleon, and the district of Archenfield, were 
included in Herefordshire, and the country about Llanvair and Portskewit was 
reckoned part of Gloucestershire. All west of the Usk was regarded as being in 
Wales, and the particular district in which we now stand was probably included 
in what was called Went or Gwent Wood, the word Gwent (meaning perhaps fair 
or bright) is preserved to us in Kentchurch. Where then were the Marches of 
Wales ? We can g^ive no precise answer to that question, but many say that they 
included all the country contiguous to the Welsh boundary. Under the Conqueror 



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there were three Earldoms of the March— Chester, Shrewsbury, and Hereford, and, 
we are told, that the duty of the March Earl in England was (like that of the 
analagous Margrave in Germany) to defend and to extend the March or Pale, and 
generally to spoil the enemy's borders adjoining. It would be impossible to lay 
down accurately the limits of a district which was necessarily in a constant state 
of fluctuation. Even at the end of Henry III.'s reign, 1263, we find stated in 
Eymer s Foedera that the Welsh invaded and laid waste the lands in the March 
almoBt as far as Weobley, Eardisley and Wigmore. So the pale at that time must 
have been drawn not far short of the city of Hereford itself. 

It will be easy to gather from what has been said that the great object of the 
Earl of the March and of the mesne lords who held under him must always have 
been to strengthen their positions on the border and to be continually pushing them 
further westward. And these no doubt were the causes which led to the 
foundation of so many castles in this part of England. They were aggressive 
rather than defensive posts. They were designed not merely to overcome the 
Welsh and keep them in check, but also to serve as convenient points from which 
to harass the enemy and levy black mail upon him. Of course there was plenty of 
retaliation, and the Welshman who had plundered and got away would be every 
bit as safe in his own mountains as the Norman would be in his Castle. It may be 
as well to mention here that the earliest Norman Castles were generally nothing 
but a single square tower of immense solidity and buttressed at the angles. The 
windows and entrance doorway were at a considerable height above the ground, 
and the basement story was built of such ponderous masonry as to defy all attacks 
upon it. The inmates were therefore safe from assault, but their quarters being 
limited they could be starved out, if the beleaguering host could keep their ground. 
To meet this difficulty additions to the original structure began to be made in the 
Great Castle-building era of King Stephen, and a part of the adjoining ground was 
enclosed with high walls and protected, if need required it, by a fosse or ditch. 
These outworks gradually increased in importance till in the Edwardian era— the 
latter part of the 13th century — the enclosing walls and towers, with entrance 
gateway, portcullis and moat constituted the most important features of the fortress. 
The Norman Keep (if there had been one) was retained as a place of final retreat, 
but its internal arrangements underwent many changes, and it will often be found 
that the windows were enlarged at this period and many of the earlier character- 
istics destroyed. At what date the three border fortresses of Skenfrith, Grosmont, 
and Llantilio or White Castle were built we have no means of ascertaining with 
certainty. All three are mentioned in a document in the British Museum, 
(Cotton M.S., Vest. A., xviii., 159) which is attributed to the early part of the 
reign of Henry IIL, and they were certainly in existence in the time of King John. 
It 18 not an improbable supposition that their origin was due to the energy which 
King Henry I. displayed in checking the Welsh and repressing their turbulent 
inroads. 

In Skenfrith Castle' we have as you see, a fortress of mixed character. The 
The circular keep is of Norman date, while the curtain walls strengthened by 
towers at the angles belong to the later or Edwardian era. At Grosmont the 



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remAinfl are more important and belong almost entirely to the later period when 
the Border Castle was doubtless refitted for the purpose of forming a residence for 
the Duke of Lancaster. You will find there a hall 80 feet long by 27 feet wide, 
lighted by five windows, and with indications of having been a really noble apart- 
ment A chimney shaft of decorated work is a conspicuous feature and has been 
often engraved. 

The first notice we can find of Skenfrith is in the Chancery Bolls belonging 
to the third year of King John's reign, 1201, or 1202. Mention is there made of a 
sum of money, £14 ISs. 5d. expended out of the royal treasury in the repair of 
the Castles of Hereford, Grosmunte, Blaunchcastell, and Schenefrid. No doubt 
the object of this expenditure was to put the Castles into such a state of defence 
as could enable the king to keep in check the Welsh, who were growing troublesome. 
But within a few years (March, 1204, and again January, 1206,) the king found it 
necessary to proceed in person to the border, for the lords of the Marches — and 
particularly William de Braose, the powerful baron who held most of this countiy, 
had become disaffected and joined cause with the turbulent Welsh. However, 
de Braose and the king made up their quarrel, and the latter restored to the baron 
his Castles of Grosmont, Skenfrith and Lantely, and accepted in return 3 steeds, 
10 greyhounds, and some other gifts. But the reconciliation does not seem to have 
been complete, for we learn from the Close EoUs that the castles were not surren- 
dered, but on the contrary were fortified for the king by Hubert de Burgh, who 
had been appointed Warden of the Marches. By the 18th December, 1206, mat- 
ters had been so far settled that Walter de Cliflford, Sheriflf of Herefordshire, was 
ordered to put into the hands of William de Braose his three fortresses, and for a 
while there was peace between the rival powers. But year after year the king 
came westward endeavouring to force an allegiance, which year after year was ren- 
dered with greater reluctance. At length the rupture with the barons took place, 
and John found that they had made common cause with the insurgent Welsh, and 
were in possession of all the strongest points upon the border. By vigorous 
measures he was enabled at the outset to recover some of the ground that had been 
lost, and by the close of the year 1214, he had seized on Grosmont and the neigh- 
bouring castles, and having placed his own garrisons in them had entrusted them 
to the care of his faithful partisan, John de Monmouth. But in the following 
spring the tide of success was turned. Llewelyn invaded England, and the barons, 
including Giles de Braose, Bishop of Hereford, united with him and secured the 
border castles throughout the whole length of the Marches. The king could make 
no head against the opposition, and on the 15th June, 1215, signed the Magna 
Charta. By some means or other he seems also to have regained possession of 
these South-western Castles, for by the end of the year they were restored to the 
custody of John de Monmouth. Nor did they change hands again for some time, 
for when Henry IIL, visited the border in 1220 and again in 1221 — ^to check the 
threatened inroad of Llewelyn — Scenf rith Castle afforded him shelter, and it was 
in this neighbourhood that he met with most success. It would be tedious work 
to narrate the continually recurring disputes between Henry and the barons, and the 
successive invasions of the March district by Llewelyn and the Welsh. But in 1233 



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the opposition to the king assumed a f onnidable aspect. The Earl Marshal joined the 
revolted barons ; Hubert de Burgh, rescued from prison, threw in his lot with the out- 
laws, and Llewelyn strengthened the cause with a numerous army of sturdy Welsh- 
men. Henry mustered his forces — composed largely of Flemings and other foreigners 
— and marched to Hereford. But he found that the barons had carried oflf all the 
cattle and other effects from the surrounding country and that his vast host were 
without provisions. He therefore retired to the Castle of Grosmont ** intending 
to remain there some days, and, confident in his numbers, encamped negligently 
in the fields outside the Castle. The barons, who had good intelligence, were 
informed of his position ; the Earl Marschal refused to join in an attack upon the. 
person of the King, but the other confederates marched during the night with a 
numerous army of English and Welsh, and at day-break on the feast of St. 
Martin (November 11) fell upon the Koyal Camp, drove away the Knights and 
Soldiers without striking a blow and made themselves masters of above 500 horses 
and all the equipage and luggage of the Camp. The King was safely lodged in 
the Castle of Grosmont, but he lost aU his money and provisions, and many of his 
principal men were obliged to fly almost in a state of nudity." ( WHgkU^ Ludlow, 
p,p, 159-160 J, 

The king fled to Gloucester. Grosmont, Skenfrith, and Lantillio Castles 
after having been retained awhile by a garrison of Fleming's, who were a terror to 
the neighbourhood, were transferred to the care of Hubert de Burgh, then restored 
to favour. In 1238 he surrendered them to the king, and we hear little of them 
again until early in the next century. At that time Grosmont was occupied by 
Henry, Earl of La.ncaster, and within its walls was bom the heroic Duke of 
Lancaster, (surnamed of Gresment) one of the noblest knights who fought beneath 
the standard of Edward III. Throughout the reign of that monarch the castles 
were kept in a state of complete defence, but it does not appear that they were 
ever assailed, in fact, we find no event of any importance in connection with them 
nntil the revolt of Owen Gljoidwr in 1405. That chieftain (who to my mind stands 
on a far lower elevation than Llewelyn) had in the previous year met with the 
greatest success in invading and laying waste the western side of Herefordshire, 
and encouraged by this circumstance and by the addition of a French contingent 
to his army he renewed the campaign with increased vigour. Prince Henry 
(afterwards Henry Y.,) was despatched by his father to Hereford, and heard that 
a body of 8000 Welsh had made a sudden attack on Grosmont and burnt part of 
the town. The prince hastily collected a small force, marched rapidly to Grosmont, 
and on March 11th, defeated the invaders with great slaughter. It is said that 
800 or 1000 Welsh were left dead upon the field : Glyndwr's brother Tudor, was 
among the dead, and his eldest son Griffith, who commanded the expedition, was 
taken prisoner. 

The border oastlea suffered a good deal in the constant warfare caused by 
Glyndwr's rebellion and probably then fell into ruin* Symonds, who visited 
Grosmont in 1645, with Bling Charles* troops, mentions having noticed ** the walls 
of an old castle on the north side of the townd, motdd but in part dry, upon the 



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quarry of stone." And of Skenfrith and White Castle he merely remarks that they 
were "mined." Thus ends their story. But, through the instrumentality of one 
of our members, Bev. T. W. Webb, I am able to add a little further information. 
Some twenty years ago he visited the Skenfrith Castle and was then told by the 
man in charge that he had found on the outer slope, or glacis, at the foot of the 
keep, an arched passage supported by pillars on either side and leading to the base. 
He covered up the entrance without exploring its limits, being either ignorant of 
the traditionary treasure within, or over-awed by some glimpse that he may have 
caught of its dread custodians. As there may be among the members of the 
Woolhope Club some few who are unacquainted with the popular story, I will 
quote from Wright's History of Ludlow, a curious letter on the subject addressed 
by Wm. Hobbye (then a prisoner in the tower of London) to Lord Treasurer 
Burghley, dated 28th April, 1589. — " Leave your Lordship to understand that 
there is a castell in the parish of Skemfyth in the countie of Montgomerie {sic), 
your lordship graunt full authoritie unto myne owne self, I am a poore subject of 
the queenes, if there be any treasure there, your lordship shall know it, for by the 
voice of the country there is treasure. No man in remembrance was ever scene to 
open it, and great warrs hath been at it, and there was a place not f arr from it 
whose name is Gamdon, that is as much as to say the game is done. Pray you, 
goodly lord, give letter to the castle, using your lordships free authoritie to open, 
and if treasure be there, I will use it as it ought to be, and I will stand for your 
lordship's consideration and give me what you please. For the country saieth 
there is a great treasure. The voyce of the country goeth there is a dyvell and 
his dame, one sitts upon a hogshed of gold the other upon a hogshed of silver, yet 
nevertheless with your lordships full power and authoritie they shall be removed 
by the grace of God, without any charge to the queene and your lordship. If 
treasure be there, then I will looke for something at your hands. So praying your 
lordship's answer for the present despatche, so I bid your lordship farewell" 

I cannot do better than echo the last word of this petition and at the same 
time thank you for lending a more ready ear to my words than was probably 
vouchsafed by the Lord Treasurer to those of the unfortunate Wm. Hobbye. 



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WOOL. TRANS. 



CORTINARIUS SAGINUS. FR. 



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OCTOBER 14TH, 1875. 



On the return of the members of the club from the Fungua Foray in 
the grounds of the Eev. G. H. Davenport, at Foxley, the following assembled in 
the club room, at the Free Library, for the transaction of business ; Eev^ C. J. 
Bobinson, President, in the chair ; Sir William V. Guise, Bart., President of the 
Cotswold Naturalists' Club ; Mr. Edwin Lees, President of the Malvem Naturi^ 
lists' Club ; Rev. Wm. S. Symonds, Vice-president of the Malvern Naturalists' 
Club ; Mr. Orlando Shellard, Mr. Thomas Cam, Mr. James Rankin, Mr. W, A. 
Swinburne, Dr. Chapman, Dr. Mc CuUough, Rev. J. F. Crouch, Rev. James Davies, 
Rev. H. W. Phillott, Rev. Stephen Thackwell, Rev. R. H. Williams, Mr. Bdwin 
C. Scobell, Mr. Joseph G. Alexander, Mr. With, and Mr. Arthur Thompson, 
Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. 

The following officers were appointed for the year 1876 ; they will not take 
office until after the Annual General Meeting to be held the early part of next 
year. President : Rev. Sir George H. Come wall, Bart., Moccas Court, Hereford. 
Vice-presidents : Rev. William Jones Thomas, Llanthomas, Hay ; Mr. James 
Rankin, Bryngwyn, Hereford ; Rev. C. J. Robinson, Norton Canon, Weobley ; 
Mr. Wm. A. Swinburne, Dulas, Hay. Central Committee of Management : Mr. 
Timothy Curley, Hereford ; Mr. Charles G. Martin, Hereford ; Mr. J, Griffith 
Morris, Hereford. Treasurer : Mr. Thomas Cam, Hereford. Editorial Committee : 
Rev. Sir G. H. Comewall, Bart., Moocas Court, Hereford ; Kev. Charles J. 
Robinson, Norton Canon, Weobley ; Rev. James Davies, Moor Court, Kington ; 
Mr. James Rankin, Bryngwyn, Hereford ; Rev. H. Cooper Key, Stretton Rectory, 
Hereford; D. M. McCuUough, M D., Larchfield, Abergavenny; Rev. H. W, 
Phillott, Staunton-on-Wye, Hereford. Secretary : Mr, Arthur Thompson, 12, 
St. Nicholas-street, Hereford. Mr. Stephen Robinson, Lynhales, near Kington, 
was elected an annual member of the club. 

After the transaction of the above business, a paper was read by Mr. 
Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S., " On the Anatomy of an Agaric,'* illustrated by 
diagrams. 

The following gentlemen were appointed a committee to examine and draw 
up a report upon the exhibition of fruit : Mr. Thomas Cam, Hereford; Mr. F. 
W. Herbert, Credenhill Park, Hereford ; Mr. James Rankin, Bryngwyn, Here* 
ford ; with Mr. Chapman, Librarian of the Free Library, Secretary. 

8 



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Among tiM 61 gtntbiiimi preiant ftt the dinner at the Green Dragon Hotel, 
Hertford, and othen who joined the party during the day, we noticed the follow- 
ing :— The Preddent, the Bev. Charles J. Robmson, Norton Canon ; Sir William 
y. Gniie, Bart, F.G.S., Elmore Court, Gloucester, President of the Cotswold 
Naturalists' Field Club ; Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c., President of the 
Malvern Naturalists' Field Club; Bev. William S. Symonds, F.G.S., Pendock 
Beotory, Tewkesbury, Vice-president of the Malvern Naturalists' Field Club ; 
Mr. C. B. Broome, F.L.S., &o., (Bath), Dr. Cooke, Dr. McNab (Dublin), Bev. 
William Houghton, M.A., F.L.S., &c. (Preston, Salop), Mr. Houghton, 
Major Houghton, Mr. Cedl H. Spencer Percival (Clifton), Mr. William 
Fhniips (Shrewsbury). Mr. E. Pateshall, M.P., Mr. Charles B. Plowright 
(King's Lynn), Mr. James Bennie (Botherfield, Sussex), Mr. Worthington 
O. Smith, F.L.S. (London), Bev, J. E. Vize (Welshpool), Mr. O. Shellard 
(Mayor of Hereford), Mr. Joseph G. Alexander, Mr. Edward Alexander (Ciren- 
cester), Dr. Bull, Mr. Cam, Dr. C*hapman, Dr. McChillough, Bev. J. F. Crouch, 
Bev. Jamee Davies, Bev. W. C. Fowle, Bev. J. E. Jones-Machen, Mr. George 
Cocking, Mr. Timothy Curley, Bev. Canon Girdlestone (Gloucester), Mr. W. C. 
Gibson (Leamington), Dr. Davies (Ebbw Vale), Mr. F. W. Herbert, Mr. J. 
Bowie Evans, Captain Minshull Ford, Mr. H. A. Dean, Mr. W. Toms, Mr. 
Joseph Chneaves, Bev. William Jones Thomas, Bev. A. G. Jones, Mr. Theo. Lane, 
Mr. H. C. Moore, Bev. W. H. Mills, Mr. Fortey, Mr. C. Fortey, Mr. J. Griffith 
Monris, Mr. Morris, jun., Bev. G. M. Metcalfe, Bev. J. Norton, Bev. H. B. D. 
Marshall, Bev. H. W. Phillott, Mr. James Bankui, Mr. Edwin C. Scobell, Mr. 
Lewis Sergeant, Bev. B. L. S. Stanhope, Bev. F. C. Stebbing, Mr. J. F. Symonds, 
Mr. Beginald Symonds, Mr. W. A. Swinburne, Bev. Stephen Thackwell, Dr. 
Vaohell (Cardiff), Bev. B. H. Williams, Bev. Arthur Young, Mr. B. Walker, 
Mr. Wheatley, Mr. Chapman, and Mr. Arthur Thompson, Treasurer and Assis- 
tant Secretary. 

At the close of the repast, the President (Bev. C. J. Bobinson) briefly pro- 
posed the health of "The Queen," and then called upon Dr. Bull to give a local 
msreologioal report, and to read a short occount of " A Spring Foray at Whit- 
field "; after which the following paper was read : " On the Colours imparted to 
Landscape Objects by Cryptogamic Vegetation," by Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L.S., 
and President of the Malvern and Worcester Naturalists' Field Clubs. 

The following is a record of the apples and pears exhibited at Hereford in 
connection with the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. 

When it was proposed last year that in future an exhibition of apples and 
pears should be held under the auspices of the Club, in connection with its usual 
annual display of fungi, it was admitted that the first exhibition would be simply 
an experimental one, to t^ the present interest taken in this and the adjoining 
counties and it has proved— both by the number of specimens of fruit exhibited, and 
the imiversal pleasure and satisfaction expressed by all who visited it— that the 
exhibition will become a popular one. One object of the Club will henceforth be 
to ascertain the correct names of the different kinds of cider, peny, cooking and 



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133 

dessert apples and pears, produced in this and the neighbouring distriots ; to deter- 
mine the best sorts grown ; and so to be able to recommend the coltivation of fraifti 
of greater excellence in the place of existing kinds of an inferior quality. 

D signifies that the varieties so marked are to be used for dessert only ; K 
for kitchen purposes ; and C for cider making. Those marked SI D are useful 
either for kitchen or dessert use. The synonyms where giren are taken from 
" Hogg 8 Manual of British Pruits." 

The following is a list of the gentlemen who exhibited and the fruit exhibit 
ted by them ; — 

Apples.— Dr. Bull : (K) The Wellington, or Dumelow's Seedling* ; (K) 
Oat*s-head, or Dutch CkxUing* ; (K) New Bess Pool, seedling of Old Bess Pool* ; 
(K) Wormsley Pippin, or Knight's Codling*. Col. Byrde : Pomme de France ; 
Glory of England ; Amret Grosgris ; Amret Anglaise ; (C) Loume Apple* ; (K) 
Mairgas Tresor*; (K) Codlings*; (D) Northern Spy; (D) Lady's Fingers, or 
White Paradise*; (K) Waltham Abbey Seedling, or Golden Noble*; (D) 
Pomeroy* ; (C) Normandie ; (K) Bedfordshire Pippin* ; Reinette d'Angleterre ; 
(D) King of the Pippins, or Golden Winter Pearmain* ; Golden Pipiiin ; (D) 
Syke House Eusset, or Syke House Pippin ; Coudame's Apple. T. Cam, Esq. : 
(D)Margil, or Neverfail*; (D) Scarlet Nonpareil*; (D) Cox's Orange Pii>pin* ; 
(D) Northern Spy ; Peach Pippin ; (D) Court o' Wick, or Golden Drop* ; Rev. C. 
H. Bulmer, Old London Pearmain; (D) Cox's Orange Pippin*; (K) Gennain 
Apple* ; Cranstoun's Seedling ; (D) Ashmead's Kernel ; Morning Pippin. Bev. 
Preb. Davies: (KB) Dlenheim Orange, or Woodstock Pippin*; (K) Dutch OodUng, 
or Cat's head* ; (K) Golden Noble, or Waltham Abbey Seedling* ; (D) Cox's 
Orange Pippin*; (D) Bibston Pippin, or Glory of York* ; (D) Downton Pippin ; 
(D) Franklin's Golden Pippin*; (KD) Fern's Pippin, or Clifton Nonsuch. F. W. 
Herbert, Esq. : (KD) Quarenden, or Sack Apple*; Queening ; (D) Old Peannain*; 
(C) Garter Apple* ; (KD) Orange Pippin, or Isle of Wight Pippin ; (K) 
French Crab* ; Skyrme's Kernel ; (D) King of the Pippins* ; (D) Bibston Pippin; 
(C) Strawberry Norman* ; (K) Hawthomden* ; (C) Cowame Red* ; (DK) 
Cowame Queening*; (DK) Blenheim Orange, (D) Golden Harvey, or Brandy 
Apple* ; (D) Norfolk Biffin, or Beefing* ; (K) Cat's-head, or Dutch Codling* ; (K) 
Yellow Elliott*tJ: ; (C) Yellow Norman* ; (DK) Gamon's Pippin, or Court Pendu 
Plat*; (C) Fox. whelp*; (D) Pomeroy*; (C) Upright Nonnan*; (C) Siberian 
Harvey ; (D) Downton Pippin ; (D) Margil, or Neverfail* ; (D) Lady's Finger8> 
or White Paradise* ; Carraway Russett ; (C) Red Norman^ ; eight kinds un- 
known. A Hutchinson, Esq., Hagley Park : (D) Biddulph's Nonpareil*t ; (D) 
Margil, or Neverfail*. J. C. Kent, Esq., Earl's Croom : (D) Chacely Harvey, 
or Golden Harvey*. H. C. Moore, Esq., Infirmary : (D) Ijady's Fingers, or 
White Paradise*; (C) Red Styre* : (C) Fox-whelp*; Russets; (D) Old Peannain*; 
Goose Apple ; (D) Ribston Pippin* ; (DK) Blenheun Orange* ; (D) Nonpareil ; 
Been Apple ; Captain's Kernel ; (C) Cowame Red* ; 8 kinds unknown. Rev. T. 
Phillips, Dewsall : (C) Fox-whelp* ; (D) Pomeroy* ; (D) Margil, or Neverfail*; 
(K) Royal Somerset, or London Pippin*; (K) Cat's-head, Dutch Godliog, or 



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134 

Gh«lin«r*« Large* ; Qulnoe ; 1 unknown. W. A. Swinbourae, Esq., DuIas, Hay: 
P) Old Nonpareil* ; (D) King of the Pippins* ; (DK) Blenheim Orange* ; 
(P) Cox*i Orange Pippin* ; (D) Mannington'a Pearmain* ; (K) Hawthomden * ; 
Codling ; (D) Golden Harvey, or Brandy Apple ; (K) Cox's Pomona ; 3 unknown 
kinds. Bev. R. H. Williams, Byford : (DK) Blenheim Orange* ; (D) Ribston 
Pippin*; (D) Court Pendu Plat, or Gamon's Pippin;* (K) Alexander, or Emperor 
Alexander*; (K) Wellington, or Dumelow's Seedling* ; (K) Five-nosed Pippin, 
or London Pippin ; 3 unknown kinds. 

Pkabs.— Rev. C. H. Bulmer, Oredenhill — Glotl Morceaux. or Beurre 
d'Cambronne ; Winter Nelis, or Beurr^ de Malines ; Catillac, or Bon Chretien 
d'Amien's ; Marie Louise, orBraddiok's Field Standard ; Josephine ^de Malines ; 
Beurr^ Duval ; Jeudmeme ; Beurrd Def ays ; Duchesse d'Angouleme, or 
Dnohene; La Comice; Louise Bonne of Jersey, or Beurr^ d'Avranches* ; 
Beigamot d'Esperen; Guernsey Chaumontel, or Chaumontel. Alexandre 
Lambre; Beurr^ Caprimont. Col. Byrde, Goytre House — Figue d'Alen^on, 
Boniseime de la Sarthe ; Beurr^ d'Alembert ; Beurr^ d'Amanlise, or d^ Amanlis ; 
Chaumontel, or Bezi de Chaumontel ; Marechal de la Cour, Beurr^ Magnifique, 
or Beurr^ Diel ; Beurr^ Superfin ; Doyenne du Comice* ; Duchess d'Angonleme, 
or Duchesse. Dr. McCullough, Abergavenny— Baronne de Mello, or Adele de 
^t. Denis ; Doyenne du Comice* ; Beurr^ Superfin* ; Bezi Mai ; Marechal de la 
Cour ; Bergamot d'Esperen ; Marie Louise ; Gansel's Bergamot, or Bonne 
Rouge* ; Beurr^ Hardy* ; Monarch (Kpight's) ; Alexander Bivort ; Gloflt 
Morceau, or Beurr^ de Cambronne ; Urbaniste, or Beurr^ Drapiez* ; Josephine 
de Malines ; Marie Louise d'Uccle* ; Beurr^ Easter ; Uvedale's St. Germain, 
or Abbe Mongein ; Beurr^ Diel, or Beurr^ Magnifique ; Soldat Esperen ; Doyenne 
Gris, or Red Doyenne ; Louise Bonne of Jersey, or Beurr^ d'Avranches* ; Nelis ; 
Beurr^ d'Aremberg, or Beurr^ Deschamps. T. Cam, Esq.— Beurr^ Bosc, or Beurr^ 
d*Apremont.* Rev. Prebendary Davies, Moor Court — Beurr^ Easter ; two un- 
known kinds. A. Hutchinson, Esq., Hagley Park— Broom Park, Marie Louise; 
Easter Beurr^ ; Marechale de la Cour ; Beurr^ Diel, or Beurr^ Magnifique. 
H. C. Moore, Esq., the Infirmary — Black Worcester, or Parkinson's Warden. 
Rev. T. Phillips, Dewsall— Brown Beurr^, or Beurr^ Gris. W. A. Swinboume, 
Esq., Dulas— Beurr^ Diel, or Beurr^ Magnifique; Louise Bonne of Jersey, or 
Beurr^ d'Avranche; Marie Louise, or Braddick's Field Standard. 

Those marked with an asterisk were considered the best of their class 
amongst those exhibited. 

t Full flavoured, handsome, and good cropper. 
X Really Rood. 

The Beurr^ Superfin was considered the best pear for present use. It is des- 
cribed in Dr. Hogg's Manual as "fine grained in the flesh, buttery, melting, and 
very juicy, with a brisk piquant flavour, and fine aroma. A first-rate dessert pear, 
ripe in the end of September and beginning of October. The tree is a vigorous 
grower, hardy and prolific, and succeeds well as a standard or pyramid.'' 



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THE ** FUNGUS FORAY." 

(Daily News.) 

The Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, one of the oldest and largest of the 
local societies established for the practical study of natural history, has its head* 
quarters at Hereford, and is especially distinguished for the attention it pays to the 
mysteries of mycology and mycophagy. Eyery autumn its members meet together 
for what is termed ** A Foray among the Funguses, '* and the enthusiasm displayed 
on these occasions is apt to excite no little amusement in the district where the 
search is carried on. The humorous features of the meeting were delineated last 
year in the pages of the Graphic by the skilful pencil of Mr. Worthington Smith 
— ^himself a philagaric of high repute — and it is therefore only fair to add that the 
picture has also a serious side. By ** serious" we do not mean disastrous, for we 
are bound to say that as yet no ill result has followed either the foray or the feast 
where its spoils are discussed ; we simply mean that mycology is a science of some 
practical importance, and that in modem England it has hitherto been unduly 
neglected by the botanist, the epicure, and the domestic economist. Still, in spite 
of the assurance that our edible fungi contain all the elements of nutrition, and are 
specially rich in osmazome, we doubt whether they will ever supplant, or even 
supplement to any large extent, the animal food which the soul of the Englishman 
craves. Somehow or other, the evil name which Nero's devilish deed attached to 
the boletus clings to the whole genus of agarics, and no one can scarcely lift an 
imaccustomed morsel to one's lips without fearing lest it might be 

Qualem Clandius edit 
Ante ilium uxoris post quern nil amplius edit. 

Of course, at the Woolhope Club dinner, which took place on Thursday, 
such alarms were absent, and the members freely partook of several edible varie* 
ties (Hydnum repandum, Goprinus comatus, Ag. arvensis, &c.)} not merely snatch- 
ing a fearful joy from the repast, but deliberately criticising its characteristic 
features. It was unfortunate that the chilly summer had checked the growth of 
mycelium, and consequently the show of fungi was below the level of previous 
years. The common mushroom (Ag. campestris) was very rarely seen throughout 
the Foray, and the preponderance of poisonous or suspicious agarics in the Exhibi- 
bition was encouraging to those who take an alarmist view of the matter. In 
truth, the difficulty of laying down any rules by which the edible varieties may be 
distinguished from those that are noxious seems insurmountable. Even the 

Horatian maxim — 

Pratensibus optima fungis 
Natura-est ; aliis male creditur. 

is not altogether admissible, and there is absolutely no test of universal application. 
Perhaps the best thing for most people to do is to acquaint themselves with the 
external characteristics of the few varieties which are really useful additions to the 
cuisine, and leave the remainder to the professional mycologist. First in the list 
of edible fungi we are disposed to place the parasol mushroom (agaricus procerus). 



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the delioate flftyotir of which U raperior even to that of the champignon (maraa- 
miu8 oreades). The maned agaric (coprinue oomatiu) and the hedgehog mushroom 
(hydnum repandtun) come next in order of merit, and from their peculiar appear- 
ance are easily identified. To these may be added the so-called vegetable sweet- 
bread (agaricua orcella), in whose praise M. Boques becomes ecstatic, and the 
chantarelle (canthareUua dbarius), which happens to be particularly abundant at 
this present season. The PufiFball (Lycoperdon giganteum) meets with general 
approval throughout the continent of Europe ; but the specimens we have eaten in 
England have invariably been insipid and deficient in nourishment. Much has 
been said in pnuse of the liver fungus or vegetable beefsteak (fistulina hepatica), 
the red fleshy fungus which one often sees attached to the decayed stump of an oak 
tree. Dr. Badham says that ** when grilled it is scarcely to be distinguished from 
boiled meat," and no dbubt, when gathered at maturity, it possesses a distinctly 
meaty flavour, and yields a juice which might be mistaken for gravy. We should 
be glad to think that its use might help to keep down the price of butcher's steaks, 
but for ourselves we must confess that we prefer the animal to the vegetable 
variety, and would consign the latter to the stock-pot, where it will prove a valu- 
able ingredient. Almost all agarics, it must be remembered, are rather rich, and 
should therefore be eaten in moderation. To eat them as accompaniments to meat 
is an obvioua error ; they should form a separate course, and Burgundy will be 
found the most suitable wine to drink with them. With regard to their cooking, 
it may be laid down as a maxim that they should never be boUed, but either 
stewed gently, and for a long time, or broiled, with salt, pepper, and butter, before 
a quick fire. This branch of the subject, however, is one which has nowhere 
received, nor can it here receive, adequate treatment. We commend it to the 
attention of the School of Cookery at South Kensington. The Council of that 
learned body might readily adopt some means by which a discriminating know- 
ledge of fungi might be disseminated, and the edible varieties rendered most pala- 
table. The crop of agarics is too partial and precarious to be worth regarding as 
a contribution to the food supply of the country ; but that is no reason why it 
should be so totally neglected as is now the «ase. The Fungus Foray at Hereford 
has this year been fully attended, and all the leading mycologists of Britain, 
including Dr. Cooke, Sir William Guise, Bart., Be v. W. Houghton, Messrs. 
Broome, Bennie, Flowright, Dr. Bull, &c,, have taken part ii^it The papers 
read by Mr. Worthington Smith are not merely valuable additions to otir know- 
ledge of funguses, but seem to promise a solution of one of the great scientific 
questions of the day— the identity of animal and vegetable life. 



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ON THE COLOURS IMPARTED TO LANDSCAPE 

OBJECTS BY CRYPTOGAMIC VEGETATION. 

BY EDWIN LEES, F.L.S., &o. 

I am almost ashamed, in the presence of gentlemen accustomed to scientific 
study and technical precision that leads on to the attainment of practical know- 
ledge, to read a paper that appeals rather to the uninitiated, and throws no light 
on classification or ph3rsiology. But my friend Dr. Bull seemed to think that a 
few remarks of a general character might relieve the effort that is necessary to 
follow scientific deductions and analytical details, and as my object has alwa3rs 
been to give popular interest to botanical study, perhaps you will allow me to give 
colour to a subject that too often reposes under a neutral tint, or is shadowed by a 
darker hue. 

A subject i^parent to the eye nmy be treated in three ways : either techni- 
cally, as the describers and classifiers of natural objects do in their treatises, 
synopses, or fasciculi, among which you must have seen the arranged specimens in 
the various families of fungi by Mr. Berkeley, and various learned foreign 
collectors, as well as those sent out by Mr. Plowright and Mr. Phillips, and the 
careful descriptions by Mr. Broome, in the annals of Natural History, and the 
f ungological arrangement by Dr. Cooke and other authors ; or an artistic view may 
be taken, as in the illustrated publications so pleasing to contemplate, with popular 
readable descriptions and anecdotes ; or in an economic point of view, the actual 
utility of natural objects may be considered, and their subserviency to the wants 
and appetites of mankind. Here the analysis of the chemist comes in, the 
morphology of plants has to be considered, and the anatomical details and obscure 
modes of reproduction demand the skilful use of the microscope. 

But as mankind in general look to the ordinary value and use of vegetables 
in the way of nourishment that the palate may approve, so while approving any 
new luxury, they treat with contempt organisms, however curious, that can be 
made no edible use of. Thus the ordinary mushroom is esteemed by all classes, 
while all other agarics come under the general odium of f rogstools and toadstools. 
Here our sagacious friend Dr. Bull has come to the rescUe, and the lover of fungoid 
substances may revel in the savoury aliment that the fields produce for two months 
in the autumnal season. If, as Burke once said, that man is a benefactor to his 
country who makes grass grow where it had never grown before, so a fwrtiU/ri, he 
who enables things to be eaten that were never eaten before is a still greater 
benefactor — provided the palate and the stomach are agreed to enjoy and digest 
the new viands without fear of consequences. 

But, though the products of the stew-pot and frying-pan may be at times 
acceptable, lovers of Nature will soar above gastronomical ideas, and I am inclined 
to think that the eye should b« pleased and instructed on landscape objects, and 



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the colouring they exhibit, before due attention will be given to their study scien- 
tifically. Artists are of necessity students of local colouring, yet how few under- 
stand on what that local colouring depends, or are able to name the causes 
of it ! A skilful landscape painter was once praising to me the banks of a 
retired brook, which for a long distance, he said, was beautifully verdant by an 
extensive growth of a kind of moss that he had not seen elsewhere. I asked him 
to show me a specimen, and it then appeared that his supposed moss was really 
a marchantiat which, by its close thalloid growth, often cases the banks of seques- 
tered brooks in a peculiar manner. My friend, after this enlightenment, -was 
induced to look more minutely into vegetation than he had hitherto done, and on 
visiting him the other day I found he had brought home from the New Forest, 
where he had been sketching, a whole bag-full of licheru from the old trees, there 
to study them at his leisure. 

But people in general who are not practical students of Natural History 
look to the colourable aspect of things, and are attracted by landscape scenery 
accordingly. My own efforts have always been directed to describe the objects of 
Nature in popular language, and thus give an incitement to instructive observa- 
tion. If this is an humble position to take, still I think it awakens attention — 
tends to enlarge the number of students of Nature, who are often deterred by the 
technicalities of science, and the continually changing nomenclature of difficult 
pronunciation that of late years has been especially introduced in the departments 
of Botany and Palscantology. 

But to come at once to the purport of my paper, I would remark that it is 
by no means generally acknowledged that the lower tribes of vegetation often 
impart a peculiar character and colouring to the landscape, and non-scientific 
observers do not understand the nature of what they perceive, though fully 
obvious to the eye. Poets and painters, who ought to be close observers as to what 
gives colouring to objects, yet seldom do more than take a superficial look. Thus 
Orabb mentions :— 

The wiry moss that whitens all the hill, 

not apparently aware that this gray moss is in reality the the Beindeer Lichen, 
that on waste heaths and the dreary mountains of the north gives such a peculiar 
feature to the treeless landscape. So Southey, noticing an old decrepid apple tree, 
hoary in its aspect as a gray-haired man, calls the Usnea, that depends its lichenic 
filaments there, a moss, though it is well-known to the Natiu-alist that while the 
majority of lichens are gray, hoary, or gloomy-looking, the extensive tribe of 
mosses are mostly green. 

The mosses, however, in all their verdant beauty do cover eminences to a 
great extent, as may be noticed on the Malvern Hills, where, except grasses and 
gorse, but few other plants are to be found. So old roofs and thatched bams and 
cottages assume the liveliest green tints as winter approaches. Hence an observant 
poet is correct when he says— 

When on the barn's thatch'd roof is seen, 
Mosses in tufts of liveliest green, 
When flowers are dead andall is drear, 
Be sure that Christmas-tide is near. 



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As a contrast to this general verdure of mosses, boggy places may be noticed where 
they are marked to the eye by the investiture of the gray, melancholy-looking 
Sphagnum, dangerous to tread upon. 

We are all so familiar with the aspect of fems~-green, as fringing rocky 
lanes with their elegant fronds, or in autumn showing an extent of rich sienna- 
brown, where the Eagle Brake (Pteria aquilina) revels to a wide extent in parksi 
heaths, and forest ground as a covert to game— that I need not dwell on the beauty 
of ferns, though I can scarcely avoid a note of admiration to rocks where they 
dangle, or the effect of masses of the parsley-leaved fern ( AUmorus criapaj, on the 
Welsh mountains. 

I rather wish to refer to the humbler cryptogamic tribes, that by their 
congregated numbers and confluence tint rocks and hills, and emblazon their 
rigidity. 

Among these Lichens take an important place, for maritime rocks are often 
resplendent with orange, yellow, or burnt-sienna tints from the various Lichens 
that luxuriate in the damp sea air ; and |I remember a range of cliffs on the 
Pembrokeshire coast made brilliantly golden by the spread of the brass-wire 
Lichen (Borreraflavicans) upon their rugged surface. Even among common rural 
objects how often long out-house roofs or stabling have the yellow Lichens that 
encrust the tiles lit up in colorific pomp by the descending sun, and an old broken- 
down half -rotten barn door is diversified by the coloured impressions of the damp 
fingers of time. 

The rocks of Switzerland Jp many places are reddened to a] great extent by 
a cryptogam called by LinnsBus Lichen JoHthns, though now considered to be 
an Algal, and I observed some great rocks thus coloured on Monte Kosa, which 
probably derives its name from that circumstance. The buttresses of country 
churches and old tombstones are often reddened by this substance. 

Other precipices and damp stony walls are sobered into dingy brown by the 
spread of Parmeliat, or blackened by the OoUemate tribe— 

The living stains that Nature's hand alone 
Profuse of life pours forth upon the stone ; 

and the beauty of the Map Lichen (Lecidea. geographica) that spreads its yellow 
thallus cracked with black Jines like the courses of rivers on a map, over granite 
and trap rocks in mountainous countries, has been generally acknowledged. 

Many rocks and stone towers are made gray by the Crab's-eye Lichen 
(Lecawyra pa/reUa), or the Cudbear {0» Tartarea), and many rocks thus whitened 
receive a distinctive name in WsJes ; and it is remarked that such rocks become 
peculiarly visible in dull weather, and the Welsh peasantry, taking the hint in 
their tempest-beaten localities, whitewash their houses all over, roofs and every 
part. Old trunks of trees are often coloured by Lichens and Jungermannice, and 

T 



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the turl of mountainoufl places produces colours from the CladonioB that vie with 
the tints of the gaudiest flowers, as noticed by Wordsworth— 

Ah me ! what lovely tints arc there ! 
Of olive-green and scarlet bright, 
In spikes, in branches, and in stars, 
Green, red, and pearly white. 

But to enjoy this diversity of colouring from lichenic growth, the explorer 
must climb among the mountains, and although among barren cliffs and desolate 
scenery he will awake to glorious imaginings. 

Probably the Alga exercise a greater power as to the extent of colour they 
impart to landscape and marine scenery than even the Lichens. This is very 
obvious on the coast, where the ebb tide reveals the flabby fingers of seaweeds 
upon the dripping rocks. It is true that the commoner kinds, as Fucus vesicu- 
lomSf are very dingy in hue ; but among the little pools of water left in the cavities 
of rocks, the eye is delighted with the fairy forms and diversified colours there 
presented to view that emulate the tints of the brightest garden flowers ; but here 
I can only indicate, as time will not allow me to describe. On a grand scale the 
Sargasso Sea, extending hundreds of miles, is a marine spectacle often described 
by voyagers in the mid- Atlantic Ocean. 

But I must glance a moment at the hues that arise from moisture on the 
ground everywhere. Notice the effect of rain after any drought. In some places 
a quantity of green jelly appears so suddenly produced that it was formerly sup- 
posed to have dropped from the sky, and was believed to be the residuum of a 
shooting star ! This is really an Algal called Nostoc community whose growth on 
gravelly soil from sudden rain is of the most extraordinary character, and quicker 
than the night-growing Agarics. Other Algals o^ a similar jelloid nature occur to 
give a green or dark brown colour to damp rocks. In exposed paths or roads long 
spreads of green appear from the sudden growth of the tubular Jjyngbya, or black 
trails show themselves as if soot had fallen made by the combined cells of the 
PcUmellacece or OscUlcUoriacece* Under walls, too, these spread numerous crimson 
and deep purple blotches, commonly called gory dew, and which has been thought 
to be ominous of bloody deeds done or shadowed forth. This is an Algal called 
Palmella cruenta^ and allied to the red snow of Alpine and Polar regions, which is 
coloured by Protococcus nivalis. The AlgcB comprise a vast variety of forms, all 
variations of the simple vegetable cell, but the greatest number of the Conifervoid 
tribes vegetate in water, and thus give a colour to the surface of ponds and rivers. 
Here they increase with wonderful quickness, and in summer time the JEntero- 
morpha intestinalis becomes very conspicuous, and I have seen it covering canals 
for miles together. So the Water-flannel {Zygneina capillaris) shows itself like 
great cobwebs along the sides of ditches in autumn, though it is soon blanched 
from exposure. 

The surface of stagnant water becomes in summer spread over with a green 

coat of Desviidcce, an accumulation of vegetable cells, and another tribe colour the 

water of pools and canals as if they were converted into blood. I once noticed this 

a canal in Wiltshire, where the water was crimsoned for miles, strangely con- 



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traating with the green fields. Flat roofs are in like manner coloured after rain 
by the Protococcus pluvialU, 

In the Arctic regions green and brown slimes are mentioned by Professor 
Nordenskjold as covering hundreds of thousands of square miles of water, and this 
slime when examined was found to be made up of various species of minute 
cellular vegetable organisms. In like manner it is stated by Dr. Hooker in his 
"Botany of the Antarctic Voyage," that the waters and ice of the South Polar 
Ocean abound with microscopic vegetation in such countless myriads as to stain 
the berg and pack ice and the base of the great Victoria barrier itself wherever 
exposed to the swell of the sea, of a brown colour, as if the Polar waters were 
charged with oxide of iron. So the Red Sea produces a local Algal that has been 
noticed to redden its surface to such an extent that vessels have taken days to pass 
through it, and it has been suggested that the Bed Sea has thus received an 
appropriate name. 

Eocks are also coloured and darkened by various minute cellular organisms, 
either Diatoma or belonging to the Desmidiacecej and names in accordance with the 
hues displayed are given to such localities. There is in Worcestershire a range 
of rocks on the banks of the Severn called Blackstone Kocks, though in reality 
formed of new red sandstone. But the surface of these rocks is blackened to a 
great extent by a minute cellular Algal which gives them the appearance of having 
been blackened by fires. There is a curious byssoid substance of a golden colour, 
known as Okroolepus aureus^ that burnishes old stone crosses, damp rocks, and 
occasionally trunks of trees. When once wandering in Wales, I came upon a 
plantation of old Larches, whose trunks were so covered with this bright-hued 
plant that when the sun shone upon them they appeared like pillars of gold. 

But what shall I say of the Fungi? They certainly contribute to the 
colouring of the landscape, though in a subservient degree, because it is only in 
autumn that they make themselves visible in any number. Polyporus and some 
other genera of a persistent nature show themselves indeed at other times, and in 
botanical rambles I have been often struck with the appearance of large masses of 
Polyporus aulfwreusy very bright in colour— often on yew trees ; and of Polyporu9 
squamosuSf on the Ash. Among old trees in parks and forest places, various 
Polypori often make a peculiar feature, fringing decaying branches ; and in the 
New Forest, and in Wales, I have seen old birches with such a number of the 
cake-like P. hetuUna upon them, that it might be supposed they were laden with 
fruit. On rotting boles the black glue-like Bulgaria inqumans, when in clusters, 
is very remarkable in shady silvern retreats found out by the fungologist. 

But the Agarics and Boleti, where they are numerous and freshly sprung up, 
give a colorific featnre to the ground as soon as the mists of autumn begin to 
prevail, justifying Tennyson's remark as to Fungi — 

Which in autumn-tide do star 

The black earth with brilliance rare. 

A friend of mine, with whom I was walking through a wood last year, and 
who had paid little or no attention to Funguses, was perfectly astonished at the 
scarlet hues of the numerous fly- Agarics {Amanita mmcarius) that presented them< 



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jwlTM before our view, some being of extraordinary dimensiona ; as well as the 
brick red elevated pilH of Boletus icaber. The ground in iir groves is often made 
vividly beautiful with the golden yellow of Bdetus elegans, or the gamboge tint of 
B, Jlavui, besides the purple hues that several scattered Agarics present to the 
wondering eye with branching coral-like tufts of Clavarke. In and about the 
pleasant paths of groves when the autumnal breeze raises melancholy music 
among the dying foliage, the tops of Agaricus emeticus appear like purple fruit 
lying upon the ground, while A. vescus and A, heterophylVuSy also enliven the 
woody scene, and several of the tall AgaricvLS procerus present a very curious 
aspect. The pink or carmine pileus of Ag. rutUans that affects to grow on Btumi)8, 
is another attractive Agaric, and how rich A. cinnamomeus and A, sanguineus 
appear on their mossy beds. So the moist breath of autumn calls up new forms 
of vegetable morphism which might not otherwise have appeared, thus giving 
splendid colours to the products of damp and decay. 

A Fairy Eing, if well stored with agarics in close connection with each 
other, is as pretty an object among moist autumnal pastures as can well be seen, 
and besides awakens all sorts of ideas — poetical, superstitious, and theoreticaL 
Certainly fields are made greener from the decay of agarics growing in rings, as 
Shakspeare intimates, alluding to the popular idea that fairies in their circling 
dances made the rings : — 

The expression that it bears, green let it be, 
More fertile fresh than all the field to see. 

So another author has observed, as if really believing in fairy pastime : — 
*' Where the small people dance the moonlight is the clearest, the dew is the most 
lustrous, and the pasture is the greenest after.'* This any observant eye may have 
noticed, but the effect is really due to the decay of funguses thus manuring the 
■oil. Mushrooms and puffballs, too, where numerous, if not tempting in colour, 
ore conspicuous on the gn^en turf by their immaculate whiteness. 

While the fading groves, in the decline of autumn, rise before the eye in 
colorific glory, the cryptogamic botanist in his pleasant wanderings sees the 
ground coloured with the bright hues of Agarics dhd Boleti that spring up daily, 
in rapid succession, as if vieing with the tinted leaves; for some of the larger 
Fezizas, as P. auramti(ica and P. onotiea^ prevent fascinating patches of colour that 
even attract observers ignorant of their names and nature. Peziza cocdnea pre- 
sents a oup of the deepest carmine, that often attracts the most incurious, and the 
adornment of stumps In woodland places by species of the genera Trichia and 
Arcurif^, that show when the Peridia bursts the beautiful pink or brown wool that 
invests the interior, is charming when the floral world exhibits only withered 
stalks. 

The ClavwricBy too, like tufts of branching coloured corals, are not to be 
forgotten, while the flabby brown Jews* ears {Auriculae Judce) are strung on the 
branches of old elder trees curiously, if not invitingly together. If the weather be 
wet, other forms suddenly appear so obvious to rural observers, that they name 
the jelly-like masses of TremeUina ** Witches* Butter,** and concoct with them an 
ointment which witches once used. 



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The smaller Pezizas are very elegant in their fomui, and thehr myoelia some- 
times BO penetrate into decaying wood as to give it an abiding colour, as is 
particularly the case with P. ceruginomf its coppery green often meeting the eye 
in decaying wood fallen to the ground. The incrustations, as they may be called, 
of Polyportis versicolor, Stereum hirmtum^ and others of the same tribe, cover the 
branches of trees more conspicuously than Lichens, and old palings beset in the same 
way often present tints that an artist would take pleasure to copy with his fine 
Raphaelite pencil. A writer on cryptogamic vegetation has said of the fungi that 
" in studying their history we walk amid surprises," and " marvellous are the vistas 
that reveal themselves," yet I think that it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
autumnal scene should be beautified and coloured by so many funguses when we 
reflect that the air is filled with their sporules, which, when brought down by the 
rain, settle and multiply wherever a decaying pabulum offers them the chance of 
colonization. 

I have not half exhausted the subject, or done it justice, and must leave some 
colours on my pallet, and conclude with the evidence of Dr. Badham, that '* the 
Fungus tribe are as beautiful as the fairest flowers, and more useful than most 
fruits ;" but to judge of this we must wander out of beaten paths, in woods and 
coverts, and in the most inspiring of months, when colorific beauty blends its 
harmonies with the autumnal landscape, and we can in a *' Fungus Foray '* view 
that diversity in form and colour, which, alas ! like all earthly pleasures, has only 
an ephemeral existence. But as a philosophical and observant poet has well 
observed, a limited existence changing into other elements is all that is permitted 
to the denizens of earth, whether of animal or vegetable birth — 

Whate'er of earth is fonn'd, to earth returns 
Dissolved ; the various objects we behold, 
Plants, animals^ the whole material mass 
Are ever changing, ever new ! 

And thus research may be continued and fresh knowledge gained while life lasts, 
and the great globe that we inhabit shall endure. 



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" Half -past ten sharp ! ** were the last words we remember hearing on 
Wednesday evening, the 13th of May, 1875 ; not an unreasonably early time, but 
yet, from some unexplained cause, we awoke at a very early hour the following 
morning, and there came over us dreamy visions of many exceedingly pleasant 
fungus forays made in the sombre autumnal months in the vicinity of Hereford, — 
incidentally occurred to us the choice species which either were sent to the Show, 
or were met with during the Excursions : then came the reminiscences of locality : 
the exact spots where such plants first met our eye : this naturally led us to medi- 
tate upon the kindness and hospitality of our friends, and if we were not loud in 
the protestation of our thanks, yet perhaps we felt all the more deeply how much 
we were indebted to them. In due time the appointed hour arrived, and we found 
ourselves, a party of six, on our way to Whitfield, discussing alternately the 
beauties of the landscape and numerous mycological questions, such as men 
coming from distant places, all working at the same subject, would naturally be 
only too eager to propound to their friends. The idea of a vernal raid in the 
Whitfield Woods was in itself somewhat a novel one, especially as the Club has 
up to the present confined itself almost entirely to the Autumnal Hymenomy- 
cetis. Beaching our destination about 11 o'clock, the first object which attracted 
our attention was a luxuriant growth of Colchicum Aviumnale ; the dark green 
leaves of which were searched in vain, however, for Urocystis Colchici, Tue. The 
party then proceeded to the Gardens, and viewed in passing, the Camellia House, 
where one or two specimens of Pestalozzia Ouepini, Desm. were gathered. After 
admiring the ScUiaburia tree, which was just unfolding its peculiar cruciform 
leaves, the majority made for the wood walk : being without our leader, of course 
we missed our way, but what matters it in such a locality where mycological 
treasures abound at every step. On arriving at the open, the first find of crypto- 
gamic interest was the Ophioglosmm, the interest of which our Hereford friends 
seemed somewhat to undervalue, because it is so common in the district. On one 
of the fine old oaks were detected some splendid specimens of Hysterium ptdicare : 
the minute elongated and black perithecia of which, nestling amongst the grey 
lichens, suggested to Barsoon its similarity to Pulex irritam. While gathering 
these, we were called by the Entomologist to witness a combat between a fine 



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lusty honey bee and a spider, who had boldly taken the bee's head in hia jaws in 
such an artistic manner (tecundum artem^not South Kensington Art !) that his 
victim was unable either to defend or liberate itself. The mycologists now came 
upon a heap of dead leaves, which were as attentively examined and raked 
over as if they expected to come upon jewels of gold as in the fable. They were 
rewarded by ^dinglStemonUis ovata, P. and upon an adjoining stump, Meticularia 
umbrina, Fr. The remainder of the party now came up, bringing with them fine 
specimens of OrtkcUium vajporarium (Fr.), and lead the way to the wood walk. 
On the road Mr, Vize espied Synckytrium Taraxaci, De Bury, a species but 
recently added to our British Flora, which glows upon the living leaves of Taraoh 
odium : shortly afterwards, jEcidium violcgf Schum. jEc, ranuncuUicearum D.O., 
Urocystis pompkolygodea, Schlect. on Wood Anemone, Uromycea Jicari€e, Lib. 
and Perono»pora pygjnmy Ung. were discovered. On a heap of hidf dry day were 
observed numerous colonies of a brilliant orange Peziza, P. SubhinutOt Schum., 
one of the Humaria group. Specimens of this were eagerly gathered for a forth- 
coming number of Elvellacei Britannici, in which publication doubtless they will 
be distributed to various parts of the European Continent An old half dead Privet 
Bush next arrested the party, under which was found a specimen of Peziza Acetabu^ 
lunif linn., a species when well grown that bears considerable resemblance 
to a font. Its cup measuring about two inches across, of a sombre brown hue,' is 
supported on a peculiar ribbed and lacunose white stem. The ribs branch at the 
top, and ramify upon the exterior of the cup, forming reticulations upon it. 
** This gives it," as Mr, Berkely observes, *Hhe appearance of a cluster of pillars 
supporting a font with fret work between them.'* {Enff. Flora, vol. v., p. 187), 
Within a few inches of this were several specimens of the beautiful Peziza livida, 
Schum. To the Privet Bush itself, however, the Mycologists next turned their 
attention, and were quickly rewarded by finding Tympania ligusiri, Tue. This 
being a fungus of somewhat rare occurrence, two gentlemen proceeded to, take a 
"good supply." For this purpose the twigs were cut into pieces about 18 inches 
in length, and tied by a cord into neat little faggots, which were carried with 
great care during the rest of the day. A few yards further a dead bush of Kosa 
canina furnished specimens of Pezusa rosce, Pors., growing upon a bright brown 
tomentose subiculum and also Hysterium augustatum, A. & S. Close by this rose 
bush was an oak stump covered with Calidum curtum, a very striking looking 
little lichen. But by far the richest treasures of the d&y were yet to be found. 
In a hollow, and upon an eminence, under the shade of some fine oaks, within an 
area of some 60 or 80 yards, the remaining time was spent : and here were gathered 
some of the rarest and most interesting Pezizae our Flora contains, as well as 
several other species. The first find of any importance was Pdyporua rutUomSf 
Fr. on an oak branch. This plant is interesting on account of the rich carmine 
tint it assumes when treated with caustic potash — its natural colour being 
"tawny cinnamon.** There is an excellent figure of it in MycologicaZ lUust/i^O' 
tionSf t. 45, as well as of some ruby crystals of unknown composition which have 
been obtained from it. All fungologists know the vivid green which oak branches 
are sometimes stained by the'mycelium of an Hdotium : this is common enough 



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in Antomn, but it is seldom the folly developed MdoHum {H, aruginosum) 18 
seen. We were however fortunate in €nding several Bi>ecimens of it in the assign- 
erons state. The next find was Corticium tanguineum, Fr. on some old chips : 
this is a rare and very marked Cortidum recognizable at a glance by its colotir. 
On the same matrix was found Sphoeria onina. Pen and iSJSp. innumero, B. and 
Br. On the ground some magnificent specimens of Aica^ui viridiSf Currey, 
were observed, and hard by seversJ very large and well-grown plants of the rare 
Peziza aurdia, Pers. On the chips before mentioned a specimen of Peziza 
ccetidt Pers. was found. Within the space of a few minutes were gathered Peziza 
vitytnia, Butsoh., Ceratiumhjfdnaides, &c., &c. Hytterium fraxini^ Pers., Agari- 
etu furfttraeeus, and arventis, Schaff., Lyeogala epidendrum, Fr., Arcpria puni- 
eea, P., Trickia pyriformUf Hoffim, and fwrWnoto, With, i^pAcerta pulvis pyrius 
P., and mammaformit Pers., Diatrjtpe ditciformU, Fr., Xylaria carpophUa^ 
Fr, and Hypoxylon BerpetUf Fr. The time was now well nigh exhausted, and we 
were all beginning to feel the need of refreshment, when one of the party had the 
grood fortune to light upon Peziza candoUeana, Lib., a minute but exceedingly 
interesting Peziza, which grows from a Sclerotium (S. pustula), found in Autumn 
on oak leaves. The whole party now searched diligently for further specimens of 
this plant, and while doing so, Mr. Phillips was fortunate enough to light upon 
a magnificent plant of the rare Peziza mdastomOf Sow. This was the climax of 
success : the cup nearly an inch across, of a black hue ; dusted externally with 
powdered vermilion, and opening from an aggregation of long, black, rooting, 
filaments, what more could be desired as the termination of one of the most 
pleasant and successful fungus hunting days we remember. A hurried walk across 
the path in which Agaricus Gambosus was gathered, brought us to the house 
where lunch was waiting us. The drive to Hereford in the cool of the evening 
was magnificent, and loud were the Mycologists in their praises of the Whitfield 
Woods. 



CHABLES B, PLOWRIGHT. 

North Wootton, 

17th May, 1875. 



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ECCENTRICITIES IN THE OCCURRENCE OF FUNGI. 
PECead by the Bev. J. E. Yize.] 

The study of any special subject brings out astonishing, and, at the same 
time, very interesting facts. The a priori argument a beginner of Mycology 
would entertain with regard to the re-occurrence of fungi, might be that because a 
certain thing was found there it would happen there again ; and that if he dis- 
covered it there by visiting the same spot, say one, two, three, four, five years 
afterwards, he would be tolerably vvae to see it in the glory he first saw it. But 
experience teaches that an argument for the future, not based upon the past, is 
very apt to be erroneous in many very essential points. A very few years' work, 
possibly twelve months only, woidd damp the zeal and enthusiasm of him that 
has made certiun that hereafter he shall have plenty of specimens wherewith to 
supply his friends, and have ample for himself. He will have discovered, to his 
cost, that although he has remembered the exact locality with the greatest nicety, 
and even if— as would be the case with fungi— he has found the "nourishing 
plant ^ in its correct place, yet the parasite is not there, and hence he is very 
possibly considerably disappointed. Probably every one of us has found this to be 
so. The case may readily be illustrated. Podisoma juniperi for three years has 
been in splendid condition in my churchyard upon two trees separated many yards 
from each other, but this year, although the substratum, in^the shape of swellings 
and distortions, are manifest, not a single Fodisoma has appeared, although I 
have been several times in the really favourable time to find it, namely, directly 
after a good deal of rain. The Puccinia on the Sweet William could not be found 
this year by Mr. Griffiths Morris in his locality, where it previously existed for 
several seasons, thus presenting a similar instance to the Fodisoma just named. 
It was only last Saturday that I went to find the same plant growing on the 
Moehringra. The time corresponded with that of last year, when it was abun- 
dant ; this year there was not a vestige of the fungus to be found. CEcidium 
Calihce was discovered last year, after the lapse of many years, by the Bev. J. 
Fergusson, in Scotland, who, at my request, searched vigorously for it. The (Ee, 
StoHces was never recorded until 1871 as British, with one exception, although 
known on the Continent. It was discovered in that year in several places, viz., 
Walney Island, Basingstoke, Hythe, &c. But its occurrence in 1871 was its best. 
In 1872 it had sadly degenerated, at all events at Walney Island, and this year it 
is scarce and inferior. What made it burst out so extensively and widely in 1871 ? 
It was eccentric to do so, and it is not likely to have been in England before, or 
some of our botanical friends would have seen it before. Then, look at Pue, 
Malvacearum, Mont how fearfully it injured the Hollyhocks at Maidenhead and 
elsewhere in the summer of 1873. No previous notice was given of its arrival 
No one expected it, and yet it became a scourge all at once, and sorely puzzled the 
brains of gardeners to know how to check its ravages. Cholera in the year 1831 was 
not more unexpected than Puc. Mdhaoearum in 1873, and yet many places were free 



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irom it. I lost no opporinnity of searching for it, but it waa not until the very 
end of last autumn that I diaoovered an infested leaf in my parish ; that one leal 
has thousands to follow it this year. I am told that in the places where this 
Puodna first appeared the disease has considerably abated. Now comes the 
question, how came the Puccina here at all? Why did it break out with such 
▼irulence? Why was it not universal in its attack? Time was necessary, and 
wind, too, for it to reach some places. Moreover, is it going to die out? Puccinia 
Ckrpiotplenii was recorded and figured by Dr. Greville in his Scottish crypto- 
gamio Flora. Very great search was made for it by many persons anxious to 
find it. Since Dr. Greville's death no record of discovery is known until last year, 
when Dr. Buchanan White and myself found it — one near Perth, the other in 
Forden. Where was the plant all those years, and why should its reproduction 
be so far apart as Scotland and North Wales ? Then look at thelUredo Qwercus, 
Brond. As a rule it is decidtflly scarce. A friend of mine, writing to me this 
week, says : — ** U, QuercuB has been glorious at Hollington, just when I was ill and 
oould not go for it. The trees have been full of it, I could see that. It grieved me 
to look at them, and know what I had lost for you.*' Then see the eccentricity 
of Peronotpora Infestam, Mont., how suddenly it broke out, and scattered the 
Irish far and wide through the world from the year of its attack until now. In 
the sister country it brought desolation, famine, death in its course, and would 
have done the same to us had we relied as much as the Irish did on the potato as 
an essential article of food. Then, if you think of your own work in the Wool- 
hope Olub you wiU most easily recall to mind instances in which you have been 
rewarded by the sudden discovery of specimens which were thought to be obsolete, 
and never likely to re-occur. Sowerby in his excellent work, figured ThelepJiora 
Soioerbeif Berk., and yet since his time untU you found it there was no one 
fortunate enough to see a living British plant of it since the days of Sowerby. 
Without a doubt fungi do appear, then disappear for a time to re-appear once 
more. The reasons for these fluctuations are various. They may be caused 
partly by changes in the seasons, some being much more favourable than others 
for certain specialities. This may arise from want of workers among the fungi, or 
be caused from deficient records as to hahitaU. In some cases they may have 
been seen, but passed by from want of recognition. Of one thing I think we may 
be tolerably certain, that the system of the Almighty is not to create them, then 
to destroy them that they may be created afresh within a few years. The germ 
exists in the nycelum, or the spore, and will, according to the law which guides 
Its reproduction, spring up again, to gladden ourselves, perhaps, and future 
students. 



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149 



REPRODUCTION IN THE MUSHROOM TRIBE, 

(GOPBINUS BADIATUB, Fb.) 

BY MR. WORTHINGTON G. SMITH, P.L.S., &0. 

For the purposes of minute reasearch into the vital phenomena of the 
Mushroom tribe, Goprinus radiatiis, Fr., possesses many advantages over the 
other species of the large order to which it belongs. The first great advantage 
peculiar to C. radiatus is that it grows readily and abundantly on dungheaps 
from April to December, and it comes up equally well in town and country. 
The second point in its favour is that it is so small and transparent that every 
part can be quickly examined, and an entire plant kept under the covering 
glass of the microscope. The third advantage found in G. radiatus rests in the 
fact of its whole life being so exceedingly short, that its entire vital functions 
are performed in a few days. Having these points in view I have, during the 
whole of the present summer and autumn, kept up a large bed of fresh horse- 
dung in my garden, and from this bed I have narrowly watched the growth of 
many generations of the plant I am about to describe. 

A complaint is often made by persons unused to the micro0ooi>e, and to 
the appearances of objects as seen by its aid, that it is impossible to see the 
real objects as they are represented in drawings. To a certain extent this is 
borne out by facts, for a drawing is never meant to represent what may be 
accidentally seen at one sitting, but is designed as a summing-up of all that 
has been seen during many hundreds of sittings. Anyone looking for the first 
time through a good telescope at Jupiter's moons, Saturn's ring, or the planet 
Mars, might be a little disappointed in the apparent smallness and lack of 
strongly marked outlines in the objects seen ; but this does not detract from 
the correctness of astronomical diagrams, which are only matured after many 
patient observations. No one expects to see the solar system as shown in a 
model, or the country as seen on a map. 

It may reasonably be premised that the facts observed in connection 
with the life history of Goprinus radiatus will more or less apply to all the 
other species belonging to the Mushroom tribe ; but it would be impossible to 
make the observations here recorded on the more fleshy species, because, instead 
of days, these latter plants take months to mature. In C. radiatus generation 
after generation keeps springing up in almost daily succession, but in the more 
fleshy species, exclusive of Goprinus and Bolbitius, I am convinced there is, as a 
rule, but one generation in the year. The common Agarics of the autumn spring 
up from the mycelium formed during the fall of the previous year, and this 
mycelium has rested in the ground for twelve months. In digging up old 
pasture ground, or the dead leaves of an autumn which has passed, mycelium in a 
resting state is invariably found. There is no such long rest with the mycelium 
of Goprinus radiatus, for so long as the weather is not too dry, too wet, or too 



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160 

oold, the hmgot goei on perfecting itaelf day after day withont oeadng. During 
hot, Terir wet, or frosty weather the spawn lies buried, and it rests in the warm, 
moist dung for short periods of time only. 

Coprinns radiatus, Fr., is one of the dung-borne Agarics with a cap which 
measures from an eighth to one quarter of an inch in diameter, and this filmy 
pQeus is supported on a stem, which on an average measures from a quarter to 
three-eighths of an inch or more in height. (Plates I, and II.) The whole cap 
is a mere transparent film, and the fragile stem is like an atom of gossamer 
thread. A breath will totally break down and collapse every part of the plant, 
whilst a heavy dew or slight shower of rain will destroy a whole colony. These 
minute Agarics can only be gathered with the aid of small forceps, for if they are 
taken in the fingers they at once collapse, become liquid and vanish. So little 
moisture does a single specimen contain that it is lost in the moment or two 
consumed in taking it for examination from the garden to the house. The 
young plants may generally be seen dotted over the dung, like in size to so many 
pins' heads (Plate I., b), and from this, the infant state, to maturity, the growth 
of the fungus is very rapid. At seven or eight in the evening nothing but 
immature plants can be seen (Plate I. o, d, enlarged 20 diameters) ; about 
eleven or twelve a rapid growth conmiences, and by two or three o'clock in the 
morning perfect maturity is reached. If the morning is moist the plants will 
remain in perfection till nine or ten o'clock, but if it is dry they will not last 
after five or six. On shady roadsides or in dark places the time required for 
growth may probably be a little more or less, but the present observations apply 
to the plants as f oimd growing on dung in a light and open place. To get a good 
view of C. radiatus it is necessary to magnify it at least from 50 to 100 
diameters ; the nature of the stem and gills can then be made out, and all the 
individual component cells be clearly seen. 

Mature' plants are figured at s, f (Plate I.,) enlarged 10 and 20 diameters, 
the first showing the nature of the outer surface of pileus, with its furrows, and the 
other the lower or fruiting surface, with the nature of the gills, and the collar 
formed by them near the insertion of the stem. At o is shown the relative 
number of the basidia or privileged cells, which carry the naked spores, and at H 
the relative number and position of other privileged cells, termed cystidia. To 
these latter bodies I shall presently refer more fully, and they are merely 
adverted to here that some idea may be formed of their great number. At i 
is shown a transverse section through the cap of the fungus, a short time 
before expansion (when the umbrella-like top is down), to show that the hair- 
like stem is hollow, and that the plant in infancy is enveloped in a complete veil 
or bag, the presence of which is shown by the ring of cells and hairs which forms 
the droumf erenoe of the diagram. 

For a proper comprehension, however, of this minute fungus much more 
than a superficial examination is necessary, and the first thing to be done in the 
way of dissection is to secure a good longitudinal section of the fungus from top to 
bottom, as shown in Plate II (j)~this enlarged 95 diameters, at onoe shows the 



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Plate L 




WA.S. AD.NAT. SC. 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE I. 

A. Goprinus radiatus, natural size, on a bit of straw. 

B. „ „ ,, young plants. 

C. Young plant enlarged 20 diameters. 

■^' »» ft i» -^ tt 

E. Mature plant „ 10 „ 

P» »» )i II 20 „ 

G. Shows the relative number of Basidia. 

H. „ y, „ of Cystidia. 

I. Transverse section of cap of fungus just before expansion, enlarged 20 
diameters. 



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Plate II. . 





WJSkS. AD. nM. en- 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PI.ATE II. 

J. Longitudinal section, enlarged 35 diameters. 
A. Longitudinal section, natural size. 
K. Vertical section across gills after expansion. 
L. Vertical section across gills before expansion. 

M. Cracks due to expansion of fungus giving plicato-radiate appearance to 
upper surface. 

N. Gills free. 
O. Stem hollow. 

P. Hairs which ard remains of veil. 
]& to P enlarged 50 diameters. 



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]61 

immense number of cells which go to make up one of the fugitive little plants 
belonging to Ooprinus radiatus. By reference to the figure it will be seen that the 
stratum of flesh which forms the pileus is only six or seven cells in thickness, and 
the external surface is covered with a few hairs of different sizes (the remnants of 
the universal vei> or wrapper), some of the smaller hairs being tipped with a gland. 
Another good vertical segmental section across the cap and gills will show the 
appearance of the plicato-radiate outer surface of the pileus to be caused by a 
series of cracks which are brought about by the necessary sudden expansion of the 
cap, which act of expansion tears (in these positions) the component cells of the 
pileus apart, Plate I, E, and Plate II, E. A transverse section through the fungus 
when in an infant state shows the commencement of these fissures, as at Plate I, i, 
and Plate II, L. The gUls have no trace of a trama — the so-called trama being 
the cells which form the substance between the hymenium in the gills ; if present 
this substance would be at M M, Plate II, but one of the characters of the genus 
Coprinus is that the gUls have no distinct intermediate substance in the giUs. In 
the plant under examination the lamellae or gills are free from, and form a collar 
round the stem (Plate II, n), and are only about seven cells in thickness. 

Good sections down and across this stem when young will show it (gossamer 
like as it is) to be piped or hollow from top to bottom (Plate II, o), and the hairs 
seen at the base (p p) are the torn remains of the veil or wrapper which once held 
the edge of the pileus (q) down to the base of the stem. In this figure several 
spores may be seen at the base, carried up amongst the cells of the stem. On 
looking at an entire plant of C. radiatus in this way under a low power of the 
microscope it appears to be formed of a few thousands of cells only, but if these 
cells are now measured and counted, which is by no means a difficult matter, it 
win be found that instead of thousands it really requires millions of individual 
cells to buUd up one of these minute plants which a breath destroys. The small- 
ness and lightness of one fungus is such that it requires 150 specimens to weigh a . 
grain, or 72,000 to weigh an ounce troy. In the type specimen of C radiatus now 
figured there were 22,560,000 cells in its structure irrespective of the spores, which 
numbered about 3,200,000 more. If all these cells and spores are only equivalent 
to the hundred-and-fif tieth part of a grain, it follows that in an ounce of fimgus 
cells there must be no less than one billion six hundred and twenty four thousand 
millions of these bodies, exclusive of the spores. In a large Mushroom the cells 
would number hundreds of billions. Still more wonderful is the fact that each 
individual cell is furnished with a spark of life, contains water, protoplasm, and 
other material, and is capable of growth and assimilation. 

The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate something of the life history of 
the minute but truly wonderful fungus now before us ; and with this object in view 
it is not only necessary to use the higher powers of the microscope, but to 
patiently watch the fungus and its changes at every hour (almost minute) of the 
night and day and for several days in succession. 

In the vertical section of one of the minute gills, as shown in Plate III, 
magnified 150 diameters, the whole fruiting and reproductive surface of the fungus 



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152 

is seen at a gUooe. The nature of the farrows in the pilene (b) is now perfectly 
dear, every cell being seen in position, and the remnants of the universal veil or 
wrapper are seen on the surface of pileus at & Studded amongst the cells of the 
upper stratum of cap may be seen various brilliant crystals which belong to the 
ammonio-phosphate of magnesia, and which crystals are taken i4> by the fungus 
from the manure on which it grows. Many dung-borne Agarics are covered with 
so-called micaceous particles, which, in many instances, doubtlessly arise from the 
manure which supports the fungus. It is a matter of considerable difficulty to get 
a section like this, for if attempted clumsily no result will follow beyond a slight 
discoloration of the edge of the lancet ; it is necessary to take the slice at the exact 
moment of maturity, and even then it reqiures the perfection of dexterity to cut 
the fungus properly, as the plant is sticky in all its parts. A fragment of the 
fruiting surface of a gill is shown at T. 

To understand the vital phenomena of radiatus it is necessary to compre- 
hend the meaning of the bodies seen in Plate III. and FV. The whole fungus is 
built up of cells, which run parallel with each other (and at maturity are very 
long) in the stem (Plate II), and which spread laterally, and then become more or 
less spherical in the pileus. When these cells reach the gills or fruit-bearing 
surface (hymenium, u u), a certain differentiation takes place in their functions. 
The majority of the cells remain simple, but certain other cells which are spread 
over the gills with the greatest regularity assume a different nature, and produce 
spores. These cells are called basidia (meaning small pedestals, v v, Plate III 
and IV), and the spores, or analogues of ovules or seeds, basidio-spores, because 
they are carried on these little pedestals. The minute threads between the spores 
and their pedestals are termed spicules or sterigmata (literally props). Certain 
other privileged cells (w w, Plate III) are termed cystidia (bladders), and around 
these lattesr organs and their meaning the principle interest of the subject in hand 
will now centre. But let it be borne in mind as a preliminary fact of the utmost 
importance that at first the fungus is composed wholly of simple cells which show 
no differentiation ; no differentiation in the cells is seen in infancy when the gills 
are first formed, but the privileged cells, known as basidia and cystidia, come only 
into existence and that simultaneously as the plants reach maturity. This differ- 
entiation I consider to be sexual, the basidia being female, and the cystidia the 
male organs. When the contents of the basidia and cystidia are interchanged, the 
result is a return to another series of cells, which go to form a new plant. I am 
perfectly aware of the opinions which have been expressed by other botanists (and 
to which I shall return), but it is not so much my aim to make my observations 
accord with what others have said, as to record what I have seen myself, and to 
give my own interpretations of the phenomena seen, irrespective of what has been 
said or done before. 

The first sign of differentiation in the simple cells of the gills, when the 
basidia and cystidia are about to be produced, is in the privileged cells becoming 
glossy, crystalline, and translucent : they both appear to secrete a material which 
makes them conspicuously brilliant. Each basidium then throws out fom: slender 



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Plate III. 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE III. 
Vertical.Section of surface of Gill, enlarged 150 diameters. 



B. Furrow of pileus formed by cracking in expansion of fungus. 

S. Kemains of universal veil or wrapper. 

T. Fragment of fruiting surface of gill or hymenium. 

U. Section of Hymenium. 

V. Basidia. 

W. Cystidia. 

Z. Spores germinating. 



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Plate IV. 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE rv. 

Portion of Hymenium at top of plate. 



V. Basidia. 

W. Cystidia. 

X.Y. Spermatozoids. 

Lower portion of plate various germinating cystidia, all figures enlarged 360 
diameters. 



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153 

branches, the tips of which gradually swell and form spores. The cystidia (w) are 
more sparingly produced (for their number in this species see Plate I, h, and Plate 
II, q), and at first cannot be distinguished from the basidia, though they are 
frequently larger in size ; they are commonly granular within, and are in many 
species, as in the one before us, crowned with granules, w (Plate lY, x), but some- 
times they bear four spicules, and this latter condition has led some botanists to 
consider the cystidia to be barren basidia, but that they are really cystidia with 
spicules is proved by the following fact, which I believe to be somewhat new. In 
moisture, as supplied by the expressed juice of horse-dung (or even distilled water) 
these spicule-bearing cystidia germinate at the four points of the spicules, and 
produce long threads, which bear at their tips the granules so frequent in typical 
cystidia (Plate IV y). The cystidia are moreover furnished with spicules in the 
subgenus Pluteus. The germinating cystidia are seen in several places at w, Plate 
III and IV, and the granules at x, T. On the top of Plate IV is seen a section of 
a gill with all the bodies in position enlarged 350 diameters, whilst on the lower 
part of the cut may be seen various germinating cystidia to the same scale as seen 
on the surface of a gill. The granules at y, which are at first not capable of 
movement, are really spermatozoids possessed of a f ecundative power, but to see 
this power brought into operation considerable care and patience and the higher 
powers of the microscope are requisite. In certain other of the Agaricini, the 
protoplasmic contents of the cystidia are at times discharged from one mouth only 
and that at the apex of the cystidium. 

Before quitting Plates III and TV, I may say that when a slice, as repre- 
sented in Plate III, is placed under a covering glass in a drop of water, all the 
cells totally collapse and perish, so that in three or four hours not a vestige 
remains, but the same drop of water which destroys the old cells instils life into 
the granules or spermatozoids, which after the lapse of a couple of hours begin to 
revolve, and ultimately swim about with great rapidity. These spermatozoids 
attach themselves to the spores, pierce the coat, and discharge their contents into 
the substance of the spore. From twenty-four to forty-eight hours after this the 
spore discharges a cell which soon becomes free, and this is the first cell of the 
pileus of a new plant whifch rapidly produces others of a like nature (z Plate III). 
Now the same water which had the effect of immediately collapsing and destroying 
the old cells, has quite a different effect on the new cells as discharged from the 
fecundated spore, for the whole development of the new plant depends upon the 
constant presence of moisture, expressed juice of horse-dung being perhaps best. 
A spore unpierced by the spermatozoids is shown producing a mycelium peculiar 
to itself, at a, Plate III. 

A spore is commonly considered to have some analogy with a seed, but 
according to my views its analogy is rather with an unfecundated naked ovule 
without an embryo, unless the nucleus within the spore may in some way represent 
the rudimentary fungus ; when the spores are formed within sacs or asci, the 
ascus bears some analogy with the ovary. The cystidium, on the other hand, 
represents with its granules the anther and its pollen. 



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154 

The lix spores represented on the top of Plate V. are magnified 1000 
diameters, and each viscid npore, which is furnished with a nucleus lighter in 
colour, but with a dark outline, has been pierced and fertilised by one or more 
spermatozoids, whilst the unfertilised spore at A has burst at both ends, and 
produced a mycelium of its own. At B may be seen three spermatozoids 
which have burst after twelve hours in expressed juice of horse-dimg, and \irhich 
have also produced branching threads peculiar to themselves, reminding one of 
a pollen tube. It is quite possible that these latter threads may help to produce 
a new plant if they come in contact with the spores. The large figure at 
is similar in nature to the group at z (Plate III.), and represents three fertilised 
spores which have burst and produced the first minute knot or group of cells of 
the cap of a new fungus. These eighteen cells took four days for their production, 
and the crystals belong to the expressed juice of the horse-dung in which they 
grew. The spermatozoids as here shown begin gradually to revolve after being' 
kept in liquid for two hours, and the movements last for at least four days. At 
first these bodies are perfectly spherical, as at D, when they merely oscillate, then 
they revolve slowly, and as time goes on, a single turn of a spiral makes itself 
visible, and the bodies whirl round with great rapidity. At intervals the motion 
entirely ceases, and then, after a short lapse of time, the gyration is again 
continued. 

Judging from the presence of the eddy round these bodies whilst whirling 
(e b, Plate v.) they are possibly provided with cilia, but from the extreme minute- 
ness of the bodies themselves I have not been able to satisfactorily demonstrate 
their presence. The whirling of the spermatozoids is sometimes so strong that 
when they attach themselves to the spores they twist them round after the 
manner of the revolving oosphere in Fucus. 

When the cells of the old parent fungus collapse and disappear in the water, 
their place is in less than two hours occupied by innumerable quantities of 
bacteria, vibriones and monads, which belong to the infusoria. In these two 
hours every cell of the pileus has generally vanished. Where these infusoria 
come from, or how they so speedily come into being, is difficult to say. They may 
possibly be present in a latent state in the juices of the fungus, but I have 
invariably found, when a single specimen of 0. radiatus has been placed on a slide 
under a covering glass with a drop of water, and this, again, under a propagating 
glass, that as the millions of fungus cells quickly disappear, so millions of simple 
infusoria just as quickly come into being. It seems almost reasonable to believe 
that the fungus cells themselves become suddenly transformed, and reappear as 
simple infusoria ; the change would not be quicker or more remarkable than the 
rapid production of the purple-black spores from the crystalline and colourless 
basidia. 

Be this as it may I have here engraved the abundant infusoria to the same 
scale as the cells. The tailless monads at f have a rocking Brownian movement, 
whilst those with tails, o, propel themselves rapidly about after the manner of 
minute tadpoles. These monads are liable (without care) to be mistaken for 



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Plate V. 



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W.C.S. AD. NAT. SC. 



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REPRODUCllON OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE V. 

Spores and infant plant (and infusoria) enlarged 1000 diameters. 
Fertilized spores at top. 



A. Unfertilized spore producing mycelium threads. 
R Spermatozoids producing pollen-tube-like threads. 

C. Similar to Z, Plate III., three fertilised spores producing first cells of cap 
of a new fungus. 

D. Spermatozoids in first or spherical state. 

E. Spermatozoids rotating as after a time they do. 



F. 
G. 
H. 
J. 
E. 



{Tailless monads. 
Monads with one cilia or tail. 
Bacteria movements indicated by dotted lines. 
Vibriones. 



In lower part of plate Spermatozoids enlarged 3000 diameters, dotted lines 
indicating movements. 



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156 

the bodies I refer to spermatozoids, from which they are, however, very different 
The bacteria are represented at H H, with their various movements (indicated by 
dotted lines), either straight, zig-zag, or rapidly revolving on a central axis ; when 
they so revolve they cause a miniature vortex amongst the monads and atoms. I 
have commonly seen one segment move from side to side, as at J, whilst the other 
segment remained quiescent. I have also seen them bud from the centre, and 
occasionally they occur with three limbs instead of two, radiating from the central 
axis. The vibriones are like vegetable screws, and are shown at K. The spores 
and infusoria neither collapse nor burst in boiling. As for the monads, vibriones, 
and bacteria, it can hardly be admitted that they are generated spontaneously 
from inorganic materials ; my experiments rather point in the direction that they 
are only differentiated forms of already living cells. However this may be, my 
boiling has not destroyed either vitality or form, and those interested in the 
subject of spontaneous generation mayipossibly read the result of the following 
experiment with interest. A dozen semi-decayed specimens of C. radiatus, 
swarming with minute infusoria, were boiled in a test tube for five minutes and 
then hermetically sealed at the highest point of ebullition. At the end of a month 
the tube was opened and a drop of its liquid contents at once placed under a cover 
glass of the microscox>e for examination. Spores, cells, monads, bacteria, and 
vibriones were all there, but the latter motionless and apparently dead. In 
fifteen minutes however they showed signs of life, and began to slightly move about, 
in thirty minutes the movements were decided in nearly every specimen seen, 
whilst in sixty minutes the infusoria darted about with almost the same energy as 
they did before they were boiled. For a better appreciation of the exact form and 
gyrations of the spermatozoids they are shown again at the bottom of plate Y., 
enlarged 3000 diameters. At first it requires long and patient observation to make 
out the form of these bodies satisfactorily, but when the peculiar shape is once 
comprehended there is little difficulty in correctly seeing their characteristic form. 
The difficulty is something like that experienced by beginners in separating very 
small and close double stars with a telescope ; at first and sometimes for a long 
period only one star can be seen, till quite suddenly the two are made out, and 
they are seen as two ever afterwards. 

It is not uncommon to find the spores of other dung-borne fungi sticking to 
the specimens of O. radiatus, and it is quite frequent to find not only the spores 
but the perfect asci of certain species of Ascobolus sticking to the imder surface, 
to which position they have been projected from the plants of Ascobolus growing 
on the dung. I have also seen the'^eggs of various mites, nematoid worms, &a, 
carried up amongst the cells which quite accounts for larvsB being found within the 
substance of apparently soimd fungi. 

In the works I am acquainted with there is no mention of the oystidia 
falling bodily out of the hymenium on to the ground, yet this is the case in several 
Agarics I have examined, and is so with C. radiatus. The spores naturally fall to 
the earth, and with them the cystidia, and it is upon the moist earth that 
fertilisation is generally carried out. All botanists will remember Hoffmann's 



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156 

obMrrationa, where he has indicated the pMUge of baddia hito cystidia, and his 
remarki on the upper Bozf aoe of Che ring which grows rotind the middle of the stem 
in Agarieiui mnecaritu. In this latter position Hoffnuum found a quantity of 
gelatinooB knots, from which projected one or more oecillating threads, terminated 
frequently with a little head, which occasionally becomes detached. My interpre- 
tation of these observations is, that Hoffmann lighted upon the fallen cystidia on 
the upper surface of the ring, where they were throwing out threads. Hedwig 
made somewhat sfanilar observations on the ring in Agaricns. 

From the condition of the infant plant, as figured on the hymenium, 
plate I. z, and plate Y. o, it is easy to trace the young fungus through the various 
stages of its growth, as seen at plate YI., where the figures are all enlarged 500 
diameters, the lower group of cells shows a plant of seven days' growth in the 
expressed juice of horse-dung. In all these figures it wUl be seen that crystals and 
spores are carried up by the cells, and the lower figure conclusively shows that the 
first cells of the new plant are the large ones which belong to the pileus ; indeed 
the hairs of the pileus as here shovm are amongst the earliest cells produced, these 
hairs and the threads of the mycelium (which is always highly granular near the 
plant) are almost one and the same in character. In plate YI. and in plate Vll. 
the infant fungus resembles a Puff-ball, to which it indeed bears a certain natural 
relationship. The whole plant in infancy is enveloped in a wrapper of cells the 
fructification being entirely concealed within. In the lower figure on plate YI. 
may be seen two spermatozoids which have burst, and k k k shows the cells of 
straw. 

When the fungus has made about the number of cells represented on the 
bottom of plate YI. the growth cannot be carried any further beneath a covering | 

glass. Plate YII. represents on one side the elevation, and on the other the 
section of the very smallest infant plant it is possible to see with a lens on the 
dung. The fungus represented is magnified 200 diameters, and the original was 
about half the size of a pin*s head (see a a A sketch in margin). The nature of 
the hairy coating, which forms the veil and the cells which are to form the future 
gills, are here clearly seen. This figure shows the fungus in its Puff-ball condition 
at the time when the cells are being actively produced. It contains only a small 
proportion of the actual cells which go to make up a periect fungus, and represents 
probably a full week's growth from the spores. How it is the cells have an 
inherent prox>erty of building themselves up into a particular design, no one 
knows any more than it is known how the fine spark of life is kept up in these cells 
from one generation to another. 

The mycelium now grows in a radiate manner from the base of theyotmg plant, 
just as a germinating seed throws up a plumule and throws down a radicle. This 
mycelium being the produce of fertilisation is now capable, under certain condi- 
tions, of producing new plants on certain spots on the threads. Spores are now 
unnecessary, in the same way as fresh seeds are unnecessary where the creeping 
root-stock of Couch-grass is present. Or the mycelium may go to rest in the form 
of Qord« or thick threads, when it is termed Bhizomorpha, or in the form of knots 



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Plate VI. 




YVXAAP* NAT. 5C, 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE VI. 

Young plants as grown from spores, enlarged 500 diameters. K, cells of straw. 
The lower plant is of about 7 days growth. 



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Plate VII. 



W^^AO*JilJLT.SG« 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE VII. 

Young plant grown from spores, on right side elevation, on left section, 
200 diameters. 

A. Natural size. 



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167 

or bulbets, when it is called Sderotia. A similar state of things is common in 
many perennial flowering plants, as Convolvulus sepium and Sagittaria sagittiloliay 
and they both at first arise from a seed in the same way as a Mushroom arises from 
a spore. In Mushroom-spawn the grower gets a material similar in nature to the 
rootH9tock in Couch-grass. 

Plate YIIL, and last represents, enlarged 120 diameters, 0. radiatus a few 
moments before expansion, when nearly all the cells are present. Most of the 
cells here shown are, however, only about one-half the size they reach at maturity, 
and they are not all and every one produced till the exact moment of complete 
expansion, as I have ascertained by counting the cells of many specimens. This 
is not to be wondered at, for if the 22,600,000 cells which go to make up on&of 
these minute plants require fourteen days for their production, it follows as a 
necessity that the cells go on multiplying all the fortnight, night and day, at the 
rate of 1,114 to the minute. It takes about five hours for the spores to be gradually 
produced all over the hymenium— say from 5 to 10 o'clock in the morning, and as 
there are upwards of 8,000,000 spores to each plant, they as a consequence gradually 
appear upon the basidia or spore-bearing spicules at the rate of 100,000 every 
minute. 

No sooner has the plant arrived at perfection than that very momMit it 
begins to perish. I have demonstrated that the cells of the pileua and the hairs 
which form the veil are the first to appear, and so they are the first to disappear. 
The fine matted hairs which form the veU in plate YIII., B B b, are all torn asunder 
during the few moments consumed in the expansion of the cap, and at the 
moment of maturity the hairs vanish and the pileus is naked, nakedness is the first 
sign of its decay. When the fragile little fungus has at length produced its fruit, 
and is prostrate and dying upon the matrix from which it sprang, then, as can be 
seen with patience under the microscope, the cystidia produce spermatozoids which 
are at first passive and then active ; these pierce the spores and cause the dischaige 
of the first living cell of the pileus of a new plant It will be seen from these 
observations that C. radiatus, though one of the most minute and fugitive of all 
the Mushroom tribe, is yet as completely perfect in all its parts as any of the 
larger and higher species of Agaricus. It must not be supposed that these observa- 
tions can be followed without close attention and the utmost patience. All the 
3,000,000 spores of the fungus do not grow and make new plants, or the world 
woidd soon be covered with C. radiatus. For every spore that is fertilised and 
grows there are millions which necessarily perish. 

Onadung-heap which will produce C. radiatus,other species, as C.nycthemerus, 
&c., are sure to appear ; and not only do allied species come up in company with C. 
radiatus, but every intermediate form between one and the other may be gathered 
any morning. These latter plants belong to no species described as such, but are 
natural hybrids, doubtlessly produced by the spermatozoids of one plant piercing 
the spores of another. Amongst the larger species of Agaricus similar forms are 
quite common, and they prove sore puzzles for those men who only want names for 
the fungi they find. I am convinced that at least three-fourths of the described 



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158 

I of the higher fungi have no claim to rank as true Bpecies, and that plants 
like AgariouB procerus, A. rachodes, A. excoriatus, A. gracilentus, with others, are 
men foims of one and the same plant with every intermediate link. 

Van Tieghem has recently been working on this species, and he has arrived 
at the conclusion that the fungus produces spores of different sexes. But to me 
It IB quite unreasonable to imagine seeds or spores to be of different sexes. Known 
facts point quite in the opposite direction, «nd if sex is once allowed in seeds and 
spores then we must be prepared to allow sex in pollen and spermatozoids. A 
spore or ovule must be considered female, whilst imfecundatedor stillin the ovary, 
but when once fertilised it combines both sexes and cannot be other than herm- 
aphrodite. A secondary colour, as orange (which combines the red and yellow 
primaries), can never be red or yellow. In dioecious plants the seeds are capable 
of producing either sex, and are not themselves male or female, and even the great 
fleshy rootstock of Bryonia dioica will be male, in one place, and if removed to a 
different position be female. The Rev. M. J. Berkeley, writing of Coprinus 
{Gardenera* Cfhromcle, April 17, 1875, p. 503), says — " Late examinations of the 
spores of some Coprinus under germination seem to show that impregnation takes 
place at a very early period." 

Now my observations show that this impregnation often actually takes place 
on the hymenium itself, the product being a single ceU, which in the species now 
described rapidly developes into a new individual The spore and spermatozoid 
may be considered as somewhat analogous with an ovule and a pollen grain, or 
with what is seen in Chara ; or like the escaped oosphere and spermatozoids in 
FuouB amongst the Algse. 

I cannot attach much importance to (Ersted's interesting paper on the 
fructification of the Agaricini. His notes are on Agaricus variabilis, a plant he 
gathered from a Mushroom bed. Now, as far as my experience goes, A. variabilis, 
is peculiar to dead stems, sticks, and leaves, and does not grow upon dung. 
Moreover CErsted experimented upon threads of mycelium taken from dung, and 
presumed only to belong to this Agaricus ; but this mycelium was quite as likely, 
in my opinion, to have belonged to fifty other things. De Bary, speaking of 
(Ersted's observations says — " It is impossible not to perceive the similitude be- 
tween the phenomena seen by M. (Eersted and those I have described in Feziza 
confluens." It is quite doubtful whether or not (Ersted had got the mycelium of 
some dung-borne Feziza for his experiments, as F. vesiculosa, which is always 
present on dung-heaps. 

In the observation of natural phenomena it is never well to follow, without 
thought and original observation, in the footsteps of others. In the case of 
Peronospora infestans, because De Bary said the resting-spores were not likely to 
be found in the Fotato plant, it was abnost universally accepted as a fact that 
they never coidd be there found. Because conidia had not been described, it was 
commonly believed that no conidia existed. The mycelium of Feronospora has 
till lately been described as always destitute of suckers, but in some of the 



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Plate VIII. 



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REPRODUCTION OF COPRINUS RADIATUS, Fr. 



PLATE VIII. 

Youag plant grown from spores immediately before expansion, enlarged 120 
diameters. 

B. ^ine matted hairs forming the veil. 



^ 



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159 

Ohiswick plants the suckers were abtmdant. The same fungus is commonly 
described as having its threads without articulations or septa, but it is equally 
common to see the figures of this fungus with septa in profusion. 

Many botanists, as Corda, Bulliard, Klotzsch, and others, have considered 
the oystidium in Agaricus to correspond in some way with an antheridium, but 
as these views have not at present been favoured by Tulasne and De Bary, many 
botanists seem disposed to agree with De Bary in regarding the cystids as mere 
"pilose productions of a particular order," which is very indefinite, and the 
granules as mere conidia (Tulasne). Klotzsch and others have considered it 
possible that the spores are fecundated by a lubricating fluid given out by the 
cystidia. This fluid is evidently the same with the threads observed by me, and 
which at length gives birth to spermatozoids. I consider it quite possible that the 
mere contact of the threads (or fluid) from the cystidia with the threads from the 
unpierced spores may be sufficient for the production of a new plant. But 
De Bary, in criticising Klotzsch, says an opinion of this nature is entirely 
gratuitous,[and the contact and its result, if real, would represent nutrition rather 
than fecundation, and, as far as he knows, there exists, he says, no other 
observation on any female organ susceptible of fecundation by the cystidia. I 
cannot fall in with De [Bary's views at all, especially after the analogy found in 
Fucus and in the confervoid pollen (which has no outer coat), and which exhibits 
rotation in the flowering plants found imder Zostera, Fhucagrostes, &c., and which 
are fecundated when in a state of immersion in water. 

As regards the spores of woody species of fungi, they are probably fertilised 
on the parent plant, and are blown away by the wind in a condition suitable to at 
once form the first cells of a new plant on any proper habitat. If Agarics were 
perennial and persistent, instead of being annual and fugitive, we might expect to 
see a new hymenium produced each year upon the lower surface of the old one, 
and this state of things really does exist in many species belonging to the perennial 
and persistent woody fungi of trees, where a new stratum of tubes is every year 
produced underneath the old one, so that the age of the fungus in years may be 
correctly ascertained by merely counting the strata. As to the mycelium itself, 
and the possibility of its producing sexual organs in Agaricus, I have had the 
subject before me for many years, and have seen many germinating spores, but no 
trace of any sexual organ other than the spermatozoids as produced from the 
cystidia themselves, or from the protoplasmic filaments which they throw out. 
I am therefore disposed to believe that the absence of sexual organs on the 
mycelium is owing to the threads being the produce of fertilisation. 

As for the expressed juice of horse-dung, it abounds with nematoid worms, 
spores and infusoria of many kinds — no drop can be examined from a dimg-heap 
after a shower of rain without seeing large quantities of these organisms. There- 
fore any uncertain thread taken for examination from dung is sure to lead to error. 
All my experiments were carried out in duplicate, one with expressed juice, and 
the other with distilled water, with very little difference in result, as the new plant 
seemed to live principally on the remains of the old parent. 



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160 

As a proof of how much there is still to be learnt respecting the life history 
of Agarics, I may say that in Sach's recently published Text Book of Botcmy^ one 
of the very best and most complete books of its class ever published, there is no 
mention whatever made of cystidia in the description of Agaricus, and in La Maout 
and Decaisne's Descriptive and Analytical Botany, under fungi, it is stated that 
the male organs never produce antherozoids, and that the cystidia are always 
deprived of sterigmata or spicules. 

To repeat and follow out these observations it is necessary to take the 
specimens for examination exactly at the proper period of growth, and to exercise 
the greatest care in securing an uniform moisture between the glasses. The life of 
the fungus is so short, and all the characters are so evanescent that the points to 
be observed may be present one moment and all gone the next. 

All the drawings have been made with a camera-lucida, and from different 
specimens, so where the dimensions of the parts slightly disagree, it is only such 
a disagreement (within defined limits) as is commonly found in Nature. 



THE POTATO FUNGUS. 



Mr. Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S., also exhibited his drawings illustrating 
the resting-spores and life history of the Potato Fungus, the Peronospora inf estans, 
and though he did not read a paper, made remarks to the following effect, though 
there is here incorporated some results not obtained till the ensuing spring, and 
published in the Gardeners* Chronicle : — 

I last July obtained the oospores or resting-spores by keeping Potato leaves 
and tubers continually moist. For many years past moisture has been well known 
to be capable of greatly exciting the growth of Peronospora inf estans, andDe Bary 
in his recent essay classes the Potato fungus (p. 242), with ** other water fungi." 
Mr. 0. Edmund Broome of Batheaston, who is known as one of the first crypto- 
gamic botanists of this country, repeated my experiments in the following manner: 
He selected potato leaves badly infected with Peronospora, partly crushed them, 
and placed them in a saucer of water under a bell-glass. The saucer was kept in 
a sloping position, so that the leaves (being partly submerged) were allowed to 
absorb the water naturally. The result was that he obtained an enormous number 
of resting-spores in all parts of the leaves, many being within the spiral vessels 
and hairs. These resting-spores were in every way identical with mine, and they 
could only belong to the Peronosporese or SaprolegniesB, because similar bodies are 
unknown in other families of fungi. The first-named family has jointed threads, 
the second bears threads without joints ; now as the threads seen by me, and last 
year illustrated in connection with the restingnspores, had jointed threads, they 
must belong to Peronospora, and not to Saprolegnia. As there is no other 



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Plate I. 




# • 




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THE POTATO FUNGUS, PERONOSPORA INFESTANS. 



PLATE I. 

Resting spores of the Potato Fundus, enlarged 400 diameters, with zoospores and 
zoospores germinating. 



A. Oospore within Oogonium. 

B. Two resting spores within oneOogonimn. 

C. Three ,, ,, ,, 

D. Double Oogonium. 

E. Oogonium breaking up by cracking or \ 

P» »» »» iiito atoms f n^„,^«««« ««?«*« 

G. Bladder thus discharged ( Oospores effete. 

H, Perishing in fine dust ) 

I. Germination commencing, Oospores filling all Oogonium. ' 

J. Oospore breaking up into Zoospores. 

K. Zoospores more mature. 

L. Bladders containing Zoospores from within Oospore being discharged from 

Oogonium as in Cystopus. 

M. Bladder breaking up into dust setting quiescent zoospores*free. 

N. Tails develope on Zoospores. 

O. Anterior cilium is pushed forward, 

P. Tails fall into fine dust, when at length Zoospores come to rest. 

Q. Some Zoospores burst and perish. * 

E. Others throw out mycelium which bears the conidiophores of the new 

fungus. 



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161 

Peronospora than P. inf estans known to grow npon the Potato plant, it is dear 
that the resting-spores cannot rationally be referred to any other than the Potato 
fungus. Added to this I last year saw the secondary bodies clearly growing from 
the Peronospora threads. I attach great importance to the jointed threads, because 
De Bary, when he figures Artotrogus from "Montague's original specimen" 
{MegearcheSf p. 258), shows the threads with many septa. From the first I have 
said that Montague's Artotrogus and the bodies discovered by me are the same. 
That both belong to Peronospora the sequel will prove. 

It was of the highest importance that these resting-spores should be pre 
served alive till the time arrived for their renewed activity, and with this purpose 
in view I preserved the material in which the resting-spores were present in sealed 
bottles, each bottle containing more or less pure water or expressed juice of horse- 
dung diluted with water. As I was quite in the dark as to the habit of these 
resting spores, of course I did not know what to do for the best, or what the result 
of my experiments would be. These restmg-sx>ores at first floated on the surface 
of the water, at length deposited themselves in the sediment at the bottom, and 
on opening one of the bottles the resting-spores are found still intact and apparently 
alive. Happily for me, nearly all my spores retained their vitality. Mr. Broome, 
being equally uncertain with myself, trusted to chance, and chance so far favoured 
him that all his resting-spores in the slanting saucer of water well retained their 
life. It might have been (and even was) said that possibly some fungus foreign 
to the Potato fungus had got into my material, but if so it must be regarded as a 
coincidence in the highest degree extraordinary that Mr. Broome should also get 
the same new and foreign fungus in his Peronospora material ; a body so puzzling 
in its nature as to be referred to no less than eight different species of fungi. 

All who have studied the habits of the lower fimgi know the extreme diffi- 
culty of preserving the specimens alive. This difficulty almost amounts to an 
impossibility. The fungi under study may be present one day and all gone the 
next ; a few drops of extra moisture or a slight current of dry air is sufficient to 
destroy or collapse the (whole lot. Besides this myriads of other parasitic fungi, 
and whole tribes of infusoria commonly make their appearance and prey upon the 
material that is desired to be preserved. 

Now one of the most extraordinary facts about the recent Potato investiga- 
tions in this country is this. These other fungi and infusoria have not to any 
damaging extent appeared. Since I opened my sealed bottles in April I have 
kept the material under a bell-glass, and there has been no offensive odour, and to 
no appreciable extent have there been any moulds, intusoria or parasites except 
Peronospora infestans itself, and the other fungus which is equally destructive to 
Potatos and known under Fusisporium Solani. In investigating the Potato disease 
it was almost as important to discover the entire life-history of the Fusisporium as 
the Peronospora, and fortunately the materials preserved gave a perfect clue to 
the entire life-history of both. Mr. Broome's material has in the same manner 
been free from an excessive number of other fungi and infusoria. 



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162 

The germination of the resting-spores was awaited with the greatest anxiety, 
and as I never knew from one day to another whether or not these bodies might 
all collapse and perish, I was under the necessity of dividing the material, and 
keeping a constant look-out for results under different conditions. With this 
object in view, therefore, I kept some of the bodies moist in pure water, others in 
diluted expressed juice of horse-dung, others in expressed juice of fresh Potato 
leaves, others upon extremely thin slices of Potato and on crushed Potato mash, 
others in saccharine fluid, others in nitrogen gas, some between pieces of glass 
kept constantly moist, some upon broken tile (also kept constantly moist), and 
some upon Potato leaves as they grew upon the living plant. Besides this I have 
had a quarter of a hundred of slides, kept damp, and under examination every 
day (almost night and day) for the last three months. All these preparations I 
have kept constantly and uniformly moist under darkened bell-glasses, for dark- 
ness invariably assists the growth of spores of all sorts. 

The first new fact worthy of note is this : many of the resting-spores grew 
in size during nine months of their rest to twice their original diameter, or about 
four times their original bulk, and their aspect gradually changed from almost 
smooth, semi-transparent bladders to brown, more or less rough and warted or 
echinulate spheres. These latter brown, mature bodies were quite the same 
in character with those so sparingly seen last June and July. How they arose last 
year no one saw, but probably the wet weather of the early summer caused their 
appearance. It does not follow, because the resting-spores have taken a year to 
artificially mature with me, that therefore they always take a year to ripen ; it is 
quite possible that, in a state of Nature and under different conditions, they may 
mature rapidly. At any rate, two sorts of bodies were seen together last year, 
transparent smooth bodies, and rough brown ones. I considered them to be 
different states of the same resting-spores, and subsequent facts have proved my 
supposition to be quite correct. 

The top row of illustrations on fig. 1 shows characteristic conditions of the 
almost mature reproductive bodies as drawn in April last. At A is seen the 
oospore (or resting-spore) within the oogonium (bladder which holds the resting- 
spore), at b may be seen two resting-spores within one oogonium, and at o three 
resting-spores within one oogonium, whilst at d is shown a double oogonium — 
two oogonia coalesced, and each oogonium containing a resting-spore. 

At the end of April and beginning of May last I began to see the first signs 
of germination, and at this time many of the oospores proved effete ; the oogonium 
cracked at E, or became broken into atoms, as at F, discharging a bladder, as at 0, i 

which perished in fine dust, as at H. 

As the month of May progressed many of the resting-spores became dense ' 

and dark, with the oospore occupying the whole of the oogonium, as at I ; this i 

condition is different from that of the body a, for in this the resting-spore, being I 

not quite mature, does not yet occupy all the oogonium, but floats within from I 

side to side, as the object happens to be moved under the microscope. J shows I 

the contents of oospore being broken up into zoospores ; k shows the zoospores I 

i 

i 
I 



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Plate II. 




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THE POTATO FUNGUS, PERONOSPORA INFESTANS. 



PLATE II. 

Germinating resting spores, enlarged 400 diameters. 



S.S. Oospore throwing out threads of mycelium similar to average Peronos- 
pora infestans threads. 

T.U.V. Similar characteristic examples. V shows two septa. 
W. Oospore germinating with antheridium (A) attached to Oogonium, and 
still upon its last year's thread. 

X. Germinating oospore showing first septum. 

Y. Two germinating oospore with thread from one oogoniimi, each thread 
showing first septum. 

Z. Shows three ^ipta (specimen submitted to Rev. M. J. Berkeley.) 



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Plate III. 




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THE POTATO FUNGUS, PERONOSPORA INFEST ANS. 



I'LATE III. 
Besting Bpores germinating and reproducing the Peronospora, enlai)?ed 400 

diameters. 



A.B.C.D. Oospores with germinating protoplasm coiled up within. 
E. Coil emerges. 

F.G. Coil sometimes expelled in its bladder before emerging. 
H.I.J. Thread emerges. 
K.L. Bladder sometimes left free, but broken. 
M.N. Thread still in connection with oogonium (rare). 
0.0.0. First mycelium, from which the Peronospora springs usually in a 
terminal manner. 



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163 

within still more clearly, and where they are giving an echinulate appearance to the 
bladder within (an appearance adverted to lately by Mr. Berkeley in a letter to the 
Ckurdenera^ Chronicle) ; l shows the bladder from within the oospore being discharged 
from the oogonium after the manner of Cystopus, with the contained zoospores ; this 
bladder frequently breaks up into dust, as at M, setting the zoospores which are 
at present quiescent free, as at N ; two tails shortly appear on these latter bodies, 
and at a certain period of their growth the anterior dlium, or tail, is pushed straight 
out as seen at o, the posterior tail then quivers with an undulatory movement, and 
the zoospores sail out of the field of the microscope. How long the zoospores live 
it is difiicult to say, but probably somewhere between twelve hours and a week ; 
at lengrth they come to rest, as at p, when the tails fall into fine dust. Some 
zoospores burst and at once perish, as at q, whilst others throw out threads of 
mycelium, R, which threads are destined at length to bear the conidiophores of the 
Potato fungus in its new generation. The zoospores thus obtained were planted 
on the foliage, and upon thin slices of Potato supplied from a frame by Mr. Alfred 
Smee. On these materials they at once produced mycelium and small conidio- 
phores, which, without doubt, belonged to Peronospora, but as better resolta were 
afterwards obtained from resting-spores similar to 1, fig. 1, the figures are not here 
engraved. 

The Rev. J. E. Yize, Forden Vicarage, Welshpool, a gentleman who has 
made a special study of microscopic fungi, has had some of my living material 
under examination during the past winter and spring, and when the first signs of 
germination showed themselves in my oospores, I wrote him to keep a good look- 
out for results. He wrote me as foUows, under date of April 21 : ** My idea 
certainly^is that the oospores are germinating : bottle No. 1 had a thin film on it 
which developed into a lot of mycelium and threads of Peronospora;" I, too, 
observe the same, fact in London. 

Throughout May the habit of the oospores appeared to remarkably change, 
for instead of producing zoospores they protruded a thick and generally jointed 
thread, this thread agreeing exactly in size with average Peronospora infestans 
threads. On May 18 I observed on the preparations treated with expressed juice 
of horse-dung threads similar to the very long branched thread shown at 8, b, s, 
fig. 2 ; these threads were so long that they traversed the entire slide, and I couM 
only detect a single septum or joint, and frequently none. T, n, V, are character^ 
istic : the latter shows two septa, which is a common condition at this stage of 
growth ; and all three figures show the protoplasm of the oosi>ore coiled up within 
the walls of the latter, w shows an oospore germinating with the antheridlum (a) 
attached to the oogonium, and still ui>on its last year's thread ; x is a germinating 
oospore with a thread showing the first septum ; and t shows two germinating 
oospores emerging from one oogonium, each thread showing the first septum ; the 
old male organ (antheridium) is still attached to w, x, and Y. The fig^ure at z, 
drawn on May 12, is characteristic, and shows three septa ; the specimen was sent 
on to the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, who replied : " I found the germinating oospore 
exactly as you figure it. There can be no doubt about the matter.** Mr. Broome, • 



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164 

who was examining similar material of his own, wrote on May 4 : " It only remains 
now apparently to see the Peronoepora arising from the threads which proceed 
from the oogonia to prove the identity ;" and again on May 20 : '* I do not see any 
attached conidia, but the space between the sections of Potato is covered with long 
threads resembling the conidiophorus threads, but I could not see any with the 
spores on them." It may be said here that no other known fungus has conidio- 
phorous threads similar to those of the Potato fungus. 

At the beginning of "May, whilst observing the habit of Fusisporium and 
its resting state, I observed tjrpical Peronospora infestans growing upon the drier 
parts of the previous year's crushed and decayed leaves ; this observation was 
oonfixmed by Mr. Vize, who wrote on May 22 : " According to my examination 
the Peronoepora grows on the drier parts of the magma. I do not observe it 
growing on the very wet. " 

On figure 3 may be seen a collection of resting-spores before and in the act 
of germination, together with a number of Peronospora threads taken from Potato 
leayes and tubers previously infected with the oospores, a, b, c, and D show 
oospores in which the protoplasm which is destined to produce the new plant is 
coiled up within. At b this coil is seen just emerging. This convolute mass is 
really contained within a thin bladder, and ^metimes the bladder is expelled, as in 
CystopuB, from the oogonium before the coil unwinds, as at f, g. The thread then 
emerges as shown at h, i, and J, sometimes leaving the bladder free but broken, as 
at K, L. It is rare to see the thread of the new plant in connection with the 
oogonium, as at m, n, though I have so seen it, together with the septa many times. 
The first mycelium or spawn of the new plant is seen at o, o, .0, and from this the 
Peronospora springs direct, and (when artificially grown) almost invariably in a 
terminal manner. The conidia are not mature in any of the specimens here 
figured ; doubtless this is because all the plants are more or less abnormal from 
being grown artifically, but still the threads are characteristic of Peronospora 
infestans, and no known fungus but the one which causes the Potato disease has 
vesicular swellings such as are shown at P. 

Mr. Chas. B. Plowright (surgeon, of King's Ljmn), a gentleman who has 
long studied fungi, has patiently examined some of the living material with which 
I have been working this spring and early summer, and he writes on May 19 to 
say : ''I find plenty of branching, nodose conidiophores^ especially amongst the 
drier portions of the substance sent. I also see living conidia. I have seen many 
conidiophores with convoluted bases, but in the vast majority of cases long ere 
the conidia come the oospore is gone ; I see the granular protoplasm distinctly 
ascending the base of the conidiophore." As regards the first coil of mycelium, 
Mr. Plowright writes : ** I distinctly saw this curved in two oospores, and I believe 
the mycelium comes out with a curl." The same gentleman, under date May 19, 
writes : *' I saw a great many conidiophores both with conidia in situ and not ; most 
conidia had fallen off j latterly I saw plenty of convoluted bases." The evidence 
of identity appears complete, and many of the figures here published, and others 
not published, have been confirmed by Messrs. Vize and Plowright, 



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Plate IV. 



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THE POTATO FUNGUS, PERONOSPORA INFESTANS. 



PLATE IV. 
The fungus as reproduced from its resting spores, enlarged 400 diameters. 



Q. Peronospora mycelium with young plant (QO among starch of potato 
tubes. 

R. Similar fragment of mycelium on cuticle of Potato leaf. 

S. Branch of fungus with numerous partitions. 

T. Well-grown branch with full-grown conidium at apex. 

U. Conidium discharging zoospores. 

y. Conidium discharging protoplasm. 

W. Weak plant developing strong secondary thread. 

X. Oospore with discharged bladder containing secondary bladders, 

Y. Y. Y. which produce mycelium or Pythium-like, 

Z. Zoospores. 



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At Q on fig. 4 may be seen Peronoepora mycelium with a young plant (Qz) 
growing from amongst the starch of the Potato tuber, the dark background showing 
the cell wall corroded by the fungus, and at R a similar fragment of mycelium upon 
the cuticle of a Potato leaf ; it is very common to see one cell of the cuticle thus 
discoloilred by the corrosive mycelium, the corrosion of the cell being caused by 
the myceUum passing over and upon it. Both threads here shown come direct 
from last year's resting-spores. At s is engraved a branch of the Potato fungus, 
showing the numerous partitions with which the threads are at times furnished, 
and at T is a typical well-grown branch of the fungus, with a full-grown conidium 
at the apex ; this conidium may either discharge zoospores, as at u, or an irregular 
mass of protoplasm, as at v, from either of which a new plant may spring, and in 
this habit the conidium agrees well with the resting-spore : the branch in this 
figure is shown as continuous, and though furnished with the vesicular swellings 
no partitions are present, the branches are frequently so seen. At w is illustrated 
a small weak plant, giving rise to a branch, which branch is developing into a large 
and strong plant ; such a phenomenon is by no means uncommon, and shows how 
the fungus increases itself in every possible way. I have frequently seen this 
secondary thread branched. 

During the last hours of completing this, the last engraving (fig. 4) illustra* 
tive of the Potato fungus, a new and curious fact came to light. On AyMwinmg 
the oospores in saccharine fluid I observed some of the discharged bladders to be 
carrying from two to four secondary bladders inside (x) ; these secondary bodies 
were in their turn expelled, and grew and produced mycelium as at Y, Y, Y, whilst 
a few of the same secondary bladders burst and produced from three to six very 
small zoospores, generally only three. It is a most singular fact that these secon- 
. dary bladders and zoospores are exactly the same in size with De Bary's Pythium 
vexans, and about one-sixth or eighth of the bulk of the resting-spores from which 
they were discharged. With this exception there has not been the slightest 
approach in any of my material to organisms which might be referred to Pythium. 
Mr. Plowright writes : " None of my oospores ever burst and produced Pythium 
or Pythium-like spores." 

My material has contained a large number of dead mites and aphides and a 
few nematoid worms ; the oogonia and threads were to be seen in all paits of the 
dead insects, but not in the worms. 

De Bary, in reviewing my observation, says : — "Even if the often men* 
tioned warty bodies were hibernating oospores of Phytophthora (Peronospora), 
like the similar oospores of P. Arenarise which resemble them, we shall not gain 
much information bearing upon these questions, since their ocurrence is, at the 
best, extraordinarily rare." This sentence is very erroneous, for although the 
bodies were apparently rare when I first recorded their discovery, they were not 
necessarily so in a state of Nature, for on continuing the experiments after my 
first essay was written, the resting-spores were produced in myn&ds, and that, too, 
within the tissues of a comparatively few leaves. During the present spring I 
have sent mounted preparations of the mature (or almost mature) resting-spores to 



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tnaoy of the foremost cryptogamic botanists (^ Europe, but no one has denied their 
possible identity with Feronospora inf estans. 

For more than thirty years onr Potato crops have been systematically 
destroyed by two yimlent fmigi, viz., Peronospora inf estans and Fnsisiwriiini 
Sokuu ; these two parasites almost inrariably work in company with each other, 
they soddesiy appear for a few weeks, destroy our crops, and vanish for ten or 
twelve mioaths, then reappear and repeat the work of destruction. I claim for my 
work that it is new, and that it has proved how both these fungi hide and sleep 
tliroiigh eleven montiis of J the year. As I have kept the resting-spores of both 
paiasites alive artificially in decayed Potato leaves in water, in moist air, and in 
expressed diluted juice of horse-dung it oondusively proves to me that the resting- 
spores hibernate naturally in the same manner. The seat of danger from both 
paiasites is clearly in dung heaps, ditch sides, and decaying Potato plants. 

Any method of destroying the resting-spores of these pests, or of warding off 
or mitigating their attacks, obviously depends in a great measure upon a full 
knowledge of their Ufe-history. That life-history I have endeavoured to the best 
of my ability to watch and describe for the Ckirdeners^ Chronicle, and I am content 
to let the observations stand on their own merits. Sensibly conducted and 
extencdve field experiments might probably teach some valuable lessons, but it is 
difficult, if not impossible, for any single individual, whether farmer or botanist, 
to institute and carry out such experiments. 

With these notes I am only too glad to bring the whole subject (as far as 
regards my work upon it) to an end. Any one who feels so disposed, and has the 
time and patience to go over all the experiments and observations again through 
another entire year can do so. — Worthington G, Smith. 



-H>&^^E^«^H — 



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•810011105^ ^atttiplists' <^xM (Jlub, 



The general annual meeting of the members of this Club was held in the 
Club-room at the Free Library, Hereford, on Thursday, March 9th, 1876, 
present : — ^the Rev. Charles J. Kobinson, president, in the chair ; the Bev. Wm. 
Jones Thomas and William A. Swinburne, Esq., vice-presidents for 1876 ; C. G. 
Martin, Esq., and J. Griffiths Morris, Esq.« members of the central committee ; 
the Rev. Sir G. H. Comewall, Bart., and the Rev. H. Oooi)er Key, members of 
the editorial committee; Thomas Cam, Esq., treasurer for 1876; Mr. Arthur 
Thompson, secretary ; Thomas Blashill, Esq. ; Frederick Bodenham, Esq. ; Dr. 
BuU ; Dr. Chapman ; James Davies, Esq. ; T. Lane, Esq. ; Rev. G. M. Metcalfe ; 
J. E. Norris, Esq. ; J. Riley, Esq. ; Orlando Shellard, Esq. ; Rev. C. J. Westropp ; 
and Rev. R. H. Williams. 

The retiring treasurer presented his statement of the accounts for the year 
1875, showing a balance in favour of the Club of £133 6s. 7d., together with arrears 
amounting to £47 Is. 6d., of which arrears the sum of £13 has been paid to this 
date. 

Proposed by W. A. Swinburne, Esq., and seconded by J. E. Norris, Esq., 
and carried : — '* That in future a balance sheet of the year's accounts, duly audited, 
shall be printed and circulated with the notice of the annual meeting." 

Resolved :—** That Messrs. Fowler and James Davies be appointed auditors 
for the present year." 

Dr. Chapman, Burghill, was proposed by Thos. Cam, Esq., and seconded by 
William A. Swinburne, Esq., and unanimously elected president for the present 
year." 

The following times and places were fixed for the field meetings for 1876 : — 
First, Tuesday, May 23rd, Woolhope ; second, Tuesday, June 27th (ladies' day), 
Llanthony Abbey ; third, Tuesday, July 25th, Old Radnor for Stanner to meet 
the Caradock Field Club ; fourth, Friday, August 18th, Brown Clee ; fifth and 
last, Thursday, September 28th, for the usual "Foray amongst the Funguses*' — 
the place not fixed. 

Resolved : — "That the editorial committee be entrusted with a selection of 
books for the Club Library, and that the members be requested to forward lists 
to the committee to select from." 

John RUey, Esq., of Putley Court, exhilated some Roman remains dis- 
covered in the restoration of Putley Church, and Mr. Blashill, th« architect, made 
some remarks on them, and exhibited some Roman remsuns from Kenohester, 



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Euplectella Aspergillum, Venus flower basket and Pennatula Spinosa 
(Seapen), were exhibited by Mr. T. Lane. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for election as annual members at 
the first field meeting :— Captain Doughty, Hampton Park, Hereford, proposed by 
Mr. Arthur Thompson, and seconded by J. T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Rev. John Cross, 
the College, Hereford, proposed by Mr. T. Lane and seconded by Dr. Chapman. 

The thanks of the Club were voted to Mr. T. Lane for a copy of the 4th 
edition of Dr. Carpenter on the microscope for the Club Library. 

The Secretary laid on the table the meteorological reports for the past two 
years, by E. J. Isbell, Esq., with the register of flood water on the Wye for the 
same period, by Messrs. Stephen and Thompson. 

The members afterwards adjourned to the Green Dragon Hotel to dinner, 
when they were joined by the following :— J. F. Symonds, Esq., and Mr. With 
(members), and C. M. Field, Esq., and C. Aston Key, Esq. (visitors). 

Immediately after dinner the president (the Kev. Charles J. Robinson) 
delivered his retiring address. 

Afterwards a paper on the radiometer was read by the Rev. H. Cooper 
Key, which subject was illustrated by experiments and explanations by himself 
and Mr. With. 



RETIRING ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

It is reckoned as one of the dramatic proprieties that no actor should leave 
the stage withought some words upon his lips wherewith to cover his retreat ; and 
in accordance with this rule your president is not permitted to make a silent exit 
from the scene in which for twelve months he has been playing his allotted part. 
I should scarcely be an Englishman if I omitted to preface my address with some 
observations on the weather. Varied as our Field meetings were as regards 
locality, in one respect they were marked by a disagreeable monotony. On no 
single occasion was there absent that discordant element — a fall of rain — ^to damp 
the ardour of the naturalist, to try the temper of the antiquary, and generally to 
mar the pleasure of those lovers of nature who form the bulk of our excursion 
parties. Judging by our own experience as Woolhopians we should be disposed 
to say that the summer of 1875 was the wettest on record and no doubt the rainfall 
was in some places exceptionally great. In the volume and frequency of its floods 
throughout Central England and South Wales this year was especially memor- 
able, and few of us are likely to forget the aspect of the Severn and Wye vallejrs 
on the 16th July after two days of continuous downpour. Mr. Isbell's carefully 
compiled tables will enable us to estimate accurately the share in this- too copious 
rainfall which our county received, and as I observe that in Monmouthshire at 



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several stations more than five inches were recorded, it is not unlikely that that 
depth may be paralleled nearer home. It will be useful to compare the wet 
summer of 1875 with that of 1872, for although there is a tendency in the human 
mind to exaggerate the dimensions of a present calamity and to forget the relative 
proportions of past events, yet these two years are sufficiently near together in our 
memories to admit of being easily judged. In both, the wet summer was ushered 
in by a remarkably fine and dry May ; in fact the first half of that month and the 
latter half of April embraced the best weather we experienced in either year, but 
the autumn of 1872 was in every respect superior to that of 1875. As to the winter, 
there arises the question whether its character confirmed the truth of Gilbert 
White's statement, " that intense frosts seldom take place till the earth is perfectly 
glutted and chilled with water. Now I do not think that the winter of 1872, or 
that which I hope is now over, were seasons of extreme rigour : we have had cold 
winds and numerous heavy falls of snow, but the average temperature has not 
been abnormally low nor have there been frosts of unusual length and severity. 
It would perhaps be safer to say that after a wet summer there is a probability 
that the early months of the winter will be colder than the later months. It must 
always be borne in mind that wide generalizations frequently conceal more than 
they reveal, and on the other hand that personal experiences when taken alone are 
worth very little. Then, if in the past year we were to take our average of the 
rainfall from the returns of the whole British Isles, it would be found to give 
merely an excess of 7 per cent., for upon the east coast of England, in Lancashire 
and the lake districts, and in many parts of Scotland, there was a considerable 
deficiency of rain. But over a limited area, within which we were unfortunately 
situated, the fall was the largest and the most disastrous experienced within the 
last 20 years. I have ventured to dwell a little upon the subject of weather 
because it is one in which Englishmen are thought to be profoundly interested. It 
certainly occupies a prominent place not only in their, conversation but also in the 
journals which they read. May we not hope that upon the data which are being 
so rapidly accumulated a scientific system of meteorology will ere long be based, 
and that at any rate the Woolhope Club will be able in future to select fine days 
for its excursions. 

Our first and most successful field meeting (albeit held within a town and 
amid showers of rain), took place on the 20th May, at Caerleon-upon-Usk, once 
the station of the 2nd Augustan legion, and in a later but more obscure times the 
scene of Arthurian romance. The Club was fortunate in having amongst its 
members one gentleman — ^Mr. J. E. Lee — ^who, having devoted many years of his 
life to the study of the antiquities of the place, kindly placed his services at our 
disposal. Under his guidance the interesting contents of the local museum, 
chiefly collected by the zeal and munificence of our cicerone, were carefully 
inspected. We saw a large number of sepulchral and other inscribed stones, a 
tessellated pavement brought from Caerwent, Tuscan pillars, which once sup- 
ported a temple of Diana, a series of coins dated from the time of Otho to that of 
AugustuluB, stone coffins, amphoroe antefixcst armlets, enamels, and 8amian ware 
of foreign and domestic xoanufacture. The i^ttention of the Club waa espeditlly 



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directed to a broken slab in which was represented, very spiritedly, a combat 
between an English mastiff and some wild animal ; and also to two inscriptions in 
which the name of Geta (the younger son of Sevenis) had been mutilated and 
partly effaced, bearing evidence to the hatred in which he was held by his brother 
Caracalla, and confirming in a remarkable way the truth of written history, and 
the still wider truth that ** the evil which men do lives after them." The contents 
of the museum enabled the Club to realize very vividly the former imjoortance of 
Caerleon, as well as to view with Interest the traces of a Roman villa which Dr. 
Woollett had discovered in his garden. His grounds include also a lofty mound, 
clearly of artificial origin, which may have supported 

The giant tower 
From whose high crest they say, 
Men saw the goodly hills of Somerset. 

Or, perhaps, the more substantial keep which in historic times was attached to the 
extensive castle mentioned in Domesday. The point is one which we cannot now 
determine. Suffice it to say the view from its summit amply rewarded those who 
made the ascent and the exertion of climbing rendered them better able to do jus- 
tice to the good fare which awaited them at the Priory. After a dinner which 
must have taxed the skill and the resources of the monastic cook to provide, our 
genial host — ^Mr Lee. — read to the Club a very interesting paper, which, with its 
accompanying illustrations, will form a prominent feature in the next volume of 
our transactions. Throughout the day — which in the memory of your President is 
marked with a white stone— there were frequent allusions to King Arthur, and the 
connection of this place with our great hero of Romance. It was thither, so some 
say, that ** the blameless king " came at Pentecost to be crowned and held high 
festival with chieftains from Lothian and Orkney, from Gower and Carados. 
There, too, if we accept the Laureate's version, the Prince Gkraint brought his fair 
bride Enid, and 

By the hands of Dubric, the high saint, 
They twain were wedded with all ceremony. 

The incredulity of modem times has boldly pronounced Arthur to be a myth and his 
whole history a fable, and it must be confessed that as yet neither Mr. Lee nor any 
one else has done for Caerleon what Dr. Schliemann has been doing for Troy — 
exhumed the splendid palaces which, as Geoffrey of Monmouth says " once emula- 
ted with their gilded roofs the grandeur of Rome." Yet I cannot but believe that 
beneath the Arthurian romance as well as below the Homeric epic there is a 
substratum of truth, although in both instances by a natural process of develoi>- 
menta simple story has become complex, and incidents and characters widely 
separated in time and place have been rashly joined together. We see this 
especially in the legend of King Arthur — a Ksrmric hero, but not one of the 
Kymry of Wales, unless we adopt the latest hypothesis and beUeve that all Uie 
Kjrmry were immigrants from Armorica. Anyhow, we cannot doubt that the 
nucleus of the romance was^derived from Brittany. From that country it passed 
across the channel to Cornwall, where most of its scenes are laid by the earliest 
chronicles^ and so through Devonshire it came to Som«rset~'it9 next importaat 



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stronghold. Now, supposing it to commemorate the struggle made by the indi- 
genous race under able leadership to resist the invasions of Saxons or of Picts and 
to stem the tide of barbarism which set in after the Komans had departed, it is 
easy to understand how in its onward passage local legends which had reference 
only to some local hero — some village Hampden — would become absorbed in the 
larger romance. Thus Arthur (and I am told that Arthrws in Welsh means only 
a strong, heroic man), would become, not merely like Mrs. Malaprop's Cerberua 
"three gentlemen at once," but the embodiment of a hundred valiant chieftains, 
of whose doughty deeds the bards of a hundred districts had sung. Now there is 
every reason to believe that Greoffrey of Monmouth, who was bom about the year 
1100, was familiar with the Breton romance in which the Boman wars of Arthur 
are described and numbers of foreign places named which would be unknown to 
the Kymry of Wales» and we may also take it for granted that he was familiar 
with the legends preserved by Gildas and the so-called Nennius. What can be 
more likely, then, that when he viewed the relics of past grandeur at Caerleon and 
heard the traditions there current of its glorious past, he should connect these 
with the reign of Arthur, and for the first time make that place the scene of his 
hero's exploits? I say "for the first time" because so it seems to be. The 
Hengwyst Romance of St. Greal fixes the palace of Arthur at Oamelot, in 
Cornwall : later Mabinogion, at Gelliwig, in the same county, and it is only in the 
post Norman stories — ^whose date is betrayed by their reference to the system of 
knight errantry — that the name of Caerleon is introduced. While therefore we 
maintain that Arthur was a veritable hero — or more than one — who lived and loved, 
fought and died in that dim period which succeeded the departure of the Romans, 
we must cease to claim him as one of the Cymry of Wales, we must give up as hope- 
less the attempt to fix the date of his existence or to determine his identity, and 
rest contented with being unable to reconcile his exploits with probability or his 
wanderings with geography. But we have lingered too long in " old Caerleon," 
and your President has been tempted to forget that hi^own antiquarian studies 
may be distasteful to those members of our club who tread the steeper paths of 
science. 

Our second meeting was held on the 15th of June, at Symonds' Yat, under 
circumstances even less favourable for out-door enjojrmentthan we had experienced 
at Caerleon. The fair prospect on which we had hoped to gaze was partly hidden 
by gathering clouds, the contents of which were discharged upon our heads as We 
passed through the outskirts of the Forest of Dean on our road to Monmouth. But 
in spite of all obstacles and discouragements the programme was duly carried 
out and a fair number of Woolhopians, more or less drenched, mustered at the 
Buckstone. Amongst these your President was not included. Whether prudence 
dictated to him a more rapid march ujxjn Monmouth, or whether he feared to 
submit himself to the ordeal of other Druidical rites which the rocking stone would 
suggest, is immaterial. But perhaps those who, like himself, were absent from the 
spot, may be interested in learning what the Buckstone — the main object of the 
day's excursion— really is. It is a mass of conglomerate silicious grit, irregular 



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172 

in form, but somewhat resembling an inverted pyramid, 54 feet in circumference 
at the top and 3 feet at the base. Its shape is no doubt due to natural causes, and 
its position, poised on the edge of a limestone escarpment, favours the notion that 
it may have been used in past times as a rocking stone. But on this occasion — 
^ther because the efforts of our Club (thinned by the tempestuous weather and 
weakened by want of food) were too feeble, or because the consciences of some of 
our members were not wholly innocent — ^the rock refused to rock. Had your 
President been there it is possible that his predilections for Druidism might have 
forced him, in spite of all evidence, to maintain, with Galileo, " e pur si muove." 
After a brief glance at Monmouth we returned to Ross by railway, passing far too 
rapidly through the lovely scenery of the Wye Valley, where the noise and smoke 
of the locomotive seem out of place. The disappointments of the day were for- 
gotten in the pleasant meeting which we had with the Cotswold Club at the 
dinner-table, and truth compels me to add that the only important contribution 
made to science on the occasion came from a Cotswoldian and not a Woolhopian. 
Dr. Wright, of Cheltenham, whose reputation as a geologist is European, drew the 
attention of the two Clubs to the recent discovery made of ophiurse in the Garden 
Cliff section near Westbury in the dark shales of the avioola contorta series. The 
smaller ophiura, Ophidepis Damesiif Wr., was first found near Hildesheim in the 
avicola contorta shales and sent to the museum at Berlin after having been 
identified by Dr. Wright. Since then the same species has been found in several 
localities in England, and recently in beds of the same age in Ireland. In connec- 
tion with the same subject Dr. Wright gave some interesting particulars of the 
bone beds at the base of the Devonian, Carboniferous, Jurassic, and Cretaceous 
formations. 

In our third Field Meeting, July 13th, we were favoured with the presence 
of ladies, and as a consequence or a compliment the sun occasionally shone upon 
us. It could scarcely shine upon fairer scenes than those amidst which our day 
was passed, and I, for one, feel indebted to the Club for giving me an opportunity 
for visiting a district so iall of interest and, ordinarily, so inaccessible. We met 
at Fontrilas Station and started immediately for Kentchurch, where some little 
time was spent inspecting the church and its numerous monuments to members of 
the Scudamore family. The mansion of that ancient Herefordshire race was 
closed on account of the recent death of its last male representative, but it may be 
some consolation for the Club to know that it possesses very few features to suggest 
the fact that for five centuries it has been the home of the Scudamores, and that 
within its walls Owen Glyndwr often found a refuge. A rough but picturesque 
mountain road brought us from thence to Garway, where a visit was paid to the 
church with its Saracenic chancel arch, detached tower, and quaint memorials of 
the Templars and Hospitalers, who lived hard by. The solitary fragment of their 
preceptory-— of which even in the 17th century there were " stately ruins'* — consists 
of the Columbarium, which we learn from a fast vanishing inscription was erected 
in 1323. It afforded accommodation for 600 doves, but in its present state would 
be a very foul nest for any bird. The " genius loci" has either deserted Garway or 
has failed to secure a votary in its proprietor. I could say much about the beauties 



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and the historic associations of that border land wherein our Ladies* Day was 
spent. But to what purpose ? Those who were present are not likely to have bo 
soon forgotten its charms, and to those who were absent no words of mine could 
reproduce the scene or compensate them for what they lost. Some slight sketch of 
the past history of Skenfrith and Groamont— the two old castles within whose 
ruined walls we stood— I attempted to give when on the spot, and this— in perhax>s 
a revised form— will duly appear in the Transactions of the year, and I trust may 
stimulate others to *' ramble beyond railways," and search for themselves among 
the nooks and comers of neglected history. 

On the 10th of August our Club, like the witches in Macbeth, ** met again in 
thunder, lightning, and in rain" at Brecon. This is our usual fate there; and, rendered 
prudent by past experiences, we confined ourselves on this occasion wholly to the 
town. There is certainly enough there to afford very pleasant occupation for a 
day, and I am sure that many others besides your President were glad to renew and 
extend their acquaintance with a place so full of interest. The grand old Priory 
Church, which, at our last visit, was in the hands of workmen and choked with 
scaffolding and ladders, could now be seen to the best advantage, and in the survey 
made of it we had the benefit of Mr. Gamons WiUiifms' able guidance. The 
beauty and grace of the Early English presbytery are almost without parallel in 
South Wales, and contrasts in a very marked way with the vast octagonal piers 
and broad arches of the nave. The Norman font with its quaint carvings, the 
curious sculptured slab with figures in bold relief adorning the Holy Eood, the 
numerous monumental slabs which meet one's eye at every turn combine to render 
the Priory Church a fabric of unusual interest, and well fitted to become — as I 
hope some day it may be — ^the seat of a new Bishopria I can but allude to the 
College Church — a chancel of which has been lately restored — it forms an elegant 
example of the First Pointed style, within the walls of which many of the Bishops 
of St. David lie, and chief among them Dr. George Bull, the most learned of 
Bishop Thirlwall's predecessors. 

But I must pass on to what has now become the great event of the Wool- 
hopean year, viz., the Fungus Foray. And here I must humbly confess that the 
subject is one to which I can do but scanty justice. My ignorance prevents me 
from discussing its scientific side as well as from enjoying many of those delicacies 
which mycologists are thought to have added to our national cuisine. Yet if I am 
to speak on the subject, aad to speak the truth, I would dare to hint — even before 
such an audience — that the economic value of funguses has been a little over-rated. 
I speak without prejudice, for I am always ready, in faith, hope, and charity, to 
partake of any mushrooms which come before me with a good character. But 
hitherto I have tasted nothing equal to the common mushroom (Agaricus cam 
pestries), and it is scarcely fair to say that that species meets witlAuiy neglect in 
this country. Most of the other esculent fungi are either very local, very short 
lived, or occur in insufficient quantities to make them important as articles of 
food. Of course there is something very attractive in the belief that mycology will 
teach us how to gather in the woods and fields beefstakes, omelettes, oysters, and 
sweetbreads h discretion. The ^res^t meat difficulty seems to b^ solvecl ftt once ; our 



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society will take the place of the Farmers' Club. Shorthorns and Devons will give 
place to Chanterelles and Orcellae, and all Herefordshire will be turned into a 
mushroom-bed. Be it so, if the progpress of science so ordain ; and meanwhile, in 
preparation for this good time, let us educate the cooks and revise the cookery 
books — conmiencing with our own Club receipts. Surely it is a culinary solecism 
to serve up beef with beef, and I must therefore take exception to the receipt that 
Fitiulvna ffepatica dhould be employed as an adjunct to its animal congener. If 
the former possesses all the characteristics of the latter and is to have any econo- 
mical value, it should be substitute for — not merely an addition to— the sufficiently 
popular beef -steak. As a further contribution to this branch of the subject let me 
call the attention of the Club to a curious letter in the Sloane collection (MS. 4292) 
dated Hereford, 15 Nov., 1659. In it the writer, who was evidently a travelled 
physician — the Dr. BuU of the period — notices the jmssion of the Italians for mush- 
rooms. "I have eaten the dish," he says, ** often at Sir Henry Wotton's table 
(our resident ambassador at Venice), always dressed under the inspection of his 
Dutch- Venetian Johanne or Nic. Oudart, and truly it did deserve the old applause : 
as I found it at his table it was far beyond our English food. Neither did any of 
us find it of hard digestion, for we did not eat like Adamites but as modest men 
eat of much melons. If it were not hurtful to hold any kind of intelligence with 
Nic. Oudart I would ask him Sir Henry Wotton's art of dressing mushrooms, and 
I hope that is not high treason." May we hope, that in deference to the writer of 
this letter, who may be called the father of mycophagy in Herefordshire, the cook 
will at our next banquet prepare us a dish of what Massinger calls ** the Italian 
delicate — oiled mushrooms? But to turn to the scientific side of the question. 
The Woolhope Club may be fairly congratulated upon the work done by its 
members in this direction. It has been the means of adding to the list of British 
fungi during the past year six species hitherto unknown in this country. If the Foray 
had produced no other fruit than this it would be sufficient to justify the gathering ; 
but in truth the presence amongst us of such men as Dr. Cooke, Messrs. Rennie, 
Plowright, and Worthington Smith, gives life and vigour to our Club, as well as an 
impetus to the study of Cryptogamic Botany. Another matter for congratulation 
is the entire success of the Pomological Exhibition. It far surpassed my exi)ecta- 
tions, and bids fair to become an institution of great practical value. In 
Herefordshire any one with a rood of land may safely calculate ujwn raising roses 
and apples, but of late years a good deal more attention has been bestowed upon 
the former than upon the latter, and the Club will be doing good service if it helps 
to re-establish the reputation for fruit which our county anciently possessed. At 
present in nearly every garden much space is occupied by trees which bear only 
inferior fruit ; worn-out grafts which have long outlived their fame stiU linger in 
the soil, and ignorance and prejudice combine to exclude new varieties which 
elsewhere hare secured an honourable place. It is for the Woolhoi)e Club to find 
a remedy for these evils, and, following in the footsteps of Scudamore and Phillips, 
Andrew Knight and Uvedale Price, make Herefordshire once more the Orchard of 
England, and teach the United States that we can grow something better than 
even their much vaunted Newtown pippins. I have not yet seen the Report of 



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the Committee, and I may be but echoing its words when I add that onr next 
exhibition must be upon a larger scale ; that, with due restrictions, the public 
should be added to it, and that the judges should do their best to establish a 
regular and scientific classification of the fruits exhibited. At present the nomen- 
clature is very confused, and the same fruit appears to bear half-a-dozen different 
names in as many different parishes, and— to make confusion worse confounded — 
old varieties are sometimes re-introduced under a new designation. 

And now to turn from ourselves to the larger world outside us. In the 
past year we have not been startled by any fresh hypotheses as to the origin of 
this globe or of those that inhabit it. Professor Tyndall, it appears, has been 
devoting himself rather to the service of Venus than to that of Minerva, and Sir 
John Lubbock has turned his attention from primeval man to the lives and 
conversations of ants and bees. It is too soon to speculate upon the advantages 
which are likely to accrue from the Arctic Expedition : all that we can at present 
say is that its despatch proved— if proof were necessary— that English naturalists 
are not behind English seamen in pluck and enterprise, and that it augurs well 
for the interest in science felt by the present Government. The Deep Sea 
exploration has added much to our knowledge about the conditions of animal and 
vegetable life at the bottom of the ocean, and has upset many theories on the 
subject which had been previously current ; the world-wide observations on the 
Transit of Venus cannot but have been of service to astronomy, though they seem to 
have involved no new discoveries, and from the Sub-Wealden exploration — 
undertaken for the purpose of disclosing what kind of palasozoic or primary rocks 
there lie beneath the secondary formations, the results obtained have been disap- 
pointing. The boring has now attained a depth of 1,900ft., and is still in the 
oolitic strata. It seems a pity that such an enterprise should be checked for want 
of adequate means to carry it out, and as an effort is now being made to raise an 
additional sum of £2,000 so as to extend the boring another 500ft., I venture to say 
that the Woolhope Club would do well to offer a donation from its corporate funds. 

The obituary of the past year is unhappily a long one. From our own ranks 
we miss two members — the Rev. E. Du Buisson and Rev. Samuel Clark — of more 
than average worth. The former was a skilful botanist ; the latter — ^known to the 
world at large as a deeply-read theologian — was known and valued by us as a 
zealous fellow-worker, and most agreeable companion, whose copious stores of 
knowledge were always open to every inquirer. But our losses, however much 
they may be felt by us as individuals, are but trifles as compared with those which 
science has sustained by the deaths of Charles Kingsley, whose skilful pen trans- 
formed the Book of Nature into a fairy tale ; of Prof. Wheatstone, to whom we 
owe our present system of telegraphy; of Dr. John Gray, whose services to 
zoology every visitor to the British Museum can appreciate ; of Prof. WilUs and 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson, whose names are severally identified with Architectural 
History and Egyptology ; and lastly, but chiefly, of Sir Charles Lyell, an hon. 
member of the Woolhope Club, and, without controversy, the ablest geologist 
whom the present generation has seen. The world moves onward, and the places 



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176 

of those who fall from the line of march are soon supplied, but their work is not 
forgotten. No true work is ever done in vain ; if it has not aided others, it has at 
least had a beneficial effect upon the worker himself ; if in itself it has been but a 
trifle, yet it will help to swell the aggregate knowledge and increase the inheritance 
of the next generation. 

"CAEBLEON." 

The foUomng note it from the " Hereford Times " of June 12^A, 1875, under 
iiffnature of John Davies, BrynafaU, Abergavenny : 

Caerleon cannot be a corruption of " Castrum T^gionis," because the word 
" Caer " is purely British, and has nothing Boman about it, and was a component 
of British names a long time before the word "Castrum" or "Castra" was 
introduced into the country. The word " Caer " always means a British fortress, 
and the British fortresses in this country are older generally than the Boman 
fortresses. 

I submit that the origin of Caerleon is " Caer-Llengoedd," the literal 
translation of which into Latin would be " Castrum Legionum." Whether there 
was a British town at Caerleon prior to the Bomans I am not prepared to say. 
The fact that the town was called " Caerllengoedd " by the ancient Britons does 
not necessarily imply that there was a British military camp there. I agree with 
Mr. Lee that the British name came from the Boman, but vid translation, and not 
vid corruption. Caerleon is called to this day by the Welsh-speaking people Caer- 
Ueon. Caer-lleon is a corruption of " Caer-Llengoedd," and Caerleon is the 
Anglicised form of Caer-lleon. 

I ought to add that " llengoed " means legions, being the plural form of 
"lleng"(iQ^). 

The word " Caer-Llengoedd " is highly descriptive, and implies that it was 
a place of importance and magnitude, its meaning being the camp of legions. 



THE RADIOMETER. 



The little instrument you see before you, the phenomena displayed by which 
still remain a mystery to scientific men, originated in some experiments which Mr. 
Crookes was making in the year 1873 on the transmission of heat from one body to 
another. He had been using a vacuum balance, for the purpose of weighing certain 
substances whose temperature was higher than that of the surrounding air and the 
weights, and while doing so he noticed a remarkable phenomenon, viz., an apparent 
diminution of the force of gravitation ; and in order to investigate the nature and 
cause of this strange effect, he devised and constructed a number of forms of 
bj^lanp^— ^aph successive one being more delicate than the last,— which enabled 



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177 

him, in his own words to the Royal Society, " to detect, and then to render very 
sensible, an action exhibited by heat on gravitating bodies, which is not due to air 
currents, or to any other known form of force." 

One of Mr. Crookes' first forms of apparatus consisted of a balanoe formed 
of a straw beam with a pith ball at each end of it, the whole being endosed in a 
glass tube filled with air at the ordinary density. On passing the flame of a spirit 
lamp across the tube, under one of the pith balls, the ball descended slightly, and 
then immediately rose to considerably above its original position. The inference 
from this was that the true action of heat is one of attraction, instantly overcome 
by ascending currents of air. He then went on to ascertain whether the density of 
the enclosed air had any effect one way or the other upon the phenomenon. The 
apparatus being connected by fusion with the Sprengel air pump (the barometer 
being at 767 millenUtres and the guage at zero), the pump was set to work ; and 
when the guage was at 147 miUms. below the barometer, the experiment was tried 
again, with a small globe of hot water at a definite temperature instead of the 
spirit lamp. The same result, only more feeble, was obtained. The exhaustion 
was continued until, when the guage was at 12 fnillms. below the barometer, the 
action of the hot body was scarcely noticeable. When there was a difference of 
only 7 millms. between the guage and the barometer, neither the hot water globe, 
nor the spirit flame caused the pith ball to move in any appreciable degree. Mv. 
Crookes naturally inferred from this that the rising of the pith ball was really due 
to currents of air, and that at this near approach to a vacuum the remaining air 
was too highly rarefied to be able to overcome the inertia of the straw beam and 
the pith baU ; that there would still be some traces of a movement at a still nearer 
approach to a vacuum ; but it seemed evident that when the last trace of air was 
removed from the tube round the balance, and the balance suspended in empty 
space only, the pith balls would remain absolutely motionless when the spirit 
flame was brought near them. However, he continued exhausting, and when he 
next applied heat he found he was far from having discovered the law of the pheno- 
mena, — the pith ball rose steadily instead of falling first, and much more readily 
than before. When the guage was at 3 millms. below the barometer, the ascension 
of the pith ball, when a hot body was placed beneath it, was equal to what it had 
been in air of the ordinary density ; and, when the guage and the barometer were 
level, the upward movement was not only sharper than it had been in air, but it 
required much less heat to produce the same effect ; even the warm finger applied 
to the globe instantly sending up the ball to its fullest extent. A piece of ice was 
found to produce exactly the opposite effect of a hot body. 

Mr. Crookes' next step was to ascertain whether electricity in some form 
had any share in producing these phenomena, and after an exhaustive series of ex- 
periments he was able to demonstrate that it had none whatever. It would weary 
you if I were to mention half the experiments which Mr. Crookes tried in the 
course of the next few months ; it will be sufficient to say that having experimen- 
ted for some months with an apparatus similar to that which Cavendish used in his 
celebrated investigations on gravitation, he obtained the following results. A 



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heavy mass of metal, when brought near a delicately suspended light ball, attracts 
or repels it as follows : when the ball is in air of the ordinary density, if the mass 
is colder than the ball, it repels the ball ; if it is hotter than the baU, it attracts 
the ball. But when the ball is in a vacuum, if the mass is colder than the ball it 
attracts, if it is hotter it repels the ball. And Mr. Crookes* experiments showed 
him that whilst the action is in one direction in ordinary dense air, and in the oppo- 
site direction in a vacuum, there is an intermediate pressure at which heat produces 
no effect ; and there is an intermediate pressure at which the critical point is passed, 
that the sign then changes, and instead of attraction there is then faint but unmis- 
takeable repulsion ; and as exhaustion increases repulsion continues to increase 
likewise. After discussing the explanations which may be given of these pheno- 
mena, and showing that they cannot be due to air currents, Mr. Crookes refers to 
the evidences we have in nature of this repulsive action of heat and attractive 
action of cold. He says that in that portion of the sun's radiation which we call 
heat, we have the radial repulsive force, possessing successive propagation, which 
is required to explain the phenomena of comets, and the shape and changes of the 
nebulse, and to compare small things with great — ^to argue from pieces of straw up 
to heavenly bodies — it is not improbable that the attraction now shown to exist 
between a cold and a warm body will equally prevail, when for the temperature of 
ice is substituted the inconceivable cold of space ; for a pith ball is substituted a 
celestial sphere, and for an artificial vacuum a stellar void. In the radiant mole- 
cular energy of cosmical masses, Mr. Crookes thinks may at last be found that 
" agent acting constantly according to certain laws," which Newton held to be the 
cause of gravitation. 

In Mr. Crookes' second paper, read before the Royal Society last year, after 
describing some improved apparatus of great sensibility, he discusses the question 
of the action of a cold body, such as ice, on the suspended balance. As cold is 
simply the absence of heat and not a mode of motion at all, it is not very obvious 
at first sight how it can produce the opposite effect of heat. However, Mr. Crookes 
explains the matter very satisfactorily by Provost's "Law of Exchanges," and 
shows that attraction by a cold body is really repulsion by radiation following on 
the opposite side. Provost showed that all bodies not absolutely cold are always 
radiating heat, even when no cold body is there to receive it. A cold body has no 
power of acting on hot bodies at a distance, and causing them to begin to emit 
radiations, nor has a hot body any power of stopping the radiations from another 
hot body near it. Radiation, in fact, is always taking place, even when all the 
neighbouring bodies are at an equal temperature. In the case before us, one side 
of the vacuum chamber, and the air near it, are chilled by the ice, which, there- 
fore, checks radiation on to the balance from that side, while radiation is still going 
on from the other, and, acting on the opposite side of the balance, causes it to 
rotate the reverse way. 

Mr. Crookes then goes on to describe numerous experiments made for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the attraction by heat, which is greater as the 
enclosed air around the balance approaches the normal density, increases still 



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179 

further ; and in the same ratio if the apparatus is filled with air above the almoi> 
pheric pressure. And this he found to be the case, which is very nmch what we 
should expect d priori. 

Shortly after Mr. Crookes' first paper on the subject was published, or at 
least when these interesting phenomena became generally known, Professor 
Osborne Reynolds propounded an explanation, which, if true, would at onde 
deprive them of almost all their scientific interest. His explanation is this. It h, 
he says, impossible to produce a perfect vacuum ; there must be always some slight 
residuum of gas remaining ; and clinging to the surfaces, which no power cao 
remove ; and he believes that the movements of the balance are due to evapora- 
tion and condensation of the remaining gas upon the surfaces. Evaporation from 
a surface is attended with a force tending to drive the surface back ; and condensa- 
tion, with a force tending to draw the surface forward. In opposition to this 
theory of Professor Reynolds, we have certain facts established by Mr. Grookes' 
previous experiments, which are inconsistent with this theory of Professor 
Reynolds. Thus Mr. Crookes found that whether he started with the apparatus 
full of air, carbonic acid, water, iodine, hydrogen, ammonia, or whatever it might 
be, when he reached the point of highest rarefaction there was not found any 
difference in the results, which can be traced to the original gas. A hydrogen 
vacuimi appears the same as a water or an iodine vacuum. Again it appears that 
the repulsion produced by the heat of a flame is not caused only by those rays 
usually called heat-rays, t.&, the extreme or ultra red of the spectrum. Experi« 
ments were tried with the solar spectrum, and that of the electric light, by means 
of a train of quartz prisms, which prove the action on the balance to be also 
exerted by the luminous and ultra violet rasrs. This single fact that light rays of 
themselves (all heat rays having been rigorously excluded) are sufficient to cause a 
powerful action upon the balance, seems quite enough to overthrow Professor 
Osborne Reynolds's hypothesis. But Mr. Crookes undertook a further experiment 
with this special object ; he had an apparatus blown from a thick and strong green 
glass such as they use for steam-boiler gauges, very difficult to fuse ; in it was a 
thin bar of aluminium supported by a long platinum wire ; the apparatus was 
sealed by fusion to the Sprengel pump, and exhaustion was kept going on for two 
days, until an induction-BX)ark refused to pass across the vacuum. During this 
time the bulb and its contents were several times raised to a dull red heat. At the 
end of two days exhaustion, the tube was found to behave in the same manner as 
with his previous apparatus, viz., the aluminium bar was repelled by heat of low 
intensity, and attracted by cold. A similar experiment was next tried, only water 
was placed in the bulb before exhaustion. The water was then boiled away in 
vacuo, and the exhaustion continued, with frequent heating of the apparatus to 
dull redness for about 48 hours ; at the end of this time the bar of aluminium was 
found to behave the same as the one in the former experiment, being repelled by 
heat. It is impossible to conceive that in these experiments sufficient gas or 
vapour was present to produce the effects Professor Reynolds ascribes to it. After 
the repeated heating to redness at the highest obttunable exhaustion^ it is lmpQB<* 



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180 

slble that saffident yapour or gas should condense on the sorfaoe of the balance to 
be instantly driven off by the wannth of the finger, with recoil enough to drive 
babkwaids a heavy'pieoe of metaL 

Since these experiments were made, Mr. Crookes has examined more fully 
the action of radiation on black and white surfaces. At the highest exhaustion 
heat appears to act almost equally on white and lamp-blacked pith, repelling them 
in about the same degree. The action of light, however, is different ; these rays 
repel the black surface more energetically than they do the white surface. Taking 
advantage of this circumstance, Mr. Crookes has constructed an instrument which 
he calls a radiometer, very similar to those you see before you, except that instead 
of metal discs he used pith. This instrument rotates under the influence of both 
heat and light rays, the rapidity of rotation being in proportion to the intensity of 
the incident rays. 

At the dose of the paper the instrument was further illustrated by experi- 
ments conducted by the rev. lecturer and by Mr. G. H. With. 



METEOROLOGICAL RECORDS FOR 1875 ; 
Being the Monthly Betums sent to the Hereford Times during that year. 



These Beadinge are wrrectedfcr tempercOure <vnd error of inttrument^ biU they are not 
reduced to eeorlevd. The height of the barometer-cittern above aeorUvd it 187 feet, 

JANUARY. 

The mean of aU the 9 a.m. barometrical readings for January is 29*673 
indies. 

The highest reading (30*427 inches) was registered on the 30th, and the 
lowest (28*873 inches) on the 24th. 

The mean temperature for January in, this year, 44 '6 degrees, Mr. Grlaisher's 
average temperature for this month being 36*9 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (55*8 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 19th, and the lowest (301 degrees) on the 22nd. 

The mean degree of humidity for January, this year, is 89.9, complete 
saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 3*64 inches, the greatest faU in 24 hours (0*62 inch) 
occurring on the 23rd. 

There were 25 days on which 0*01 inch or more felL 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows :--N. ; N.E. 2 ; E. 1 ; S.E. 9 ; 
S.10;S.W.6; W.2;N.W.l. 

On the 24th there was a remarkable depression of the barometer, and a great 
^e of wind from W. and W.S.W., with vivid fiashes of lightning during the night, 



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181 



FEBBUARY. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*855 inches. 

The highest reading (30*320 inches) was registered on the 16th, and the 
lowest (29-206 inches) on the 24th. 

The mean temperature of February, this year, is 35*5 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average for the month being 38*7 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (60*1 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 15th, and the lowest (23*0 degrees) on the 5th. 

The rainfall amounted to 2*13 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours occurring 
on the 6th. The snow on the 19th was equal to 0*13 inch of rainfall, that on the 
20th to 0*30 inch, and that on the 24th to 0*385 inch. The measurement for the 
25th, partly snow, and partly rain, amounted to 0*39 inch. 

There were 11 days on which 0*01 inch or more of rain (or snow) fell. 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 7 ; E. 1 ; S.E. 7 ; 
S. 1 ; S. W. 2 ; W. 1 ; N.W. 2 ; calm or uncertain, 5. 

MARCH. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month Is 
29*975 inches. 

The highest reading (30*450 inches) was registered on the 18th, and the 
lowest (29*456 inches) on the 6th. 

The mean temperature of March, this year, is 41.0 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average for this month being 41*7 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (63*0 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 31st, and the lowest (25*0 degrees) on the 21st. 

The mean degree of humidity for March, this year, is 84*7, complete satura- 
tion being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 1*067 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (0*365 
inches) occurring on the 5th. Melted snow amounted to 0*05 inch on the 2nd. 

There were 11 days on which 0*01 inch or more of water was deposited in 
the rain-gauge. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 4 ; N.E. 10 ; E. 2 ; S.E. 2 ; 
S.1;S.W. 6; W. 1;N.W. 4. 

APRIL. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings for April is 29*896 inches. 

The highest reading (30*411 inches) was registered on the 1st, and the lowest 
(28*963 inches) on the 5th. 

The mean temperature for April is, this year, 47*1 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average temperature for this month being 46*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (76*1 degrees) was regis* 
tered on the 20th, and the lowest (27*1 degrees) on the 23rd. 

The mean degree of humidity for April, this year, is 82*6, complete i 
tion being 100. 



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182 

The ndnfall amofimtB to 0*862 inches, the grefttest fall in 24 hours (0195 inch) 
oooQiring on the 9th. 

There were 10 cUys on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m daUy were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 8 ; E. 4 ; S.E. 4; 
a8;S.W.8; W.I5N.W.4. 

MAY. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m, barometrical readings during the month of May 
b 29*816 inches. 

The highest reading of the barometer during the month (30*198 inches) was 
registered on the 11th, and the lowest (29*290 inches) on the 7th. 

The mean temperature of May, this year, is 55*4 degrees, Mr. Grlaisher's 
average temperature for the month being 52*9 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (83*0 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 14th, and the lowest (39*1 degrees) on the 30th. 

The mean degree of humidity for the month is 80*8, complete saturation 
bdnglOO. 

The ndnfall amounts to 2*868 inches. There was a deposit of water in the 
rain-gauge to the amount of 0*01 inch, or more, on 14 days. On the 28th there was 
a fall of 0*962 inch ; this was the greatest quantity which fell in 24 hours during 
May. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. were as follows :—N. 2 ; N.E. 1; E. 3; S.E. 4; S. 5; 
B.W.7;W.2;N.W.7. 

JUNE. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m, readings during the month of June is 29*711 
inches. 

The highest reading of the barometer during the month (30*066 inches) was 
registered on the 24th, and the lowest (29*106 inches) on the 15th. 

The mean temperature of June, this year, is 58*5 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average temperature for the month being 59*1 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (84*5 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 8rd, and the lowest (40*7 degrees) on the 22nd. 

The mean degree of humidity for the month is 79*0, complete saturation 
being 100. 

The rainfall amounts to 2*491 inches. There was a deposit of water in the 
rain-guage to the amount of 0*01 inch or more on 17 days. On the 28th there was 
a fall of 0*510 inch ; this was the greatest quantity which fell in 24 hours during 
June. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 6 ; E. ; S.E. 2 ; S. 3; 
S,W. 7 5 W. 2; N.W. 6 ; uncertain, 2. 

JULY. 
The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*784 inches. . 

The highest reading (30*179 inches) was reigstered on the 27th, and the 
lowest (29*265 inches) on the 11th. 



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183 

The mean temperature of July, this year, is 57*8 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average for the month being 61*8 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (81*7 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 29th, and the lowest (41*2 degrees) on the 26th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 79*0, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 4*834 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (2*387 
inches) occurring on the 14th. There were 19 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9.0 a.m. daily were as follows i—N, 4 ; N.E. 8 ; E. 0; S.E. 2 ; 
S. 3; S.W. 1; W. 4; N.W. 6; uncertain, 3. 

AUGUST. 

The mean of all the 9. a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*842 inches. 

The highest reading (30*167 inches) was registered on the 21st, and the lowest 
(29*534 inches) on the 10th. 

The mean temperature of August this year is 62*4, Mr. Glaisher's average 
for the month being 61*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (85*1 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 16th, and the lowest (42*4 degrees) on the 21st. 

The mean degree of humidity is 81*4, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 1*705 inch,-the greatest fall in 24 hours (0*510 inch) 
occurring on the 8th. There were 16 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 4 ; N.E. 2 ; E. 3 ; S.E. 5 ; 
S.3;S.W.3; W.4;N.W.6. 

SEPTEMBER. 

The mean of all the 9 a, m. barometrical readings during the month is 29*838 
inches. 

The highest reading (30*164 inches) was registered on the 12th, and the lowest 
(29*427 inches) on the 27th. 

The mean temperature of September this year is 58*54 degrees, Mr. Glaisher*s 
average for the month being 56*6 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (79*1 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 7th, and the lowest (40*2 degrees) on the 29th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 86*6, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 3*580 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (0.735 
inch) occurring on the 23rd. There were 19 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9 a.m. were as follows :— N. 1 ; N.E. 6 ; E. 4 ; S.E. 1 ; S. 6 ; 
S.W. 3 ; W. 4 ; N.W. 3 ; two days uncertain. 

OCTOBER. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month Is 
29*569 inches. 

The highest reading (30*203 inches) was registered on the 6th, and the lowest 
(29*018 inches) on the 13th. 

The mean temperature of October this year is 47*89 degrees, Mr. Glaisher^s 
average for the month being 50*2 degrees. 



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184 

The highest readinff of the thermometer in shade (68*6 degrees) was r^^ia- 
tered on tiie oth, and the lowest (31*6 degress) on the 13th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 89*6, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 5173 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (1*060 
inch) occurring on the 9th. There were 23 days on which 0*01 inch or more felL 

The winds at 9 a.m. were as follows :— N. 1; N.E. 10; E. 2; S.E. 5 ; S. 2; 
S. W. 3 ; W. 3 ; N.W. 4 ; one day uncertain. 

NOVEMBER. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 
29*610 inches. 

The highest reading (30*060 inches) was registered on the 22nd, and the 
lowest (28*620 inches) on the 10th. 

The mean temperature of November this year is 41*8 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average temperature for November being 43*2 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (60*7 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 4th, and the lowest (28 degrees) on the 26th. 

The mean degree of humidity is 86, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted io 4*491 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours (0*91 inch) 
occurring on the 13th. There was a fall of 0*837 inch on the 9th, and another of 
0*725 inch on the 5th. There were 22 days on which 0*01 inch or more felL 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 3 ; N.E. 7 ; E. 1 ; S.E. 5 
S. 1 ; S. W. 4 ; W. 2 ; N.W. 6 ; one day uncertain. * 

DECEMBER. 

The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings during the month is 29*882 
inches. 

The highest 9 a.m. reading (30*314 inches) was registered on the 28th, and 
the lowest (29*328 inches) on the 22nd. 

The mean temperature of the month was 39*7 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's 
average temperature for December being 39*8 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade (55*2 degrees) was regis- 
tered on the 2l8t, and the lowest (23 degrees) on the 6th. 

The mean degree of humidity was 89, complete saturation being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 1*625 inches, the greatest fall in 24 hours 0*850 
inch) was measured on the morning of January 31st, and so goes to the credit of 
December 31st. In this fall there was snow as well as rain. The rain fell first. 
There were 11 days on which 0*01 inch or more fell. 

The winds at 9. a.m. daily were as follows :— N. 2 ; N.E. 3 ; E. ; S.E, 4 ; 
S. 5 ; S. W. 7 J W. 3 ; N.W. 6 ; one day uncertain. 



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186 
METEOROLOGICAL NOTES FOR THE YEAR 1875. 



The mean of all the 9 a.m. barometrical readings for the year 1875 is 29788 
inches. 

The highest reading during the year (30*450) was registered on March 18th, 
and the lowest (28*620) on November 10th. 

The mean temperature of 1876 is 49*1 degrees, Mr. Glaisher's average tem- 
perature for the year (at Greenwich) being 49*02 degrees. 

The highest reading of the thermometer in shade during the year 1875 (85*1 
degrees) was registered on August 16th, and the lowest (23 degrees) on February 
5th and December 6th. 

The mean degree of humidity for the whole year is 85*4, complete saturation 
being 100. 

The rainfall amounted to 84*461 inches at 6 feet from the ground. At one 
foot from the ground the total was 35*801 inches. The greatest fall in 24 hours 
(2*887 inches) occurred on the 14th of July. This is the largest amount I have ever 
measured for the same space of time at Hereford. At Boss Mr. Southall measured 
2*98 inches ; at Bryngwyn Mr. Rankin measured 3*11 inches ; and at Whitfield 
Mr. Wheatley measured 3*26 inches on the same day. The 14th of July may 
therefore be accounted one of the wettest days, if not the very wettest day, recor- 
ded by Herefordshire observers. 

The amount of rainfall for 1875, though considerable, at least in this part of 
England, fell very short of the amount of rainfall during 1872. In 1872, my gauge 
at 6 feet from the ground collected 42*26 inches, and the gauge in Mr. Davison's 
nursery gardens, at one foot from the ground, collected 44 '50 inches. At Bock- 
lands, the gauge at 1 f oot 10 inches from the ground collected 48*68 inches; at 
Burcher Cottage, near Kington, the gauge at 2 feet 8 inches from the ground 
collected 49*54 inches ; and at Leysters (the highest gauge in the county) the gauge 
at 4 inches from the ground collected 54*03 inches. 

These last-named gauges, it must be understood (Eocklands and Burcher 
Cottage at all events), always collect more rainfall than the gauges in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hereford. 

From a calculation kindly made for me by a friend (the figures used being 
taken from my own records) it appears that the months with us stand in the follow- 
ing order as to their relative amount of wetness : — 

MontMy Means of BainfaUfor ten year&—1866 to 1875, 

Inches. Inches. 



L September 3*654 

2. January 3*365 

3. October 2*944 

4. December 2525 

5. July 2*396 

6. November 2*343 



7. February 2*200 

8. August 2*159 

9. May 1*874 

10. March 1*870 

11. June 1*755 

12. April ..: 1-634 

yearly mean of rainfaU for 10 years— 28*719 inches, 



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186 

I believe I lose about two inches of rainfall in the year by placing my gaii^^e 
so high ; but I am compelled to do this in order to escape the shelter of the garden 
walL 

From the averages given above it would appear that the yearly mean rainfall 
at Hereford is about 30 inches and a few tenths, and that the average amount of 
rainfall for this city which we have hitherto accepted (the result of the late Mr. 
Lawson's records) is below the truth. Very possibly Mr. Lawson's gauges were 
injuriously sheltered by trees and walls. The gauges stood 4 feet from the ground. 

At Burcher Cottage the mean rainfall for 30 years is 31*66 inches, and at 
Eocklands the mean for 21 years is 3179 inches. 

The winds at 9 a.m. daily during the year were as follows : — N. 27 days ; 
N.E. 70; E. 21 ; S.E. 50; S. 43 ; S.W. 52 ; W. 29 ; N.W. 55; and 18 days calm 
or uncertain. 

My meterological friends will kindly take notice that my public weather 
records end with these notes for the past year. Dr. Chap\nan has now commenced 
meteorological observations at Burghill, in connection with the Meteorological 
Society, and as his instruments are of the best, and his situation the very best, he 
will, I have no doubt, be able to do much better than I have done. I am happy, 
however, to be able to say that since my return to Hereford, in 1866, we (at Rich- 
mond Place) have not suffered a single day to escape us. 

January 22, 1876. 

EDWIN J. ISBELL. 



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Ift. 4 ins. from the ground. 



Hereford, Kichniond Place 



5ft. 8 ins. from the ground. 



Wigmore. 
10 inches from the ground. 



Fownhope Vicarage. 
1 ft. 1 in. from the ground. 



Bromyard. 
8 inches from the ground. 



Leysters' Vicarage. 
6 inches from the'^ground. 



Hampton Court. 



Ledbury, West Bank. 
1 foot from the ground. 



Much Marcle. 
3 feet from the ground. 



Stoke Bliss. 
1 ft. 2 ins. from the ground. 



West Malvern. 



1 ft. 6 ins. from the ground. 



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10 inches from the ground. 



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1ft. lOins. fromtheground. 



Whitfield. 
6 inches from the ground. 



Lynhales. 
1 foot from the ground. 



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Longtown. 
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THE RAINFALL FOR THE COUNTY OF HEREFORD DURING THE 
YEAR 1874, BY THE REV. NASH STEPHENSON. 

There are now 21 observers at stations fairly distributed over the county • 
who, with ahnost unfailing regularity, transmit to the Hereford Times for publica- 
tion the monthly amount of rain at their different stations. As Mr. Symons 
remarks in his annual report of 1873 : ** No county has so rapidly taken a foremost 
position in rainfall matters as Hereford. We are fortunate in having several able 
helpers in this county, and the cordial support of that giant of the provincial 
press, the Hereford Times" 

By reference to the subjoined tables it will be seen that 21 observers 
recorded the total depth of the year's rain, and that the stations are placed 
according to the depth of rain which fell : the maximum fall heading the list. It 
is a long established fact that in mountainous districts heavy falls of rain are the 
rule. It cannot, therefore, be a matter of surprise that Longtown, nestling on the 
eastern breast of the Black Mountains, should enjoy the unenviable fame of 
having had the heaviest amount of rainfall during the past year, nor that 
Lynhales, which stands 566 feet above the sea, should follow next in order, nor 
that Leysters, which is credited with being 700 feet (?) above sea level, should 
attain the third place. To the broad rules of the distribution of rain exceptions 
are many and formidable, or it may be well] asked why Rocklands, near Ross, 
which is only 98 feet above sea level, and Staunton-on-Wye, which is 255 feet, 
should occupy the third and fourth places, and take the precedence of Brjrngwyn, 
which is 432 feet, and "West Malvern, which is 850 feet altitude. The total fall at 
Longtown, which heads the list, was 35 '71 inches, and at Ledbury, which closes 
the list, as in the preceding year, was 22 '35 inches, the excess of the former over 
the latter being 13*36 inches. It is remarkable that the former is on the spur of 
the Black Mountains, and the latter on the spur of the Malvern range. The mean 
fall of all the stations is 26*57 inches, being 0*41 inch in excess of the returns of 
1873, and 15*68 less than 1872; the wettest year for 40 years in the county of 
Hereford. The average of the rain in England from 1850 to 1856 was 34*72 inches. 
There was, therefore, a deficiency in last year of 8 "15 inches from that average. 
The 26 inches which fell in the county pale into insignificance compared with what 
fell elsewhere. The greatest rainfalls reported to Mr. Symons in 1874 were 
149 '00 at Pen-y-gwrd, near Llanberris, and 148*79 inches at Seathwaite, 
in Westmoreland. To the uninitiated the term of "an inch of water" is hardly 
intelligible. It may be explained thus — When it is stated that in 1874 the total 
depth of rain which had fallen was 26 inches, it means that if the whole quantity 
of rain which had fallen in that year had remained where it fell, neither sinking 
in, nor running off, nor drying up, the ground would have been covered to the 
depth stated. 



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THS OBBATBBT FALL IN 24 HOUB8. 

The heaviest amount of nun that fell on any one day was at Whitfield on 
the dOth of September, on which 1*65 inches were recorded. Out of 18 returns of 
that month 10 concur in iwArlring this day as the mRTiTnnm fall. A like number 
have recorded the TtnLTimiiTn fall during the year, and, of these, 7 have marked the 
90th Sept., and 5 the 26th Feb., whilst the rest have severally marked May 22, 
June 29, Sept. 1, Nov. 25, 28, and 29. Snow fell on ten days during December, 
the heaviest on the night^of the 13th ; on the following morning it averaged 9 
inches on the ground. 

THE NUMBER OF BAINT DATS IN THE TEAB. 

Before classifying the rainy days let me explain what a rainy day means. A 
rainy day, in the parlance of rain-doctors, signifies a day on which 0*01 inch falls, 
that is to say, a day on which the smallest amount of rain, or mist, or snow is 
discovered in the gauge. In tabulating the 17 stations that have returned their 
number of rainy days, it will be found that they range themselves in the following 
order :— 1, Hereford (190) ; 2, Boss, the Graig (180) ; 3, Staunton-on-Wye (178) ; 
4, Much Marcle (176) ; 6, Ross— the Bocklands— (171) ; 6, Bromyard (166) ; 7, 
Whitfield (166); 8, Bryngwyn (156) ; 9, Stoke Bliss (156); 10, Fownhope (154); 
11, Hampton Court, near Leominster (153) ; 12, Stretton Sugwas (153) ; 13, 
Wigmore (153) ; 14, Brockhampton, near Bromyard (150) ; 15, Ledbury (149) ; 16, 
Longtown (142) ; 17, Ljrnhales (98). The mean of all the stations will be found to 
158 days ; of 1873 it was 161. 

It has been ascertained and stated that more rain fell at Longtown, and less 
rain at Ledbury, than at any other station, and hence it might be assumed that 
the inhabitants of the former parish must be living in a perpetually dismal atmos- 
phere of mist and rain and cloud and storm, whilst the inhabitants of the latter 
parish were basking in perpetual sunshine and halcyon days. Such a conclusion is 
inconsistent with the logic of stem facts. The amount of rain which has fallen in 
a year in a locality by no means indicates the amount of rainy days in the year. 
There were actually more rainy days at Ledbury than at Longtown; and at the latter 
parish there were, with one exception, more rainless days than at any other parish 
from which returns have been made in the county of Hereford. Whether future 
observations will bear out this deduction from last year's experience is a question 
which has still to be solved. The city of Hereford heads the list for 1874, and it 
obtained like pre-eminence in the year preceding. 

THE MONTHLY FALL. 

The following list of mean monthly rainfall has been calculated by me from 
the printed returns together with other returns privately sent me : 1. September 
(4-27); 2. February (3*00); 3. August (2-85); 4. October (2.83); 5. January 
(2-60); 6. November (2*58) ; 7. December (2-38) ; 8. AprU (174); 9. May (1-15) ; 
lO.lMarch (0-93); 11. July (0*92); 12. June (0*91). 

It would thus appear that September had the maximum and June the 
T nii^<T¥iii Tn ramf aU, whilst April and July, which are usually debited as the rainest 



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191 

months, have fallen to the eighth and eleventh ranks. As far as present investiga- 
tions have gone, it is impossible to lay down any general law as to the precise 
months of maximimi and minimmn rainfall, but during the last decade of years 
" April has been the driest month at most stations in the British Isles, while in the 
previous decade this distinction was pretty generally shared by February and 
May." It is noteworthy that whilst in the first four months of the year the mean 
fall was 8 '27, and in the second four months it was 5 '83 : in the last four months it 
reached 12*06 inches. As the yield of our wells and streams mainly depends on 
our autumnal rains it is satisfactory to find that they were greatly in excess of the 
downfall in the other divisions of the year, and that there is little cause to 
anticipate any deficiency during the present year. Our hopes are further 
strengthened by finding that January of the present year has yielded a mean fall 
of 4*14 inches, which is within 0*13 inch of the rainiest month of 1874. 

Before closing my report I desire to express my indebtedness to Mr. Isbell, 
for the altitudes of many of the Hereford stations. 



THE RAINFALL FOR THE COUNTY OF HEREFORD DURING THE 
YEAR 1875, BY THE REV. NASH STEPHENSON. 

There is now a permanent staff of twenty observers, who with almost unfailing 
r^ularity, send to you for publication the monthly record of the rainfall in their 
several localities. These twenty stations are so evenly scattered over the county 
that, with the exception of a station needed near Weobley, and one near 
Withington, which will be filled shortly by Mr. Higgins, of Thinghill, and one 
near Shobdon, the whole area is fairly and sufficiently represented. Additions 
near to existing stations are of little use, for they serve only the minor purpose of 
confirming the accuracy of old stations. 

HEIOHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL. 

During the past year the monthly returns have been rendered much more 
complete and scientific by the insertion in all cases of the diameter of the guage 
and its height above the ground, and with three exceptions, the height above sea 
level. The three excepted stations are Longtown, Hampton Court, and Wigmore. 

ON THE MONTHLY PALL OP RAIN IN 1875. 

On examining the subjoined Table A. it will be found that the rotation of 
months according to rainfall would be classified thus : — ^1, October ; 2, November ; 
3, January ; 4, September ; 5, June ; 6, July ; 7, May ; 8, August ; 9, February ; 
10, December ; 11, April ; and 12, March. The rainfall in October, which heads 
the list, was above the average in nearly all parts of England, and in Herefordshire 
it was specially so at West Malvern (8*18), Longtown (8*02), Lynhales (6*75), and 
Staunton-on-Wye (6*31). The minimum monthly rainfall this year occurred in 
April and March. It is singular that April, which is associated in our minds with 
rain, should prove to be nearly the driest month of the last two years in Her^ord- 
shire, and that during the last decade of years it has also proved to have been so at 
most stations in the British Isles. This year February holds the ninth rank, last 



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192 



year it held the second. In olden times fine weather in, this month was held to be 
most prejudicial. 

" All the months in the year 
Curse a fair Fcbnieer. 



"The Welchman had rather see his dam on the bier 
Than to see a fair Februeer." 

According to the experience of Mr. Isbell the monthly means in Hereford 
for the last ten years would range as follows : — 1st September, 2nd January, 3rd 
October, 4th July, 5th December, 6th November, 7th February, 8th August, 9th 
May, 10th March, 11th June, and 12th April. 

The amount of rain that has fallen in the year has been very unequally 
distributed. In the first four months there fell 8*45 ; in the next four months 
11*22; and in the last four months 16*40 inches. If the months are ranged 
according to the number of rainy days it will be found that they follow thus : — 
March, April, December, February, May, August, June, July, September, 
November, October, and December. This order presents to us this strange 
phenomenon. The months in which the heaviest amount of rain fell had the 
fewest rainy days ; and this rule of inverse ratio obtains with almost unfailing 
exactness throughout the whole twelve months. The driest months are thus the 
months in which occurred the most rainy days. 

TABLE A. 

Comparison of the mean Monthly Kainfall in 1875, with the mean Monthly 
Kainfall in previous years. 



1875. 1874. 1873. 



January 

February .. 

March 

April 

M!ay 

June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November.. 
December .. 



4-14 


2*60 


3-44 


2-03 


3*00 


1*45 


1*08 


0*93 


315 


1*20 


1*74 


0*98 


2*68 


1*15 


214 


3*09 


0*91 


2-83 


2*91 


0*93 


2*60 


2*54 


2*85 


3-29 


3-68 


4-27 


1*57 


6-07 


2*83 


1*84 


6*06 


2*58 


1*93 


1*59 


2-38 


0*65 



THE GREATEST PALL IN TWENTT-FOUB HOUBS. 

There exists little difficulty in dealing with the past year in naming the day 
on which occurred the heaviest daily rainfall in our country. In many parts of 
the country violent storms and terrific gales broke out on the 14th of November, 
but the most violent storms and gales appear to have burst out on the 19th of that 
month, and to have caused in some localities almost irreparable damage to shipping 
and houses and property. The path of this violent storm is not easUy to be traced, 
but from the accounts published in the Times, it would appear that at North 
Shields, Hull, Cardigan, St. Andrews, Aberdeen, Hastings, and in the yaUey of 



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193 

the Thames, and in other places the disastrous floods of the 19th of November, 
would seem to have burst with unwonted severity. Mr. Sjrmons states that the 
nearest parallel was probably the "Duke of Wellington's flood, namely, that 
which occurred during the Lying-in-state, &c., in November, 1852." Of this flood 
i still retain a vivid recollection. In the low lands on the London side of Oxford, 
for some short distance, and some short time, the trains had to be conveyed by 
horse power, and the train that conveyed me to London happened to be the first 
train that passed by steam power on the subsidence of the flood. But of these 
floods of the 14th and 19th of November we, of Herefordshire, personally knew 
nothing. The maximimi daily fall in that month was only 1^ inches at Rocklands, 
and that is dated as happening on the 13th. With the exception of Lynhales, to 
which I will presently allude, every station in our county agrees in naming the 
12th of July as the day of the maximum annual fall. At the seventeen stations, 
with the exception of Hampton Court (1'57) the fall exceeded two inches ; whilst 
at Malvern West the fall was 3*12, at Whitfield, 3 26, at Rocklands, 3*36, and at 
Longtown it was 3*88. This is the most important rain that has been recorded in 
this county for many years, and perhaps Mr. Isbell will tell us when last it had its 
parallel. Some interesting details have been given us of this remarkable storm, 
or rather steady downfall of rain. 

Hebefobd. — Mr. Isbell states that his measurement of 2*39 inches, was the 
largest amount he had ever measured at Hereford. 

Ross, The Graig.— Mr. Southall states that the fall with him was by far 
the largest amount since August 13, 1858, when he had 3*84 inches in the 24 hours, 
and then the circumstances (a sort of waterspout) were different. 

Bbomyabd. — Continuous rain fell the whole of the 14th and 15th, day and 
night, and the readings of the two days were 2*42 and 0*66 respectively. 

Longtown.— Mr. Eagles says that it began to rain on July 13th at 6.30 
a.m., and never ceased till 12.30 a.m. on the 15th, during which time 4*91 inches 
fell. During the months we had 7*21 in 13 days. 

Lynhales. — On the 14th of July, says Mr. Robinson, we had 1*83, but on 
the 12th of August we had a severe thunderstorm, almost a waterspout, and in two 
hours we measured two inches, and in the 24 hours 2*28 inches. The storm was 
very local on this occasion, as in the neighbouring parish of Titley they had 
scarcely any rain. 

THE TOTAL BAINFALL OF THE COUNTY DUBING THE YEAE 1875. 

There can be no doubt that the year just past was pre-eminently a season of 
heavy rainfalls, and destructive floods, of great storms at sea, and consequent 
wreckage and loss of life. The hay crops, though large in quantity, were badly 
gathered in, but the cereal and other crops, though not equal to the best years, 
were good beyond the general expectation. The reports that have been forwarded 
from foreign countries all seem to indicate that there has prevailed ** a plague of 
waters." It must not, however, thence be assumed that there has been over the 
globe an exceptionally wet year. The inhabited parts of the earth form only a 



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194 

small portion of its surface, and of what occurs in the remainder we are in ignor- 
ance. It is quite possible that year by year there falls the same quantity of rain, 
but that it is precipitated unequally, and that while some portions of the earth's 
surface suffer from a plethora of rain other portions suffer from drought. 

On reference to table B. it will be seen that nineteen stations have recorded 
the depth of rain that fell throughout the year. The maximum fall was at Long- 
town, where the large quantity of 52*86 inches were registered. Last year the 
same station obtained a like pluvial pre-eminence, and, looking to the locality, it 
is quite probable that in future years it will equally head the list. The Tninimum 
fall appears to have been at Brockhampton, near Bromyard ; at which station was 
recorded 81*37 inches, or 21*49 inches less than at Longtown. That so small a 
quantity should have fallen at Brockhampton is to me unaccountable. It is 
situated 110 feet higher than Bromyard, and therefore should register 4 per cent, 
more ; it is near to the summit of Bromyard Downs, and yet, notwithstanding, 
the depth has been less by 6*38 inches than what was recorded at Bromyard. 

The mean rainfall of all the stations for the year was 38*72; of all the 
stations for 1874 the mean was 2657 ; and of 1873 it was 26*16 inches. The wet- 
test year for 40 years in the county of Hereford was 1872, when the total was 
42*25, so that the year 1875 was only 3*53 inches less than 1872. Mr. Isbell cal- 
culates 80 inches and two or three tenths to be the real mean for Herefordshire, 
and Mr. Sjrmons calculates 34*92 as the average of England from 1850 to 1865. 

THK NUMBEB OF RAINY DAYS IN THE YEAR. 

In Table B is given the number of days on which *01 or more fell in the 
year at eighteen of the nineteen stations. In order to simplify the subject it will 
be as well to tabulate the stations according to the number of rainy days ; the 
maximum heading the list. 1 Hereford ; 2 Bromyard ; 3 Whitfield ; 4 Much 
Marcle ; 5 Malvern West ; 6 Staunton-on-Wye ; 7 Ross, Graig ; 8 Wigmore ; 9 
Bryngwyn ; 10 Fownhope ; 11 Stoke Bliss ; 12 Kocklands ; 13 Hampton Court ; 
14 Longtown ; 15 Lynhales ; 16 Stretton Sugwas ; 17 Ledbury ; 18 Brockhampton. 

It is somewhat singular that Hereford, which ranks sixteenth according to 
the depth of rain, should enjoy the somewhat unenviable priority of having more 
rainy days than any other place in the county, and that this should be the third 
year in succession in which it has headed the list. It is also somewhat singular 
that Longtown and Lynhales which stand first and second, according to the depth 
of rain, should have had a like number of rainy days in the year, and should stand 
so low down as 15 out of the 18 stations. The same noticeable contrast between 
Brockhampton and Bromyard, remarked upon in the depth of rain, obtains here 
also. Bromyard stands second on the list with 192 days, whilst Brockhampton 
stands last on the list with a minimum of 146 days. The mean of all the stations 
will be found to be 174 rainy days in the year ; of 1874 it was 158, and of 1873 it 
was 161 rainy days. 

In taking a retrospect of the year that is past the unthinking observer 
might be inclined to reflect only on the excess of rain that had fallen, and on the 



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195 

consequent obstruction and inconvenience he had experienced in his out-door 
amusements and occupations. The beneficent Creator of all ever tempers judg- 
ment with mercy and makes all things collectively work together for the weal of 
His creatures. It would be well, therefore, for us all to recollect that the unwon- 
ted supply of rain filled our wells, and purified our water, and cleared our atmos- 
phere, and increased the fruits of the earth, and infused health and strength into 
many that were sick and waning, and told most favourably on the tables of 
mortality. In the words of the Church we may well beseech our most merciful 
Father to continue to send us such moderate rain and showers that our land may 
continue to yield us her fruits of increase to His glory and our comfort. 



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First Meeting, Stoke Edith, May 23RD, 1876. 



This Maetiiig was held jointly with the Dndley and Midland Geological 
and Scientific Society and Field Club. Present :~T. A. Chapman, M.D., 
Ftesident; Kevs. J. Da^is, B. H. Gobbold, H. B. D. Marshall, E. J. Owen, B. 
H. WHUams, H. W. Tweed and Friend, K. Bees, Esq., Stephen Perrin, Esq., 
fi. Davies, Esq., Mr. A. Thompson, Secretary. 

The retiring Treasurer produced the statement of the acconnts for 1875 
duly audited, shewing a balance of £133 68. 7d. in favour of the Club on December 
9U ld75, and £18 of arrears paid up till March 18, 1876, the date of audit, which 
smns were handed over to the new Treasurer, leaving £34 Is. 6d. of arrears still 
due to the Club. 

A letter from the Committee of the Hereford Free Library being read, it 
was proposed by the Bev. James Davies, and seconded by the Bev. B. H. 
Williams, that a sum of not less than £50 be given to the Museum Fund of the 
Hereford Free Library, subject to approval by the next meeting on June 27th. 

Captain Doughty, Hampton Park, and Bev. John Goss, College, Hereford, 
proposed at Annual Meeting, were duly elected Members of the Club. 

Captain Mayne Beid, Chasewood Lodge, Boss, was proposed and seconded 
for election at the next Meeting as an Annual Member. 

They were afterwards joined by the following Members, &;c., of the Club — 
Bev. B. P. Hill, Vice-Predident of the Malvern Club, and Honorary Member 
and Friend, Dr. Grindrod, Member of the Malvern Club, Bev. W. S. Stooke- 
Vaughan, and Dr. J. H. Wood, together with the following Members of the 
Dudley Club— C. Cochrane, Esq., President ; Messrs. C. de Lessert, A- Freen, 
Fisher, A. Wyley, Bland, Dixon, Evers, Hartbome, Houghton, E. B. Marten 
(Honorary Secretary), Mathews, Pearce, Perry, Pugh, Babone, Bichards, 
Sheppard, Thwisfield, J. Underhill, H. Underhill, F. Underhill, and several 
ladies. 

After visiting the gardens and house at Stoke Edith Park, by the kind 
permission of Lady Emily Foley, and inspecting the painted hall and some of the 
tapestries in the upper rooms, the party assembled on Seager HUl, when the 
general conformation of the Woolhope Valley was fully seen with central dome 
of May Hill sandstone and the double hills round, caused by the outcrop of the 
Woolhope and Aymestry limestones. 



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A large party then visited the quarries, under the guidance of Mr. Arthur 
Thompson, Secretary to Woolhope Club, and gathered many fossils. A smaller 
party, under the guidance of Dr. Chapman, extended their walk to a greater 
distance, and within sight of the old landslip at The Wonder, and had a more 
complete view of this most interesting valley. All assembled at the Foley Arms 
Inn, Tarrington, to Dinner. After dinner. Dr. Wood read a paper on some 
peculiar Lepidoptera, but the Members of the Dudley Club had to leave before 
the paper was read. 



ON THE CLEAR WING SPHINGES OCCURRING IN THE WOOL- 
HOPE DISTRICT.— BY DR. J. H. WOOD. 

Gentlemen, — Having been asked by our President to read a paper to the 
Club, I thought I could not do better than put together a few notes on a small 
group of Lepidopterous insects — very curious in themselves — ^which happen to be 
well represented in this neighbourhood, for out of the fourteen British species 
nine occur here. The scientific name of the insects is Seeia, but they are also 
commonly known as Clearwings. They are strange-looking moths, with their 
transparent wings and banded bodies, and look much more like wasps and ich- 
neumons, audit is perhaps for this reason they are so seldom seen in the perfect state, 
being commonly mistaken for the latter insects. In one species at least, viz., 
Bembeciformis, this likeness is carried out even in the habits of the insect ; for 
when settled on an object it keeps raising and depressing its body as wasps will 
do, and when it flies it distinctly buzzes. And to see, as I have done, one of these 
moths the size of a large wasp, with its yellow belted body, sitting on a wall in 
the sunshine, raising and depressing its abdomen, and presently taking wing, 
flying in a slow heavy manner and buzzing loudly all the while, you may well 
imagine there would be a moment's hesitation in handling so uncanny-looking a 
thing, even though you knew it were no better than a make-believe, like the 
donkey in the fable under the lion's skin. This case of Bembeciformis is an 
excellent instance of what is known as mimicry. Then again the larvae of the 
Clearwings are all internal feeders living inside the roots and stems of different 
trees and plants, hidden away from the light, and they are for the most part very 
maggot-like in appearance — further points in which their resemblance to the 
Hymenoptera is borne out. It is no doubt in this stage of growth — I mean the 
larval— that the real origin and cause of the likeness is to be sought ; but whether 
that cause dex>ends on a similarity of surrounding circumstances, or on some 
anatomical ground, it is impossible to say. Yet as bearing on this question I 
should like to turn for a moment to the vegetable world, to point out how apparently 
the shax>e of a leaf will determine the growth and development of a plant. We 
all know the ivy ; that it is a plant unable to support itself, that it has grfeat 



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freedom of linear growth and a pecnliar and well-marked leaf* Well not nnoo m- 
monly when we find this same shaped leaf occurring in another genus, the species 
so leaved forsaking the habit of growth usual in the gen^is assumes more or less 
that of the ivy. Look for instance at the ivy-leaved Campanula, the ivy-leaved 
Foodflax, the ivy-leaved Geranium. Here it would seem that the shape of the 
leaf or something in connection with that shape has induced the growth of all these 
very different plants more or less in the same direction. And we cannot but 
think that something similar is at the bottom of many cases of likeness in the 
animal world, and to be satisfied with the application of such a term as mimicry 
is unphilosophical, since at the best it can be but a preservative agent, and does 
not touch that deeper question, the origin and cause of the likeness. 

But to turn to more practical questions. These internal feeders, at least 
those of them that infest trees, are- necessarily injurious, but while some, as 
Bembeciformis, Apiformis, Tipuliformis and Sphegiformis, attack healthy and 
vigorous trees, others, as Myopiformis, Culiciformis, and Cynipiformis, prefer 
those that are diseased or injured. As has been said, the moths themselves are 
seldom seen, and are consequently scarce insects in collections. The only species 
I have noticed on the wing in the wild state have been Cynipiformis, Ichneumoni- 
formis, and Sphegiformis, but when the habits of the larvae are known, many of 
the species, even of those usually reckoned uncommon, may be obtained in 
abundance and without difficulty. All the smaller species have a tuft of bristles 
at the end of the body. This is an interesting anatomical feature, for in some 
specimens of Culiciformis that I bred I noticed they had the i)ower of expanding 
it at pleasure. This tuft consists of three sets of bristles, a middle set which are 
horizontal, and a set each side which in repose are vertical and look downwards. 
It is in these side portions the movement resides, the insect being able to raise 
them and thus increase its horizontal superficies, an obvious advantage for pur- 
poses of flight and hovering. Probably all the species provided with this tail, so 
to speak, have the same control over it. I will now say a few words about each of 
the species that occur here. 

Myopiformis is widely distributed but not abundant. The larva lives in the 
trunks of the apple trees, mining the bark. It seldom if ever occurs in sound 
parts, but attacks cankered or injured portions, selecting in these places the area 
that lies between the absolutely dead and the perfectly living bark. 

Culiciformis is common here. The larva lives in the stumps of birch trees 
in woods the year after they have been cut down, feeding both under the bark and 
in the solid wood. It is also occasionally found in alder. Insects are capital 
judges of the natural relationship of plants. In the case of these two trees almost 
every larva that I know of that feeds on the one wiU also eat the other. 

Formiciformis, — The larva of this species lives in osiers, and in company 
with those of the musk and other beetles does a great deal of injury. The books 
say it lives in the shoots ; this is wrong, it is in the buts the larva feeds. 

Icheumoniformis. — This is a good species. It occurs on one or two unculti- 
vated sunny banks in this neighbourhood. Its life-history has only lately been 



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made out. It lives in the roots of the birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus Comiculatus). I 
was led to find it here by noticing in the dry summer of 1871 the withered state of 
its food plant. The presence of a faded spray or two in an otherwise green mass of 
trefoU] was a pretty sure indication that a larva was at work. Living some distance 
underground, the larva when full-fed spins a compact and strong silken tube up to 
the surface of the soil to enable the moth to emerge afterwards without difficulty. 
Those I had in confinement continued to construct this tube, though it was no 
longer necessary, since the roots they were feeding on were out of the ground. 

Cynipiformis is another common species here, occurring both in woods and 
oj)en country, but especially in the latter. The larva may be found in the bark of 
very old or injured oak trees, but it is difficult to get it out in these situations, and 
a far better place to^ look'for it is in oak stumps the year after falling, that have 
been left in the ground. Sometimes quite a co|pny may be found in a single 
stump, and as the larva feeds just under the bark and does not enter the wood, a 
good strong knife turns them out very readily. 

TipuliformiSy a common species in many places, but not so here. It feeds 
inside the young shoots of the black currant. To obtain it you are advised to cut 
the shoots indiscrimately, but this is a clumsy extravagant method and quite 
unnecessary. The larva when it is hatched generally enters the stem through a 
bud or in the region of a bud, and if in the early spring just before the buds open 
the eye is run up the previous year's shoots, the presence of a dead bud or a small 
black hole in its neighbourhood at once betrays the whereabouts of a larva. 

' Spfiegiformis. — This is the best species that occurs here. It is completely a 
wood-frequenting insect, and affects the woods that are hilly and have a south 
aspect. The larva makes a straight burrow in the solid wood of alder saplings 
and occasionally in those of birch. The burrow is rather large for a moth of this 
size. The larva does not I think make any cocoon, but when full-fed scoops out a 
curved chamber at the top of the burrow close to the surface of the stem, leaving 
only the thinnest layer of cuticle at the head, through which the moth has after- 
wards no difficulty in breaking out. 

Bembedformis exceedingly abundant. Not a wood can be cut down but the 
burrows of its larvsa are to be seen in almost every sallow pole. 

Apiformis is rather local but common in some spots. The larva lives in the 
trunk of the black and some other poplars close to the ground, and sometimes in 
the roots. Grenerally when this insect has taken possession of a tree it keeps to it 
year after year, till the lower part is riddled with the holes through which the 
moths have escaped. It is quite possible however for the entomologist to work 
away for some time in such a tree without finding the insect, at least I have done 
so before now till I found out the way to proceed. The grub appears to enter the 
treebelowthe surface of the soil, at anyrateits burrow hasadischaigingopening below 
the surface, through which all the frass is ejected. By removing then the soil in the 
month of April, about which time the larva has spun up, the presence of fresh 
frasB at once indicates a tenanted.burrow, and by slitting it up the cocoon will be 
found ; not uncommonly too, the cocoon occurs in the soil itself close against the 



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tnmk and not in the burrow. This is not the only species among those enumera- 
ted that enters the tree from beneath the soiL Bembedformis and Sphegifoimis 
both do the same thing. It might be thought that the object of this is conceal- 
ment since there is no frass or visible opening to betray the presence of a larva, 
but I think the more probable reason is that the bark in this situation being thin 
and soft the little grub has less difficulty in entering here than elsewhere. 

This brings my notes to an end, they are necessarily short and imperfect 
as time has not allowed me to go more fully into the subject. I have therefore 
drawn attention to those points chiefly which are not so generally known, and 
which may enable some other Lepidopterist, I wish there were more such in the 
country to fill up some blank spaces in his cabinet. 



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M^nHmt %z}mMB f iriS 




The second meeting of the season of the Club was held at Llanthony Abbey, 
on Tuesday, June 27th, 1876, on which occasion members were allowed to intro- 
duce ladies by special tickets. Present :— Dr. Chapman, President, in the Chair ; 
Lord Bateman, Lord Lieut, of Hereford ; Rev. W. S. Symonds, Honorary Mem- 
ber ; Mr. L. Lyell ; Miss Chapman ; Mr. W. A- Swinburne, Vice-President ; Mrs. 
and Miss Swinburne ; Dr. Mc Cullough ; Mrs. Rosher ; Mrs. and Miss Steel and 
Mrs. Page; Mrs. Bradney, Miss Bradney and Mons. Wickel; Mr. Thomas 
BlashiU ; Mr. Cam ; Rev. G. H. Clay and Rev. R. W. T. Hunt ; Mr. and Mrs. 
James Davies and Miss Kent ; Rev. W. C. and Mrs. Fowle ; Mrs. F. W. and 
Miss Herbert; Rev. C. H. and Mrs. Buhner; Mrs. Jones, Misses Jones and 
Eckley ; Miss Headley, Captain Doughty, Major Harrison, Miss Jones, St. 
Cuthberts ; Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Hall and Miss Pitt ; Rev. H. W. PhiUott, Rev. 
James and Miss Davies, Moor Court, and Miss F. Thomas ; Mr. Armitage, Miss 
Armitage and Miss H. Armitage, Bath ; Rev. G. M. and Mrs. Metcalfe, Dr. Bull, 
Miss Evelyn and Miss Marion Bull ; Mr. Alfred Purchas, Mr. Arthur Thompson, 
Secretary, Mr. H. H. and Miss Wood ; Mr. C. A. Key and Mr. C. M. Field ; 
Rev. J. E. Grasett, Rev. C. J. Robinson, Mr. J. W. Lloyd, Mr. and Miss Stokes, 
Dr. and Mrs. Hincks and Miss F. Fairbanks ; Rev. C. L. Eagles, Rev. J. M. 
Bdavan, Rev. C. J. Westropp and Mr. Husbands. 

Proposed by the Rev. James Davies and seconded by Mr. Cam, that the 
proposal made at the last meeting of granting a donation of £50 to the Free 
Library, at Hereford, towards the expenses of the Museum be confirmed. 

Captain Mayne Reid, Chasewood Lodge, Ross, proposed and seconded at 
the last Field Meeting was duly elected an annual member. 

Rev. Thomas Prosser Powell, Peterchurch Vicarage, Hereford, proposed by 
the Rev. G. M. Metcalfe, seconded by the Rev. H. B. D. Marshall. 

Rev. C. E. Maddison Green, Lyonshall Vicarage, Kington, proposed by 
Rev. James Davies, seconded by Rev. W. C. Fowle for election at the next Field 
Meeting. 

Proposed by Mr. Cam, and seconded by Rev. James Davies, and carried, 
that the President confer with Dr. Hogg and request him to attend the exhibition 
of Apples and Pears. 

It was resolved to alter the day of holding the next Field Meeting which is 
to be a joint one with the Caradoc Field Club at Old Radnor and Stanner Rocks, 

I B 



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om Thnnday, July 20th, to Monday, July 17th, the former day havmg been 
fixed by Captain Kankin for his Bow Meeting at Bryngwyn, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Oaradoc Field Club which the Secretary undertook to obtain at their 
meeting the next day. 

On the arrival of the party at Llanthony Abbey, some members, &o., that 
preferred it, ascended the Black Mountain and had a delightful view into Here- 
fordshire, including liongtown Castle and Church Clodock Church and the surround- 
ing district, whilst others proceeded up the valley to view the ancient yew trees in 
the churchyard at Capel-y-finn, &;c. 

On the return of the party to the Abbey about 3*30, they partook of 
luncheon. 

After luncheon Dr. Mc Cullough delivered an address on the Geology of the 
district, which was illustrated by fossils. 

Mr. Blashill (liondon) immediately after gave a very interesting description 
of the Abbey, which unfortunately had to be curtailed by the Secretary announc- 
ing that the time had arrived for their departure to Llanvihangel in time for the 
last tMdn to Hereford. 



LLANTHONY PRIORY. 

At the close of the proceedings Mr. Blashill conducted the party over the 
ruins of the conventual buildings, giving a short description of their chief features. 
The Priory was founded early in the 12th century by one William, a retainer of 
Hugh de Lacy, who, while hunting found himself in this secluded spot where was 
a little chapel, said to have been built by St. David. He was joined in his under- 
taking by Emesi, chaplain to Maud, the Queen of Henry I., and, having been himself 
afterwards ordained, it was but natural that these two priests should make it a house 
of Canons regular of St. Augustine, an order consisting of clergy only, rather than 
a house of Monks. The great Cistercian order, whose houses may be said to 
monopolise such lonely sites as this, was not introduced into England till 1128 
(its third house, Tintem, was founded in 1131), and whatever might have been 
the success of this order had it been here established, it is certain that the 
Augustinian Canons failed, as they might have been expected to fail, to secure 
property in this spot. Their first church was dedicated in 1108, but the buildings 
now remaining belong to the latter half of that century ; for although most writers 
upon the history of this building have been led to attribute it to the earlier date, 
it is quite clear from the style of its architecture, which is transitional between the 
Norman and Early English periods, that this is not the original structure. The 
Canons who formed its first inhabitants were brought from the first Augustinian 
house in England, that of St. John the Baptist at Colchester, and this establish- 
ment received the same dedication. This community suffered greatly from the 
inhospitable character of the site and from the attacks of the Welsh. They after- 
wards received a grant of land at Gloucester, where they built another monastery, 



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known aslLlanthony the second, to whiofa this house became subordinate, and so 
was indifferently maintained down to the time of its dissolution in the reign of 
Heniy YIII. Such parts as remain habitable are now used as an inn, the fabric 
generally being fairly kept up by its present owners, the family of the late Walter 
Savage Landor. 

The church consists of nave with north and south aisles, between which are 
arcades of seven arches, which like all the larger arches of the building are 
pointed, while the smaller arches are semicircular, a characteristic of buildings of 
its date. The south arcade fell within living memory, the outer walls of both 
aisles had probably been destroyed long previously. The piers of the arcades are 
square, with angle-shafts carried quite round the arches without any capitals. 
The chancel is a very fine long structure without aisles, lighted by tall narrow 
windows, its ornament consisting mainly of plain scolloped capitals of late Norman 
work. The north transept has disappeared, that on the south side remains, and 
had a fine chapel of 13th century character to the east of it, to which a wide 
semicircular arch that appears to have originally consisted of two pointed arches 
gives access. The central tower is a ruin, though its western and southern arches 
still support massive walls, with small 12th century windows. Three stages of a 
fine pair of western towers remain, the rooms in them being used for the purposes 
of the inn. A fine triplet of pointed windows existed between the'm, as we know 
from old engravings ; but these have disappeared, and the whole face of the lower 
part of the west front has been repaired and altered — ^no doubt with the best 
intentions— perhaps half a century ago. The present kitchen formed originally 
a very handsome entrance from the precinct into the cloister. It is vaulted, and 
has the remains of a good doorway on the west side. Some other buildings, which 
formed cellarage, and probably the rooms for lay brethren, and gfuests, adjoin this 
entrance, having extended originally along the west side of the cloister as far as 
*'ory kitchen, that would then stand at the west end of the refectory. The 
^Her, which had a wooden roof, has disappeared. On its east side adjoining the 
^ transept is a beautiful example of those remarkable apartments, which are 
^^h always fuuad in that position, and which have been called sacristy, 
aenry library, exchange, mortuary, penitentiary, &c., no one name seeming to 
^ satisfactorily the different kinds of room which exist in different monasteries. 
e*e it is entered by a beautiful 13th century archway, which had no doorway, 
w faulted in stone, and has an eastern wmdow. It contains both the scolloped 
<»pitals of tne^ksut century and those of the finest style of 13th century foliage, 
showing that the canons i.^^ built their church next proceeded with the 
subsidiary buUdmgs. Adjoining this apartment (now a gig-house) are the remains 
of the chapter house, which waa apsidal, and beyond it to the south were the day- 
room and dormitory of the community, which have been considerably altered, and 
are now in ruins. The refectory extends along the south side of the cloister 
garth-Its vaulted substructure can be traced with some remains of the upper 
portion. 

Southward of the conventual buildings is that which is now the parish 



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chmcht and what some writers have thought to be the original chapel built by 
St. David 1 while others think it to be the first chnrch of the Priory boilt by 
William and Emesi. Here Mr. Blaahill pointed out that there had at one tLme 
been gates or folding doors, which shnt off the chancel from the nave — ^the iron 
hinges of which could still be traced — ^his opinion being (as he had stated when the 
British Archaeological Association visited Llanthony in 1870) that the building was 
the infirmary of the priory, which by a few obvious alterations had been adapted 
for a parish church. 

Some of the company visited during the day the gate-house, which stands to 
the west of the church, and is a very fine specimen of pointed architecture, erected 
after the completion of the monastic buildings. 



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*SK^ji»lhiip^ ^atuijali* ^Wd Olluk 



The third meeting of the above Club was held at Old Radnor and Stanner 
Rocks on Monday, July 17th, instead of Thursday, the 20th, to meet the Oaradoc 
Field Club, Present : Mr. W. A. Swinburne (Vice-President), Rev. W. L. 
Bevan, Mr. R. W. Banks, Mr. Joseph Carless, Rev. J. H. Crouch, Captain 
Doughty, Major Bush, Rev. W. D. V. Duncombe, Rev. J. E. Grasett, Mr. J. 
Bowler Evans, Mr. John Lambe, Rev. G. H. Clay, Rev. H. B. D. Marshall, Mr. 
Ti Clifton Paris, Mr. E. Piper, Mr. O. Shellard, Rev. S. Thackwell, Rev. H. W. 
Tweed, Rev. W. Wyatt, Mr. J. W. Lloyd, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Arthur Thompson 
(Secretary). 

Members of the Caradoc Field Club.— Present : Rev. William Elliott 
(secretary). Rev. J. Owen Rocke, Rev. C. Warner, Rev. J. Lambert, Mr. Wm. 
Langstone, Rev. H. Day, Rev. H. Brown, Mr. F. R. Smith. 

On the Stanner Rocks Mr. R. W. Banks delivered an address on the 
geology of the district, and for which an unanimous vote of thanks was given to 
him. 

On the return of the party to Kington, at 5 o'clock, they partook of dinner 
at the Oxford Arms Hotel. 

Resolved — ^That the next meeting, to be held at the Brown Clee Hill on the 
18th August, be adjourned to 25th August, to enable the Secretary to be present, 
he having announced that he should of necessity be absent from home on the day 
first fixed. 



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^nd^nj? IrioW fas %hk 



The Fourth Field Meeting was held at Brown Glee on Friday, 25th 
Angust, having been postponed from Friday, 18th (see resolution passed at the 
last meeting on 17th July). Present : Dr. Chapman (President), James Eankin, 
Esq., Rev. A. E. Hornby, 6. H. Lin, Esq., Capt. Doughty, Major Bush, Mr. 
Home, Mr. O. Shellard, Rev. G. H. Clay, Mr. Cocking, Mr. J. T. Owen Fowler, 
Mr. Jos. Graves, Rev. Philip Norris, Mr. T. C. Paris, Mr. G. H. Piper, Mr. A. 
Purchas, Rev. Stephen Thackwell, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Arthur Thompson, Miss 
Hodgson, Rev. Albert Clowes, Rev. John Sempson, Mr. E. Y. Steele, and Mr. 
John Kent. 

On the arrival of the party at Ludlow they proceeded in carriages to Clee 
St. Margaret's, where they were met by Rev. Albert Clowes, who conducted them 
to his church, and from thence to the Roman Camp of Nordy Bank (on which he 
read a short paper), and the British remains on Abdon Burf ; afterwards passed 
over the Brown Clee and down through the Burwarton pleasure grounds, by the 
kind permission of Viscount Boyne, to the village of Burwarton, where the old 
and new churches were visited. 

They afterward dined at the Boyne Arms Inn. After dinner Mr. Rankin 
read a paper on the " Formation of Soils." 



NORDY BANK ON THE BROWN CLEE. 

The following remarks I have collected from a paper written in 1873, for 
the Severn Valley Naturalists' Field Club, by a friend of mine, the Rev. Augustus 
Thursby-Pelham, a son of the lord of this manor. 

Nordy Bank still stands bare, as when the Roman camp was formed here 
more than 1,800 years ago. It has not been destroyed by the plough, nor has it 
been hidden by timber like Norton Camp, which had even a more commanding 
position above the present Craven Arms. And as the sheep now grazing hef 
symbolise peace, so was this Roman camp formed for the furth***^^ °^ P^ 
rather than of war. Nordy Bank was most probably one of the camps v*^°^ 
Ostorius Scapula, the Roman Proproctorlin Britain (a.d. 50), established >»*^e©» 
the Avon and the Severn. Certain British tribes, under Caractacus or<3aadoc, 
were at that time in this part of the country in open revolt against tb* Bonaus. 
After their defeat they gave much trouble to their conquerors, whil*i 1^^^ anong 
their native woods and marshes. It was under these circwmatances that the 
Roman General formed stationary camps in commanding positions, such as this fa. 
This particular camp was of such importance that i« was connected with 
Vrioonium by a paved miUtary road, part of which is stiU in existence undtr the 



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209 

name of the Devil's Caoseway, and which has left traces in other' parts bylthe 
names Tugford, Hungerford, Boman Bank, &c. Nordy Bank then was a chief 
permanent camp intended to keep the peace among the conquered. 

The shape is a rounded parallelogram, from east to west 210 paces, from 
north to south 144. 

After a time a peaceful and prosperous population sprang up around. 
Thus the origin of the village just below, still often called The Glee*, watered by 
an unfailing brook, sheltered by the hills, and protected by this encampment. 
After the departure of the Romans from Britain the village remained ; and when 
the Templars brought the legend of Saint Margaret from the east, the then Lord 
of Holgate founded the church there under the name of that saint. 

ALBERT CLOWES, Vicar of Glee S. Margaret. 



ON THE FORMATION OF SOILS.— BY JAMES RANKIN, Esq. 

At the outset of this inquiry it will be necessary for us to remember that 
our earth, in the beginning, was formed of a variety of substances which we call 
elements, and which elements are capable of entering into a countless variety of 
combinations to give rise to the different forms we find on the earth, and that 
under the influence of various agents, whose action has been unceasingly in force 
for innumerable ages,^the earth has assumed its present configuration, — that is to 
say, it is now as we find it composed of hills and valleys, lakes and rivers and seas, 
and the land is, for the most part, covered with some description of vegetation. 

It will be well now to consider what those agents are and what is their 
manner of action. 

The chief agents connected with the formation of soils are the air, wmd, 
and ram, frost, snow, and water. These six are the most important in the forma- 
tion of soils ; although not all chemically distinct, yet their physical action is so, 
and therefore I prefer to speak of them as different forces. 

The action of these forces is so constant and at the same time so apparently 
trifling that many are apt to think that they can have but little influence in 
changing the external form of the globe ; that such, however, is not the case 
becomes evident to those who are in the habit of closely observing the mysterious 
workings of the forces which pervade our universe. 

The air of our atmosphere is composed of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic 
acid gases. Oxygen gas enters into combination with a great many of the common 
constituents of the earth, such as iron, aluminium, sodium, sulphur, and others, 
and forms with them substances known to chemists as oxides. It is this process 
of oxidation which has such an effect in wearing away and loosening the outer 
surface of rocks, and in this condition the loosened material is washed down by 
rains and goes to fill up some deposit elsewhere, while a new and clean surface of 

* Clee is the Latin divus, a hill, so that the usual expression ' Clee Hill' is really tautology. 



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rock li premnted to the action of the air. Here we have one cause of the change 
of the form of the earth's surface. The above may be said to be the chief action 
of the air. 

We will now look at the next agent— wind. The wind, as everybody knows, 
is only the air in motion, but the effects and action of wind are sufficiently 
recognisable to strike the mind of most people and to convince them that the wind 
is a very important agent. Its effects as a soil-forming agent are best seen in hot 
dry countries, such as North Africa, where the soil is very friable, parched, and 
light : in such countries the wind carries the sand and dust along with it for miles, 
and often deposits it far away from its parent rock. Although in our island we 
do not see the effects of wind on the soil on such a large scale, yet any one who has 
aver visited a sandy sea shore must have witnessed considerable hillocks or sand- 
dunes, as they are called, formed by blown sand. The oxidising power of the air 
is of course in action in the wind as well as in still air, so that the wind has a 
double action, both chemical and physical. Lastly, I will only just mention the 
power of the wind to waft seeds and other vegetable matter to all parts of the 
earth, where, if the circumstances are suitable for them, they take root and grow 
np, and thereby bind together the loose particles of the soil by their roots. This 
may be called an indirect effect of the wind in the formation of soils. 

I must now pass on to rain, Kain washes down all loose and friable matter, 
and carries it on till it deposits it at the bottom of some valley or river-bed ; it 
also finds its way through the interstices of rocks, and by its chemical action as 
well as its physical, takes up in solution some of the substance of the rock through 
which it passes ; this kind of action I will speak of when treating of the effects of 
water. 

Snow like rain washes down loose materials, but it is large masses of accu- 
mulated snow such as are seen in Switzerland and elsewhere that have such a 
powerful effect in breaking off huge masses of rock and bearing them away to be 
disintegrated by the air and other forces. 

Compact frozen snow, in the form of glaciers, wear away, and erode the 
valleys through which they pass, and carry away with them an immense amount 
of materials which are deposited when the snow and ice melt and form a "terminal 
moraine." 

Frost is another important agent. Frost is the name applied to that state 
of atmosphere which is below 32 [degrees on Fah. thermometer, or below zero on 
the centigrade ; its most obvious effect is that water congeals and becomes ice : 
this is a most important effect as water when it becomes ice increases in bulk, and 
of course becomes specifically lighter ; so that when water which has run into 
crevices of rocks freezes, it expands and cracks the rock and frequently breaks off 
large masses, just as gun-powder would do ; these masses of rock either roll down 
the hill side and at the bottom gradually decay and form soil, or they are borne 
away on the crest of a glacier or ice berg far from their parent rock. This affords 
an explanation of the frequent phenomena of boulder-stones, which are stones 



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found in a great variety of places far away from the rock from which they wete 
once a portion. 

I now come to the consideration of the last though not the least of the eoil 
forming agents, viz., vfoter. I use the term water here, in distinction to rain, 
although chemically the same, and apply it only where water occurs in some q«aa« 
tity, as in the case of streams, rivers, lakes, and seas. 

Water has two important methods of action, one a physical or me c h ani c al , 
and the other a chemical one. I propose to consider each of these methods 
separately. 

By the first, or mechanical action, water abrades and wears away the surface 
of any rock with which it comes in contact, and then according to the state of 
motion or of quiescence of the water, the abraded particles are either carried 
out far from their parent rock or allowed quietly to sink to the bottom at the foot 
of the rock from which they were taken. 

A brief consideration of the abrading and transporting power of water will 
I think explain to us the three following phenomena so often seen in connection 
with soils. 

1st, why sometimes the soil is of the aame nature and composition as the 
rocks in the immediate neighbourhood and sometimes of a totally difermt natute. 

2nd, why beds of one sort of material, such as gravel lie Intermingled with 
beds of another sort of material such as clay, &;c 

3rd, why the same bed or stratum of soil is frequently found to be composed 
of a mixture of materials, such as sand and clay. 

With regard to the 1st of these cases, I think it is not difficult to understand^ 
how slow, shallow streams, and the waves of lakes and seas, where no currents 
exist will not carry off their sediment to any great distance from the rock from 
which it was abraded, but will allow it to sink quietly to the bottom there to 
form a soil of the same nature as the rocks in the neighbourhood, and on the other 
hand, that rapid streams and currents, such as occur in mountainous districts do 
carry away their sediment to great distances, often hundreds of miles from the 
rocks from which it was abraded, and deposit it somewhere to form a soil often 
totally unlike in composition to the rocks in the vicinity. 

This transporting power of water which though familiar to everybody, and 
is seen in every ditch and puddle, is not perhaps seen in this country to the same 
extent as in some others where the mountains are higher, and therefore in order to 
give you a clear idea of what an important force it is in soil formation, I will 
adduce one case, namely that of the Ganges. 

Delta of Ganges. The river Ganges is one of the largest rivers of India, 
it forms the main drain of the North-Eastem portion of India, and pours its 
waters into the Bay of BengaL Throughout its whole course it receives large 
contributions from tributary streams coming down from the lofty Himalayas, and 

I C 



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More reaching the aeft 10 joined by the river Brahmapootra, a river as large as the 
Cangee itaelf. Many miles however before reaching the sea these great rivers are 
q>lit np into several branches, on one of which the Hoogly, stands the important 
town of Oalentta. 

It is not an easy matter to fix the point where the delta begins ; it 
is however stated that the delta of the Ganges begins about 216 miles in 
a direct line from the sea, and the delta of the Brahmapootra 224 miles from the 
sea ; these deltas it must alwa3rs be remembered have long ago coalesced to form 
liat one, which has a great number of mouths ; we may say then that the com- 
bined delta of Granges and Brahmapootra begins about 220 miles from the sea, that 
■is a distance equal to that from Hereford to Newcastle-on-Tyne, and nearly equal 
to that from Aberystwith on the Welsh coast to Lowestoft on the East coast. 
The breadth of the delta is about 200 miles, and as it is as wide 220 miles from the 
jiea ^ it is at the coast, the area of the delta will be about 4,400 square miles. 

The amount of sedimentary matter in the united waters of the^ Ganges and 
Bn^imftpootra has been estimated at j_ part of the water in bulk during the four 

months of rains, when the discharge of water is estimated at 494,208 cubic feet per 
second, and this gives 577 cubic feet of mud discharged in a second. The rains 

'last about four months, or 122 days, and therefore the total discharge of mud 
during the rains is, 6,082,041,600 cubic feet. The quantity of mud discharged 

.dtmiiig the. eifi^t[dry months is estimated at 286,035,840 cubic feet, so that the 
whole^annual] discharge is 6,368,077, 440 cubic feet. This amount of mud would 

'raise a surface of 228} square miles one foot. When we consider for what count- 
less ages this action has been going on we cease to wonder at the effects produced, 
and we recognise the importance of running water as a soil forming agent. 

I might here remind you that the sediment brought down by the Ganges, 
comes chiefly from the Himalayas upwards of a 1,000 miles distant. 

This one case out of many must suffice to show us the great power of 
water, for it is only the principle that we are engaged with at present, and we 
cannot delay over many examples. I may say, however, that anyone who likes to 
' take the trouble to study the subject of deltas and alluvial formations for himself 
vill be amply repaid. 

I must now pass on to the second case and explain how beds of different 
materials lie inte?8tr&tified with one another. The power of running water to carry 
nuktter along with it depends upon its velocity, and when its velocity is increased 
then its power of transportation is increased also. 

The law of the transporting power of running water may be thus stated :— 
** The power of water to move bodies that are in it, increases as the sixth power of 
.the velocity of the current." (See Jukes*s Geology). 

Thus if we double the velocity of a current its motor power is increased 
64 times (26)=:64 ; or, in other words, if a stream moving at a velocity = a was 
' indeased to a velocity = 2a, and if at rate a it could move a body of 1 lb. weight, 

1} c 



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then at rate 2a it could move a body o! 64 lbs. weight. If again its velodty be 
trebled its motor power is increased 729 times. 

Again, it has been observed that water moving at the rate of 

3 Inches in a sec. tears up Fine Clay. 

6 f, „ „ Fine Sand. 

12 „ „ „ Fine GraveL 

36 „ „ „ Large Gravel. 

Carrying the above laws in our mind it is apparent that if any alteration in 
the velocity of a stream takes place the positions where the several bodies^ viz., 
gravel large and small, sand and clay, were deposited wiU be materially altered, 
and very probably if the velocity is increased large gravel will be borne away and 
deposited where formerly only fine clay reached, and if velocity be diminished the 
fine clay might be deposited where formerly the gravel was. 

Thus we see by the motor power of water the superposition of beds of 
materials of different densities can be accounted for ; how, for instance, a bed of 
large gravel may be found above a bed of fine clay. In still water, of coozBe, the 
heavier materials wiU always form the lowest beds. 

With reference to the third case, it is easy to understand how 'Streams 
passing through and over rocks of a varied composition will cany away detritus of a 
mixed composition, and if the materials be of the same density they will be deposited 
somewhere or other in the same bed, and form a mixed soiL Soils of this desorip- 
tion are much the most common and I may add much the most desirable. 

With regard to this most interesting subject, viz., the power and effects of 
water in modifying this earth's surface, I must refer you to some of the standaid 
works on Geology, such as Sir C. Lyells, 'and others, where you will find abimdaiit 
examples of cases of which I have spoken above, besides other interesting matter. 
But it is impossible for me in a short paper to dwell longer on this part of our 
subject, I wiU therefore now pass on to the second mode of action of water, 
namely the Chemical action. 

Water has the power of holding in solution various substances, such as 
mineral salts, as Bicarbonate of Lime, Hydrated Lime, Chloride of Sodium — 
conmion salt, Chloride of Magnesium, and many others. These substances, 
derived chiefly from the decay of volcanic rocks, are taken up by water and 
carried away to be mingled with other soils. On evaporation of the water, these 
substances are left in the soil and again rendered soluble by rain, and in that state 
taken up and assimilated by plants. This power of water is of the highest impor- 
tance with reference to the fertility of soils, for no soil is fruitful without the pre- 
sence of some at least of these mineral salts. * 

Many hard rocks, as well as soft soils, owe their origin to this chemioal 
power >f water ; the most notable of these stony deposits are the Travertins of 
Italy and elsewhere. This Travertm is a rook generally of whitish grey or yellow 
Color, very hard, and oompoeed entirely of Carbonate <^ Lime, pore limeBtone* 



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314 

Although Urgvly developed in Italy, where nearly all the churches are built of it, 
it is also found everywhere, where limestone rocks exist, more or less. 

^th this brief survey of the process of soil-formation by the mineral or 
inorganic kingdom, we must be content and now take a glance at the share taken 
by the organic kingdom. 

We must suppose a soil of mineral constituents, capable of supporting plant 
life, to have been formed, and to have become dry land. On this, ere long, the 
seeds of plants wafted by the wind, or dropped by birds, will find a resting place, 
take root, flourish and decay, and leave their substance to be again returned to the 
soil ; but they will also shed abroad their seeds and in time the whole surface of 
the ground will be covered with some sort of vegetation ; on this vegetation 
animals will come and feed, and leave their faeces, and when they die their carcasses 
to enrich the soil, the bones of animals being a valuable manure. This process 
going on for a long continuance of time will give rise to the humus or vegetable 
mould found in all agricultural soils. This humus is always much increased by 
tillage and manuring, and is always most plentiful in soils which have been long 
under cultivation. 

If again from any geological cause the soil is depressed below the water, or 
has not yet risen above the water, as swamps and bogs, the vegetation, if any exist, 
which will alwajTs be of an aquatic kind, when it dies down, will be preserved by 
the water from decay for a very long period, and by accumulations of vegetable 
matter of this description peaty soils are formed. 

These formations are well seen in the North of Ireland and South of 
Scotland. I may mention here that this peaty soil is the commencement of the 
fonnation of ooal; the vegetable or organic matter is gradually replaced by 

Mr. Bankin promised at a future meeting to read as a sequel to this paper, 
another on the composition and character of the different varieties of soils. 



NOTE ON OHILOCORUS RENIPUSTULATUS, 
By T. a. Chapman, M.D. 

These notes are a very poor apology for a complete history of the beetle 
• they refer to, but I submit them to the club as not being devoid of interest, whilst 
. it is doubtful whether I shall ever be able to render them more complete. 

The subject' of these notes is a small beetle of the family Coccinellidas 

(the lAdy-bird.) It must take rank among useful insects, as indeed all the 

CocdnellidsB do. It pteya upon an enemy of the ash as grown for hop-poles, and 

is thus a friend to the hop grower. The hop itself has at least three species of 

, Lady-birds that prey upon the aphides which so frequently infest it, so that no 



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215 

plant is probably so much indebted to this family of beetles. They are no doubt 
in consequence held in high respect by all drinkers of beer. The beetle is accoun- 
ted rather a scarce one and is no doubt rare except in a hop-growing district. 

I owe my first introduction to the insect to Dr. Bull. On a fungus foray 
early in the season in which the prizes were to be found among the smaller forms, 
he espied a valuable spheria covering the bark of an ash sapling. After briefly 
reconnoitring it with a pocket lens he called me to the front and handed the sup- 
posed spheria over to me as belonging to the insect world, Dr. J. G. Morris who 
was of the party agreed to the session and added an opinion that the insect was a scale 
insect, an opinion that proved to be perfectly correct. Shortly afterwards some 
small spinous larvae were detected amongst the scale insects,[and proved to be those of 
CkUocoru8 Benipugtulatus, This was early in July. The scale insects then were 
chiefly represented by the egg masses covered by the body of the female insect of 
the previous year though numerous newly hatched larva also were present. The 
usual season for hatching is probably in June. I have not the ^ame of this 
species, but it belongs probably to the genus Aspidiotus, along ydth the so-called 
American blight of the apple ; the scale of a similar species may often be observed 
on oranges. This Aspidiotus of the ash bark is a very minute species as compared 
with the A. Conchiformis (American blight) of the apple. What it lacks in size 
it makes up in numbers for the bark is so closely packed with them that they over- 
lap each other. The habitat is the bark of the ash where thickly grown usually 
from old stools for hop-poles. The bark of these is green with the sap immediately 
beneath the surface, within easy reach of the short beaks of the Aspidiotus, quite 
imlike the hard BoUd bark of an old tree. The sap they extract must necessarily 
materially injure the .plants, though I could not detect by the eye any difference in 
vigour between affected trees and others. It also occurs more sparingly on the 
alder, Alrms glvAinosa, 

Like the apple blight, the larva of Aspidiotus have a woolly excrescence, 
and are usually packed so closely as to give the bark the appearance of being 
covered by a greyish mould. In the autumn (August and September) they reach 
maturity. The females are apterous and scale like, the males are very minute 
delicate insects of a yeUowish colour with two wings, almost veinless ; the second 
pair being either very minute or wanting. 

The beetle, Chilocorus HenipustvlcOtis passes the winter in the perfect state, 
and in April or May lays her eggs in small groups, when she finds the aspidiotus to 
be abundant. On these the larva feeds, so far as I know eating the bark-louse in 
whatever stage of existence it happens to be. If food is sufficiently abundant the 
larvae keep tolerably weU together and may almost be called gregarious, especially 
collecting closely together when about to undergo their several moultings ; if their 
prey be scarce they scatter themselves more widely. Sometimes one sapling has 
hundreds of larva on its stem — ^a dozen or two is the more usual quantity. I do not 
know how often the larva moults, certainly three times, probably four. When full 
grown, it attaches itself to the bark by the anal segment, head downward, and 
assumes the pupa state ; like some other of the same family the larva skin is not 



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fully CMt off, bat splitting open down the back, remains like a great coat 
enveloping the rest of the pupa ; the portion of the pupa that is visible is black 
and shining. The pupa state exists for only a few days in hot weather for over a 
fortnight if the weather be cold. In August and September the beetles appear ; 
they themselves feed on the aspidiotus, and at the first sign of winter seek for a 
secure hiding place until the spring. 

The specimens which I present will give a better idea of this insect than 
any description. All the Coccinellids have a strong family likeness, this genus 
Ckiloconu differs in facies from Goccinella, by the more truncate front,, due to a 
more arched form of thorax. The larva as you may gather from its cast skins is 
spinous, its breadth is about that of the beetle but it is longer, tapering somewhat 
to either end. The spines are long and composed very similiar to those in the 
larva of Vanessa. They are ranged in three rows on either side, subdorsal, super- 
spiracular, and lateral, one on each segment, excepting on the first thoracic segment, 
which has two subdorsal and two lateral spines, the second thoracic two lateral 
spines, thus affording one of those instances which have been supposed to indicate' 
that these segments are really formed by a coalescence of two ordinary segments. 
The lateral spine is reduced to a mere tubercle in the 12th segment, and the 
13th segment has only four tubercles. The colour of the larva is a dull brownish 
black passing into brown in the incisions of the segments and beneath. It has 
six legs and an anal prolog like other larvae of the same family. 



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HEREFORDSHIRE FUNGUSES. 



RUSSULA UJTJEA, Fr. 



YELLOW RUSSULA. 

This delicate species has a wide range of growth, and is usually to be found 
on the short turf of high woodlands, or tree-shaded commons. 

Description. — Plant, fragile, mild in taste. Pileus, 1-2 in. broad, rather firm, 
piano-depressed, with a viscid yellow cuticle becoming pale, rarely white, margin 
even. Stem, white, soft, slender, more or less hollow. Gills, free, crowded, con- 
nected by veins, and of an egg yellow colour. Flesh, white. Spores, yellow, 
echinulate, diameter .000,32 in. Fvieis Epicrim, p. 4^1. EngL ft,, V.,p.Sl. 
* Hand-book oj British Fungi," /., 22G. Cooke s " Oremllea," Vol. VL, pi. 91, 

Not imfrequent in Herefordshire ; Dinedor Common ; Haywood Forest ; 
Whitfield ; Downton, &c. 



AGARICUS (FLAMMULA) SAPINEUS, Fr. 



BRIGHT SPORED FLAMMULA. 

This very fine species is remarkable for [the bright colour of its 8];>ores. It 
usually grows in clusters on fallen branches of fir, or chips of wood, and most 
commonly on charcoal heaps in the woods. It is very variable in size, and 
especially as to the breadth and mode of attachment of the gills. 

DescHption. —Pileus, l-4in. broad, compact, convexo-plane, very obtuse, finely 
flocculoBo-squamulose, then cracked, disk of a golden yellow colour, subopaque, 
with the margin more pale and shining. Stem, usually short, and thick, solid, 
stuffed, or hollow, often compressed and lacunose, rooting, without a ring, of a 
yellow colour, with vestiges of the yellow veil scarcely manifest. Gills, adnate, 
broad, of a golden yellow and then tawny cinnamon. Odour, strong. Spores, 
•00032 X 0002 in. Sys. Myc. /., p. i39. Engl, fl., F., p. 95, B, di Br. Ann., N. H, 

1866, No. t006, Pers. ic. et Descr., t. 4- /• ^. Handbook of British Fungi, Vol. 
I., p. m. Cook^s QrevilUa, Vol. VI., pi. 91. 

This species was brought to the Fungus Exhibition of the Woolhope Club in 

1867, by the Rev. Wm. Houghton, M.A, from the charcoal heaps of the Wrekin. 
It was then very rare as a British plant, but it has since become more common. 
The drawing was made from a specimen sent by Mr. Renny, from Ghatsworth, in 
Derbyshire, 



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la^iJlhcp^ ^attti[afots' c^idd dlub. 



The usual meetinfi: of the memberB of the above club, together with their 
scientific visitors, was held on Thursday, September the 28th, at the Free Library, 
Hereford, for a fungus foray to the grounds of the Rev. Archer Clive, Whitfield. 
In consequence of its being a thoroughly wet day, the proposed fungus foray had 
to be abandoned. Amongst the members and visitors present during the day were 
— Dr. Chapman (president). Rev. William Jones Thomas, W. A. Swinburne, Esq. 
(vice-presidents), Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Dr. Hogg, Professor T. W. Thistleton 
Dyer, Rev. Wm. Houghton, Major Houghton, Mr. Houghton, Thomas Howse, 
Esq., M. C. Cooke, Esq., Edwin Lees, Esq., William Phillips, Esq., Shrewsbury ; 
O. B. Plowright, Esq., James Renny, Esq., Worthington G. Smith, Esq., Arthur 
Smith, Esq., Dr. Vachell, Cardiff; Rev. J. E. Vize, T. Walker, Esq., Tunbridge 
Wells; Mr. Walker, Mr. Walker, jun., Dr. Bull, Thomas Cam, Esq., Orlando 
Shellard, Esq., (Mayor of Hereford), Rev. James Davies, Rev. C. H. Buhner, 
Rev. Edward Cunningham, Captain Doughty, Rev. E. C Doughty, Major Bush, 
Rev. W. D. V. Duncumbe, Mr. Forty, J. T. Owen Fowler, Esq., F. W. Herbert, 
Esq., Rev. J. E. Jones-Machen, H. C. Moore, Esq., J. Griffith Morris, Esq., Dr. 
M'CuUough, Ehnes J. Steele, Esq., J. C. Kent, Esq,, J. F. Symonds, Esq., C, 
Watkins, Esq., Mr. Chapman, and Mr. Arthur Thompson, secretary. 

The following officers were appointed for the year 1877 : — They will not take 
office until after the general meeting, to be held in the early part of next year. 

President : J. Griffith Morris, Esq., Hereford. 

Vice-Presidents. — T. Algernon Chapman, Esq., M.D., Burghill, Hereford ; 
Rev. James Davies, Moor Court, Kington ; D. M. M*Cullough, Esq., M.D., 
Larchfield, Abergavenny; Elmes Y. Steele, Esq., Abergavenny. 

Central Committee of Management : Timothy Curley, Esq., Broomy-hill, 
Hereford ; C. G. Martin, Esq., Broad Street, Hereford ; Orlando Shellard, Esq., 
Barton Manor House, Hereford. 

Editorial Committee : T. Algernon Chapman, Esq., M.D., Burghill, Here- 
ford ; Rev. Sir G. H. Come wall, Bart., Moccas Court, Hereford ; Rev. C. J. 
Robinson, Norton Canon, Weobley ; Rev. J. Davies, Moor Court; Rev. H. 
Cooper Key, Stretton Rectory, Hereford ; James Rankin, Esq., Bryngwyn, 
Hereford ; D. M. M*Cullough, Esq., M.D., Larchfield, Abergavenny ; Rev. H. 
W. Phillott, Staunton-on-Wye, Hereford. 

Treasurer : — Thomas Cam, Esq., Hereford. 

Secretary : — Mr. Arthur Thompson, 12, St. Nicholas Street, Hereford. 

Auditors : — James Davies, Esq., and J. T. Owen Fowler, Esq., 



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M. C. Cooke, Esq., 2, Grosvenor Villas, Junction Road, Upper Holloway, 
London, N. ; Rev. J. E. Yize, Forden Vicarage, near Welshpool, together with 
the President and Secretary of the Cardiff Naturalists Field Club, were nnani- 
mously elected honorary members. 

At the close of the above business, a paper was read by M. C. Cooke, Esq., 
on " The Structure and Functions of Paraphyses." 

After dinner at the Green Dragon Hotel, the President briefly proposed ** The 
health of the Queen," and then called upon Dr. Bull to give a "Sketch of 
mycology in Herefordshire," who concluded by proposing the health of the 
honorary members and visitors, coupling with it the names of Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
Dr. Hogg, and Professor T. W. Thistleton Dyer, to which they all three replied. 

After this a paper was read on " Fungological DiflBculties," by the Rev. J. 
E. Vize. The majority of the members, &c., then adjourned by the kind invita- 
tion of Thomas Cam, Esq., to a soiree at his house, when additional papers were 
read by C. B. Plowright, Esq., on " Fungi" ; Wm. Phillips, Esq., on "Three rare 
Herefordshire Pezizas " ; Worthington G. Smith, Esq., on " The Reproductive 
Process in Boletus Subtomentosus ; and Worthington G. Smith, Esq., on " A New 
Species of Urocystis on Gladiolus Conns." 

The exhibition of apples and pears was on a much larger scale than last 
year, although the season was considered unfavourable. It consisted of 637 lots, 
besides the usual display olfungmeSy which was not quite so numerous in the rarer 
forms as usual, but included some very fine specimens. 



A FUNGUS FORAY AT SHOBDON COURT, LEOMINSTER. 

During the past week many gentlemen distinguished in Mycological Science 
have been visiting our city to join in the "Fungus Forays" of the Woolhope 
Club, which have now become so widely celebrated. On Friday, the 29th ult, on 
the invitation of the Lord-Lieutenant of Herefordshire, the "Foray" was fixed 
for Shobdon Court. The following gentlemen and ladies left by the 9.20 a.m. 
train for Kingsland : — ^Dr. Chapman (the President of the Woolhope Club), the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Miss Berkeley, Dr. M. C. Cooke, James Renny, Esq., 
Worthington G. Smith, Esq., Arthur Smith, Esq., and Thomas Howse, Esq. 
(from London), the Rev. Wm. Houghton (Preston Rectory, Salop), Wm. Phillips, 
Esq. (Shrewsbury), Rev. John E. Vize (Forden, Welshpool), Edwin Lees, Esq. 
(Worcester), J. C. Kent, Esq. (Earl's Croome), C. B. Plowright, Esq. (King's 
Lynn), Dr. McCullough and Elmes Y. Steele, Esq. (Abergavenny), Edward 
Houghton. Esq., and Arthur Houghton, Esq. (Bath), Rev. James Da vies and 
Miss Alice Davies (Moor Court), T. Walker, Esq. (Tonbridge Wells), Rev. E. 
Cunningham (Mamham, Newark) ; with the following ladies and gentlemen 
from Hereford : Dr. Bull, Mrs. Read, and Miss Bull ; J. F. Symonds, Ejq., and 
Miss Edith Symonds; Thomas Cam, Esq., J. Griffith Morris, Esq., and J. T. 
Owen Fowler, Esq. Lord Bateman kindly sent his omnibus to Kingsland, and by 



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219 

this and other carriages the party were quickly conveyed across *'th« great west 
plain," as it was formerly called, to Shobdon Court. The battle of Mortimer's 
Cross was the last battle fought on Herefordshire soil, and beyond question the 
most important. It revived the fallen fortunes of the Torkists when at their 
lowest ebb, and placed the young victor, Edward IV., on the thrcme. The details 
of the battle were pointed out in passing across the field, and excited great interest, 
but this must not now be dwelt upon. 

A most cordial reception by Lord and Lady Batemftn awaited the Tisitom 
at Shobdon Court. The grounds of the mansion were first visited, and the 
scenery presented in all directions fully admired. The grouping of the trees and 
their great variety, show the ability and taste which have been displayed here in 
the art of landscape gardening. Many individual trees were especially fine. Time 
failed to measure the girth of the magnificent oaks and splendid sweet chestnut 
trees on the approach to the mansion ; but on the lawns in front it was impossible 
to pass by some cedars of Lebanon of truly remarkable size, — one trunk broken 
short off by some dire calamity, at about 26 feet high, but with a yet perfect bole, 
gave a fair measurement of no less than 18 feet 2 inches in girth, at five feet from 
the ground. But even this tree was surpassed by one in much more perfect con- 
dition on the lower ground, for this absolutely girthed 21 feet 10 inches, at five 
feet from the ground, though lower down it was somewhat lees. l%ese trees are 
certainly the finest cedars in the county, and there is some reason to believe that 
they were planted about the year 1788, when the cedar tree seems to have been 
first introduced into Herefordshire. The beech trees at Shobdon are also very 
fine ; but alas ! upon some of them, the Agaricus (ArmilUma) muciduSf in all its 
elegance, met the sharp eyes of the botanists, for it but too surely indicates the 
commencement of decay. There is a very fine yellow horse chestnut (JEwuluB 
flaws) on the lawn, in close approximation with a beautiful deciduous cypress ; 
it is, however, only mentioned now to note how completely the tree has become 
the prey of the mistletoe. All the other trees and lawn attractions must be imssed 
by, for the " Fungus Foray" was the real purport of the gathering— indeed it had 
begun already, for several of the gentlemen were hunting like truffle dogs under 
the beech trees. 

The visitors quickly spread over the hiU, the ladies and the more infirm of 
the party taking the carriages, which had been thoughtfully provided for their 
use, Lord Bateman himself acting as chief guide on horseback. All steps were 
first turned towards those well-known arches of so great an archneological interest, 
which stand in the park. It is, however, sad to see them there, exposed to the 
weather, which must sooner or later efface all memorials of that very early Irish 
school of design of which we have but few samples left. Not that the fungologists 
were sad, for here the ground was strewed all over with the orange tawny caps of 
the orange chanterelle (camtheredus aurarUiaciisJf which grows so gracefully and 
has usually giUs of an orange colour so deep and pure, that it is impossible to help 
picking them again and again in simple admiration. Many of these plants, 

2 J> 



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220 

however, showed pale gills, which are much more rare, though by no means so 
pretty. Among the grass here was also gathered Jtusmla alutacea and B, rubra, 
and several of the milky agarics, Lactariua insvlsita rufuSy and svMulcis, The 
route was then taken for the park, and all the varied and extensive landscapes 
afforded at every turn were duly admired, the deer grouping themselves in the 
foreground as if with design. A sudden stop was soon made to gather a fine 
specimen of Polyponu Iticidiu, which Mr. Berkeley spied growing from the bole of 
an oak. When the woods at the foot of the hill were reached the carriages were 
left, and the hunt for funguses became general. It would be long to tell of all the 
various " finds" the day afforded, for the woods on the brow of that long hiU are 
rich indeed in rare kinds. Here was found for the first time in Herefordshire, 
ClUocybe cUtvipeSf a graceful agaric, with the stem thick at the base as its name 
indicates : the little bird's nest fungus Crucihidum mUgare, whose spores resemble 
eggs in a tiny nest, was also found. There was the beautiful fly agaric Ag. 
(Amamta) muscarius, which the Russians love to get tipsy upon, with its bright 
crimson top speckled with white ; the rare Amanita mappa; and the graceful but 
foul-smeUing ATnamtaphalloides. Dr. Bull gathered a pretty specimen of the rare 
Leptonia euchrous, with its bright violet gills. Mr. Griffith Morris found the 
curious Mao'axmivs ffvdaoni; Mr. Howse, Boletus stricepes; and Lord Bateman 
himself— a fungologist for the nonce— -gathered a specimen, fine and rare, of 
Bolettia bacUus, which was most carefully treasured to sketch in memory of the 
foray. Boletus edulis, edible as its name implies, was found in abundance, and 
some of it gathered for cooking ; and many other interesting kinds, whose value a 
close study is required to determine. The view from the summit of the hill, on 
the top of the avenue, was very varied and extensive. The height of the hill at 
this point was pronounced by one of the gentlemen who had carefully observed 
his pocket aneroid before starting in the morning, to be about 700 feet above 
Hereford, or nearly 900 feet above sea level ; and this is probably a close approxi- 
mation, for very careful observations made six years ago proved the camp on 
Deerfold Forest — ^the hill just across the valley beyond — ^to be 913 feet above sea- 
level. From this point the party separated into groups, and pursued their several 
wa3rs through the extensive woods ; but, wander as they might, absorbed in fungus 
search, no critical comer was .ever reached, but a keeper was at hand to direct 
them aright. Thus it came to pass that in proper time aU reached the mansion to 
be refreshed by the hospitality which awaited them there. The day was one of 
perfect enjoyment throughout. The weather was brilliant; the scenery most 
beautiful ; and the kindness and attention to every one present throughout the day, 
was such as to make it ever remain a bright spot in the annals of the Woolhope Club. 
One of the gentlemen, who adds to his botanical science skill in photography, did 
not omit to take several pictures. It is hoped that these will turn out satisfac- 
torily, and thus give an abiding record to all the visitors present of the happy time 
spent in the " Fungus Foray" at Shobdon. 



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221 



FUNGOLOGICAL DIFFICULTIES, 

By the Rev. J. E. Vize. 

No person can ever commence the study of fungi, or Its near relations in 
science without expecting to find difficulties ahead, and those of no slight kind. 
And those difficulties for a considerable time increase, until a substratum is laid 
on which work may be commenced with a certain feeling that every addition to 
knowledge is one point gained towards dispelling the cruel thickness that seemed 
to be in front of the work. It has been a source of surprise to me more than once 
to find men who get warm within themselves and feel a sort of elasticity of spirits 
when they get from a friend a little insight into the splendid way in which the 
Great God has created the lower forms of vegetable life, and yet they drop o£E all 
at once. You may hear of them as enthusiasts for a time, you see their names in 
print, and although alive they are no more even as amateurs to be heard of. They 
are dead to fungoid life, and nothing like so serviceable as the dried specimen in 
the herbarium. In this respect the student of Cryptogamic life shows poorly by 
the side of the student of Phanerogamic life, the latter gains more in proportion 
to the former, in other words, let ten young men begin flowering plants, most of 
them will keep to their recreation, probably none wiU entirely give it up. But 
where wiU you get ten students to stick through thick and thin to plants, many of 
which are not to be appreciated without considerable magnifying power ? Few of 
which have gozgeous colors to attract the eye and fix the thought upon their 
glories ? All of which begin to be learned by sheer hard work aided no doubt in 
many instances by natural taste for them, nevertheless never helped from infancy 
upwards by the line upon line principle. A child is allured by the tints of flowers 
and their smell, and knows without trouble to itself a primrose from a violet, a 
cabbage from a box tree or hollyhock. But it is not so with cryptogamic life. If 
Aga-ncus Campest/ris were not an article of merchandise and moreover nice as a 
•dish and good for making ketchup, I suppose not a single fungus would be known 
to the general multitude of men and women, and even with Agarims Campestris 
how puzzled people get with some of the varieties, testing them with salt and 
having sundry misgivings for fear they should make a mistake and be poisoned. 
Difficulties there are then by nature of unusual greatness, and they increase for a 
time. Flowers fascinate, fungi and allies do not allure onwards. Besides a 
phanerogamic botanist has vastly more friends to whom he can appeal in a diffi- 
culty, vastly more botanical works he can consult. Look by the side of him at the 
fungologist, so few men are there who have gone through the years and years of 
study and become standards of appeal that there is a shrinking back from troubling 
them. I know this must and does and will exist largely, not that on the part of 
the person consulted there is likely to be entertained any other idea than that he 
is glad to give any help in his power. Still the feeling does come that a severe 
trespass is being made upon valuable time, that there will be few things quite new 



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thftt many will be oommon, and that after all expense is entailed on others which 
it is not fair to incur. Possibly it is this which has induced some of our best 
workers to bracket their names in pairs. Messrs. Berkeley and Broome, Messrs. 
Phillips and Plowright, Messrs. Cooke and Peck. The difficulty to me seems to 
be in attaining just that amount of study and friendship which wiU give and get 
from another instruction without the sensation of intrusion. The finding: of 
spedmens to a beginner is very very easy, he cannot help obtaining them, fungi 
being almost ubiquitous, but the naming of them is a harder matter by far. Give 
a young student a Hdmnthoiporium Smitku (B and Br)— a ClaspUrisporium 
VemUculatum (Cooke) and he must want help, so he wiU to distinguish a Clavaria 
and Oeoghttum at first sight. See how even the. advanced mycologists, Mr. 
Worthington G. Smith and Dr. De Bary have differed about Pcrwioapom and 
Ppthiumt the former to all our English minds I suppose taking the victor's crown. 
May all our rivabies in science go on as that seems to have done so satisfactorily, 
and may as I believe to be the case, an anxious desire always be shown to get at the 
real settlement of the case by solid experience, with what we do not always get in 
religion and politics, namely mutual forbearance and unbounded charity. 

But whilst speaking about contrasts in fungi, we must not forget that some 
of the plants are not difficult for a beginner to decide, at all events as to the genus 
to which they belong. Who that ever saw a Pestalozzia with its beautiful crest 
would fail to remember the aristate head thereof, and assign to it its proper place ? 
Who that ever saw a Puccinia would give it a spot which generically did not belong 
to it, unless perhaps he had been reading that splendid work ** The Scottish 
Cryptogamie Flora," and turned to Puccinia FdbWf about which Dr. Greville 
strangely in error says, "This is the only species I have observed in this country 
with unilocular sporidia." The fact is they are not Puccinia at all which has 
uniseptate spores, but true Uromyces. I have searched most diligently and en- 
quired very anxiously at home and abroad, and never could hear of a Pticdnia on 
the Windsor Bean. 

There is another grievous difficulty which besets us all, bu€ more especially 
those who are not rich, and very very few working fungologists are rich, certainly 
not when they begin the study. I refer to the absence of really standard works 
with reliable plates or figures drawn to life when large to the eye, to scale when 
microscopic. It has become a matter of difficulty to hear of any one possessing 
the works of Sowerby, Corda, Bolton, and others, and if a second-hand copy be 
in the market its price is gigantic, and the demand for it equal to its price. To sit 
down and copy by drawing or tracing these books, if they are to be obtained by 
borrowing, implies an emplo]rment of time which is very tedious and might be 
better occupied. If the original plates of these authors be in existence (who 
knows where they are?), could not some copies of them be made afresh? But 
then comes the question of return as a cash investment. The cryptogamie publi- 
cation of books is at best uncertain. To publish old books would not pay, because 
older students here and on the continent may have them. Very young beginners 



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328 

would rather begin quietly. Certainly the difficulty about authentic books is 
enormous. You can get Phanerogamic books, Sowerby's English Botany for 
instance, with a coloured plate of every flowering plant, for a certain number of 
sovereigns, or Bentham's British Flora uncoloured, for the same amoimt of 
shillings ; but who shall give a notion as to the cost of the valuable books and 
pUtes scattered here and there which bear on Cryptogamic botany taking the 
Fungi alone ? The difficulty to a beginner would be enough to astonish him if 
only he could realise it. 

Then look at the nomenclature of Fungi, how one author of eminence calls 
a certain growth by one name, another calls it by another name, and very natu- 
rally so too, for this branch of study has not arrived at so perfect a state that we 
can detect the various steps of growth from the juvenile form to full ripeness. 
You know for a certainty that if life be continued the infant of to-day will be the 
man by-and-bye ; but the various connecting links in the chain of growth in Fungi 
are by no means so indisputable. Perseverance coupled with other constitutional 
ingredients are needed before you can convince yourself and others that a 
Cladoapormm will necessarily become a Sphceria, that an (Ecidvum must develope 
into a Pueeima, Because one (Ecidium has been traced upwards and onwards, 
you must not with the Giermans conclude that all (Ecidia do the same. Analogy 
makes suggestions, but suggestions are not infallibilities. It is the jumping at 
conclusions which damages very considerably the good cause of science. As study 
is prosecuted by the lovers of fungology it is to be hoped that the nomendature of 
Fungi may become easier, but it wants very exact work, it wants the accumulative 
results of the cleverest minds in the wide wide world, it wants a thorough know- 
ledge of the gradual growth of all the Fungi, just as men know the growth of oaks 
from acorns. The gradual developements of all the microscopical fungi must and 
will be severe, we cannot see them without artificial help^ and of course cannot be 
always examining them. If the study of the anatomy of a caterpillar be worth a 
life time, what becomes of fungology ? Its difficulties must be immense and will 
be. The nomenclature will rectify itself by degrees, retaining however its classical 
terms. Let each of us try and contribute our quota fragmentary, though it may 
be to the ease and benefit of those who may reap our labours when our work is 
done. And whilst we look at these and kindred trials, we may positively start 
upon the conviction that not a single growth is a growth of chance, all grows on 
fixed laws decreed by God. Our superstructure may be uncertain, but certain is 
the primary step from which fungoid life starts. We may go astray through im- 
perfect knowledge and want of clear insight, but we may be sure that our errors 
are from the feeble powers man now has. For the present we know that fungoid life 
serves a very high purpose, as does all the scheme of creation. Everything is neces- 
sary, and when we attain a higher state of perfection possibly we shall wonder at 
the diminutiveness of our study now. Still for the present we say about all forms 
of life, " For Gbd's pleasure they are and were created," and we may comfort 
ourselves by the assurance that no study on earth wHl attain an easy and infallible 



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224 

load, for with^diffictilty each step has to be thoroughly investigated and " sought 
out of them that have pleasure therein." 

I must stop, omitting many a branch of trouble to the student, not however, 
without the hope that as the number of Fungologists increases— and they certainly 
do increase — ^that some of the difficulties named will decrease, and not without the 
earnest wuh that in admiring the lower forms of vegetable life, we may remember 
they may be made and ought to be made stepping stones to that higher form of 
life— namely, the angelic— which I am sure we shall all hope to have by-and-bye 
in exquisite happiness. 



ON THREE NEW HEREFORDSHIRE PEZIZAS, 
By William Phillips, F.L.S. 

The fungus flora of Herefordshire, thanks to the labours of the Woolhope 
Club, promises to be the most complete of any part of Britain. Every year is 
adding to the already long list of species others new to science, or, what is nearly 
equal in interest, BX)ecies that have not been previously recorded as British. The 
genus Peziza consisting mainly of minute forms does not command the general 
interest of the members of the Club as do such genera as AgaHcuSy Boletus^ and 
Polffporus, but for elegance of form, beauty of colour, and complexity of structure 
the PezizoB are not surpassed by the members of any other genus in the great 
family of Fungi. I am hopeful therefore that the observant members of this Club 
will not everlook these smaller plants under the impression that size is the true 
indication of importance. Much good work has already been done by my friend 
Mr. Renny in the genus Ascobolua, several new species having been detected by 
him in this county and described in our transactions, and no doubt much more 
work remains to be done before we can consider we have exhausted the resources 
of this rich mycological district. 

My object on the present occasion is to call your attention to three species 
of Pezizce discovered in the vicinity of Hereford by our esteemed president Dr. 
Chapman. The first is Peziza mridaria B and Br. originally described in the 
Ann and Mag. Nat. Hist. No. 655. This species was so named because it was 
found growing on the wall of a greenhouse at King's Cliffe. The specimens 
collected by Dr. Chapman were found by him on a damp wall of the Hereford 
Asylum and given to me two years ago. The cups vary in size from J to } inch in 
diameter, they were seated on a thin lair of cottony mycelium spread on the sur* 
face of the plaster, and were of a watery brown colour. (See Cooke's Handbook 
of British Fungi, vol. ii. p. 672, for a technical description of the species). Finding 
no published record of the occurrence of this fungus since 1845, 1 presume it is 
rare. 

The second species is Peziza Tectoria, Cooke. This was first described by 
Dr. Cooke in " Grevillea" (a quarterly Journal of Cryptogamic Botany), vol. iii., 



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THREE NEW HEREFORDSHIRE PEZIZAS, 
By William Phillips, F.L.S. 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURErf. 

Fig. 1. Pezisa viridaria, B and Br. 

A. Natural size of the fungus. 

B. A perpendicular section of a cup. 

C. Ascus and paraphyses magnified about 400 times. 

D. Sporidia removed from ascus. '010 x .005 mm. 

Fig. 2. Peziza tectorial Cooke. 

A. Natural size of fungus. 

B. Section of a cup cut perpendicularly. 

C. Ascus and x^araphyses magnified about 400 times. 

D. Sporidia removed from ascus, "015 x '007 mm. 

Fig. 3. Peziza domcptfca, Sow. 

A. Natural size of the fungus. 

B. Four cups magnified. 

C. White hairs from a cup magnified about 400 times. 

D. Ascus and Paraphyses magnified as above. 

E. Sporidia separated from the Ascus. *015 x '007 mm. 



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HEREFORDSHIRE FUNGI 



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225 

p. 119, from a Bpecixneu in the Herbarium of the British Museum sent by me 
seven years ago to the office of the Oa/rdefMr»^ Chronicle^ and referred by the 
Editors at the time to P. vi/ridcma B and B, There is a great similarity between 
these two species, both grow in similar situations, and often in company. It was 
found by Dr. Chapman in the Asylum on the damp wall before alluded to, which 
the Dr. tells me in a spirit of unscientific glee unbecoming the president of our 
distinguished Club, he has succeeded in rendering perfectly dry, so that it will 
produce no more fungi ! The cups of this species measure from one inch to one 
and three-quarters of an inch across, have a short stem, ace rough outside with 
coarse granules, which drop off in old age, and spring up from a web of mycelimn 
overspreading the plaster. For the minute points of difference warranting Dr. 
Cooke in regarding this as distinct from P. viridaria, 1 must refer you to the 
description in Grevillea and the drawings now placed before you. 

The third species I regard as by far the most interesting addition to the 
Herefordshire Flora on account of its being a rediscovery of a plant after a lapse 
of more than half a century ; it is Peziza domesticaj Sow, Its history is as follows : 
In Sowerby*s great work on British Fungi, published in 1809— a woric, of which as 
Englishmen we may well be proud, very costly and scarce — is figured P. domestica, 
accompanied with the following description of its place and mode of growth on 
damp walls : — ** It first clothes the places that have been wetted with a fine 
cottony or membranaceous film nearly as white as the plaster, which is in a short 
time partly covered with salmon-coloured knobs. These at length form a kind of 
upright Peziza externally villous." Sow. The illustrious Fries, in his Systema, 
vol. ii., p. 107, places it in the section Tapesiay but afterwards in the Elenehus he 
appears to have considered that it was very closely allied to P. diverncolor which 
stands in the section Sarcotcyphae. The Bev. M. J. Berkeley knowing the species 
of Sowerby more intimately retained it in Tapesia in. the fifth vol. of *' English 
Flora," appending the following remark :. " The dried specimens do not retain any 
of their villosity, which consequently though represented as erect must be ex- 
tremely delicate. I have thought proper therefore to retain it for the present in 
the place originally assigned by Fries, notwithstanding the fresh observations in 
the Elenehus as to its identity with P. diver skolor,'^^ I am able to say after a 
careful and leisurely examination of Sowerby's original specimens kindly per- 
mitted me by the Bev. M. J. Berkeley that the propriety of the views expressed 
above and the course he there took are fully justified. To me it is evident that 
Fries being guided by Sowerby*s figure not having seen the plant itself mistook the 
character of the hairs (if such they can be called) clothing the cup. Having regard 
to the figure they appear rigid and coloured, somewhat like those of P. stercorea, 
P., whereas they must have been very slender, delicate, colourless and deciduous, 
similar to those found on P. cucoboloides, Bert, and P. suhhirsuia. Such hairs are 
often absent in dried specimens, e8X)ecially when they have been long in the herba- 
rium. The propriety of retaining it in the section Tapesia is fully warranted, for 
even to this day the cottony subiculum surrounds the base of the cup and when 
fresh must have been nearly as conspicuous as in P. coem. The specimens of this 



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Pedsa {<mnd by Dr. Chapman, and forwarded to me in May last, correspond 
exactly with Sowerby's original Bpecimens. They grew on the perpendicular 
nuface of the damp plaster wall already alluded to, presenting the appearance 
■o faithfully described by Sowerby of a number of minute salmon-ooloured knobs 
not larger than a pin's head, resting on a thin white cottony film spread on the 
plaster. By the aid of a pocket lens they can be seen when moist and fre^ to be 
clothed with fine white transparent hairs which collapse in drying. The acoom- 
panying figure will oonrey a better idea than any verbal description. 



STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OP PARAPHYSES, 

By M. C. Cooke, M.A. 

In the following observations all illustrations are drawn from the Diacomy- 
cetet for the sake of limiting the field of research, and because on other accounts a 
larger variety of specimens came under observation than could have been antidpated 
in other sections of the Aacomycetes, As no essential differences can be predicated 
in the structure and functions of the paraphyses, this wiU not effect the general 
conclusions. 

It is scarcely necessary to allude to the structure of Discomycetes^ as exem- 
plified in Peziza, which may be accepted as the type. The cups, at first closed, 
have externally a dermal series of compact cells, differing from those beneath 
them, and often furnished with dermal appendages, such as hairs or furfuraceous 
cells. Beneath the dermal series lie the mesothalamial cells, in most instances 
regular and uniform, but when verging on Umula and Cenangium^ elongated, 
tough, and more or less fibrous. A third series of smaller cells are superimposed, 
but the one so gradually merges into the other that, usually, the exact point where 
one series ends and the other begins cannot be determined. This third series is 
the subhymenial tissue on which the fourth or final series lining the interior of the 
cups is based. It is to this fourth series that our attention must be specially 
directed. If a section through a cup of one of the larger species of Peziza be made 
it will be seen that the interior, or fourth series which we may term the hymenium 
and which terminates in the disc of the cup has quite a distinct structure from any 
of the other series. It is composed entirely of elongated parallel cells, which have 
their base on the subhymenial tissue and their apex in the disc. Prom the 
earliest to the latest period in the history of the cup this distinction prevails. At 
first the hymenial cells are scarcely distinct, but they soon become evident as 
long filiform cells Ijdng parallel to each other, amongst which at a later period 
other and broader cells are generated by growth upward from the subhsrmenial 
tissue. These latter cells are the asci, the former being the paraphyses. It will be 
noted here that the fourth or hymenial cells are a portion of the vegetative system 
of the cup, being in fact the inner series of the cup cells. In the same manner they 
are an integral portion of the club in Geoglossum, and form the superior series 
before a single ascos is developed from the subhymenial tissue. This is not by any 



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STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF PARAPHYSRS, 
By M. C. Cooke, M.A. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

1 Fusiform'paraphyses of Peziza Virginia, 

2 Linear paraphyees of Peziza. 

3 Curvate paraphyses of Peziza sanguiimria, 

4 Curvate paraphyses of Geoglossum hirsutum. 

5 Curvate paraphyses of Geoylossum Peckiamun. 

6 Clavate paraphyses of Peziza fudcarpa. 

7 Clavate paraphyses of Peziza tetraspora, 

8 Clavate paraphysis of Pezizcv spissa. 

9 Capitate paraphyses of Peziza leporum. 

10 Dissilient paraphyses of PaUllaria indlyotica. 

11 Capitate paraphyses of Peziza steriymatizam. 

12 Capitate paraphyses of Peziza IllriUusa. 

13 Dissilient paraphyses of Patellaria clavigera. 

14 Capitate paraphyses of Peziza jungermannioi. 

15 Dissilient paraphyses of Patellaria hyalosperma. 

16 Furcate paraphyses of Definnatea Hougktoni. 

All figures magnified 500 diameters. 



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WOOLH. TRANS. 



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PA R APH YS ES. 



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227 ' 

means a new view since all physiologists who have directed their attention to the 
development of the cux>s or the h3rmenium in Peziza or Aseobolus represent the asci 
as a subsequent and consecutive growth from the 8ubh3rmemal tissue upwards 
amongst the skeleton threads of the disc structure.* 

Imea/r paraphysea are the simplest form. They consist of a slender cylin- 
drical cell of equal thickness throughout. This form prevcdls almost entirely in 
MoUina, and very largely in DoByscypha, Amongst the larger Pezizcs of the 
section AUuria they are comparatively rare. In Mysteriacei this form of 
paraphysis is not uncommon, and amongst the Sykoerictcei it seems to be the most 
common form. Sometimes they but little exceed the asci in length and then 
remain perfectly straight, but when considerably exceeding the asci the tips are 
often more or less curved as soon as they are set free so that the retractile tendency 
can exhibit itself. Such paraphyses are usually colourless and without contents. 
At times a row of nuclei exhibit themselves or the threads become septate. Septa- 
tion may be perfect, as when a diaphragm connects the opposite walls or the 
eudochrome is divided. The latter condition is very difficult indeed to distingubh 
in the slender linear Paraphyses, but is not uncommon and may be well studied 
in some of the larger species with cl-avate paraphyses. 

(Tlavate paraphyses are those which expand in their upper portion into a more 
Or less clavate form. Sometimes the expansion is very gradual, occupying the 
upper half of the paraphyses, at others it is more abrupt, and at least three-fourths 
of the paraphysis remains linear. Gradually this form merges into the capitate 
form, and usually the thickened apex is filled with a granular plasma. In many 
of the species of Ptriza with a highly coloured disc, as in the red species of 
Humaria and Sarcoscyphay in which this form prevails, the endochrome is brightly 
coloured. These paraphyses are often septate, sometimes pseudo septate, and 
rarely furcate. It may be noted here that we have every reason to believe that the 
general form of the paraphyses is as constant in any given species as the form of 
the sporidia, and deserves consideration in the discrimination of species. It has 
been of late very much the fashion to construct new genera on the form of the 
sporidia alone. It would be just as safe to construct them on the characters of the 
paraphyses, and equally as reasonable. 

Capitate paraphyses are those in which the apex is suddenly expanded into a 
pyri-form, obovate, or subglobose head. It is perhaps not a common fonn, but 
it may be met with in Aseobolus, especially of the section Byparobius in Geoglosmm 
viscosum, Peziza fibrUlosa, Peziza leparum, and some others. This head contains at 
times a single large globose nucleus, at others it contains a granular protoplasm. 
A remarkable instance of this kind of paraphysis ii to be found in Peziza 
jungermannioe, in which the i)araphyseB seem to be coloured of a verdegris green, 
but as it is appears to us much of this colour is due to the gelatina hymenia which is 
greenish, as in Peziza PhUlipsi it is of a beautiful amethystine hue. If either of 
these species are examined in a fresh state, and the section plentifully wasjied 

*The sus^estion that the asci arise from the subhymenial cells, from certain larger cells 
(the scoleciU) h^ not been satisfactorily confirmed. 



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with ttffiAtf nearly all the ooloar is remoyed, and it can be seen receding before ihe 
spirit, if the latter be added whilst the slide is under the microscope. In most 
instaaoes, when the paraphyses are internally coloured, the plasma is distinctly 
giannlar, whilst in these two species it is not so, which strengthens the conclusion 
that most of the colour belongs to the hymenial gelatin, and this again supports 
the Tiew hereafter advanced that the paraphyses are surrounded by a gelatinous 
fluid. 

Aewninate or furiform paraphyaes are not so uncommon as at first might be 
Bapposed. Although confined absolutely as far as at present known to minute 
spedes of Penn», and the single species of DeavmziereUa, there can be do doubt of 
their f omu Bir. Phillips and msrself have detected them in several species and 
nsnally of considerable length relative to the asci which accompany them. They 
axe one veiy distinctive feature in the closely allied species P. nivea and P. 
nfyinea, since they are found in P. virginea and not in P. mvea, as I pointed out 
to my friend Mr. Phillips not long since, and requested him to verify my observa- 
tions. I may add that in most novelties of this kind I have not relied solely on 
my own examinations, but have solicited his aid for verification. These paraphyses 
are slender, thickest in the middle, and diminished towards either extremity, the 
apex being acutely pointed. Amongst others they may be seen in Peziza 
tuiphu/reUa, Pmza virffimea, Peziza brunneola, Peziza virgineUa, Peziza echiuUUa, 
Pesixa albcpiUaia, Peziza pcUtda, Peziza fusddtUa, Peziza rosea, Pezizi littorea of 
Behm, P. Schwamtzii, P. palearumi P. cephaloidea, P. apala, P. confomUs, P. 
(UboUsiaceaf P. poUtnariaf aud P. mavginata. No instance occurs to me outside 
the section Datjfacypha, 

Branched Paraphyses are to be met with of all these four primal forms except 
the last, and I know of no instance in which an acuminate paraphysis has been 
seen branched. Usually the branching is a simple furcation, with the branch 
reaching to the same height as the branch stem. Linear paraphyses may be seen 
branched in Peziza instiiia, and davate in Peziza humosa and P. tciraspora, capitate 
in P. jvmger nummo!. Examples of more highly developed paraphyses are some- 
times met with. Messrs. Berkeley and Broome have indicated Eome. Mr. Gerard 
has sent me figure of paraphysis from P. umhrorum, and Mr. Smith has figured a 
very nodulose paraphysis in Peziza macrocalpx ; but I must confess that in my 
experience such instances are the exception and exceedingly rare. Peziza 
Steriffmatizam aud Pmza apophysata are two notable exceptions. It appears to 
me that they usually occur in old paraphyses, it may be by a species of after- 
growth, when by the explosion of the asd there is left more room for a lateral 
development. I have looked for them carefully in Peziza hvmosa and in a portion 
of Mr. Smith's own specimen of Peziza macrocalyx without success. That sudi 
forms have been seen I do not for a moment doubt, still I cannot regard them as 
other than abnormal conditions. 

DissiUent Pa/raphyses are those in which the upper joint or joints when 
mature break off and give a pulverulent appearance to the disc. It is not un- 
common in PakUaria and Tympanis, In PakUaria cavispora it has besn noticed 



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by Messrs. Berkeley and Broome, bnt they do not mentioii it in PalL atrata, I 
have observed it also in PaJteUaHa oleota^ in PateUaria indigoHea, and in a very 
curious little PateUaria sent me from Italy under the name of PaieUaria 
hvalosperma. It may be seen also in Tympa/nU pieattra and TtpnpaniB SaveneUi, 
In Dermatea and Cencmgium the same phenomenon probably cecun, but I have 
not had the leisure to pursue the investigation. 

These remarks must be accepted as suggestive rather than ezhatutive, bat 
I think that I have alluded to the chief typical forms of paraphyses, and to thoM 
it appears to me that all the variations may be referred. 

The FUNCTIONS of paraphyses appear to be mainly the protection of the 
fructiferous organs. Surrounding the asci they seem to stand in the same relation- 
ship to them as in flowering plants the corolla bears to the essential organs. They 
constitute in the earlier stages of growth the entire hymenium, aud in this stage 
form a disc with their upper extremities, whilst their parallel sides, immersed 
in a gelatinous fluid, afford ready channels for the growth and development 
upwards of the sporidif erous asci. It can readily be imagined that such a struc- 
ture affords very great protection for the asci during growth. It can hardly be 
supposed that delicate asd could successively be produced on an entirely exposed 
surface without great risk of destruction, but by means of this arrangement they 
thrust themselves upwards through protecting channels, lined everywhere with a 
lubricative fluid, so that their movements are facilitated as well as protected. It 
is an undoubted fact that all the asci of an hymenium are not developed at onoe, 
but proceed for some time in a regular succession from the subhymenial tissue. 
At first the asci are slender, gradually increasing in volume as they rise, but until 
they have attained their full height their contents are plastic and granular. 
Having approached their adult stature, the differentiation of the protoplasm takes 
place ; gradually the outline of the sporidia is indicated, commencing at the 
summit of the ascus and progressing downwards, and finally the sporidia are 
formed. It is well to bear in mind that the terminal sporidia are the first to be 
matured, and this is conspicuously evident when the sporidia are ultimately 
coloured ; under favourable circumstances a delicate gradation in colour will be 
observable downwards through the whole series. It has already been remarked 
that it is of rare occurrence that the asci should reach by their apices the surface 
of the disc As a rule the paraphyses being the longest extend above and still 
protect the asci. The swollen, or clavate tips, compensate to some extent for the 
space occupied below by the asci, and the surface is stiU maintained impervious. 
In cases where the tips of the paraphyses are not clavate, but filiform, they are 
not unusually branched in their upper portion, which only adds to their volume^ 
and in some cases the extremities are bent, curved, circinate, or interwoven, so 
that still the whole disk is covered, and no openings left above the apices of the 
rising asd. Undoubtedly the apices of the asd are always most free from pressure 
or restraint, which is essential to the free discharge of the mature sporidia. It 
may sometimes be seen on the field of the microscope that as a mature sporidium 
18 expelled from the apex of its ascus the clavate paraphsrses which sunound it 



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are putadby the force of the eTiction, bat immediately resumed their>ld position 
•gain with a jeilc, as if impelled by their own elasticity. Here then we have a 
primary function for paraphyses. They form the parallel thready cellular tissue 
of the hymenium and complete, so to speak, the vegetative structure of the plant, 
previous to the development of the reproductive organs ; they, moreover, by their 
■tnictore serve as free channels along which the delicate asci may be developed 
without risk of distortion or injury ; and by their peculiarities of form, they still 
yt^^int^jw an impervious disc, notwithstanding the great lateral increase of volume 
below,. and thus prevent the speedy evaporation of the watery fluids so essential 
to spore production. 

It may be observed here, in passing, that the disc is most exposed to the 
risk of too great evaporation, since the exterior of the cups is protected by varioim 
contrivanoes and sealed against any loss by transpiration. 

What may be the special functions of the curious pointed fusiform para- 
physes, found in several of the minute species of Peziza we have not as yet been 
fortunate enough to discover. All the species in which this form of paraphysis 
is found are very minute, and the difficulties in such an investigation are conse- 
quently great. 

It has been remarked that some of the forms of paraphyses throw off their 
apical cells, which cover the disc with a mealy coating. Hitherto we have not 
been successful by any means at our disposal in compelling these cells to ger- 
minate. Indeed we have no grounds whatever to consider them of the nature of 
conidia, but only as free cells cast off for some purpose from the tips of the 
paraphyses. As far as our observations have led we are disposed to regard this as 
a subsidiary mode of protecting the disc from radiation, and thus retaining the 
moisture so essential not only to the production, but also to assist in the expulsion 
of the sporidia. 

The instances in which the phenomenon here alluded to takes place are 
almost wholly confined to species the discs of which are black or dark coloured, 
and are not found in the true PezizcR, which contain a large proportion of water 
in their composition, but in such genera as PateUaHa and Tympanis, which are 
comparatively waxy and dry, and consequently wherein greater economy of the 
fluid contents of the hymenium is essential. This, however, is merely a sugges- 
tion, since no facts have come to light which directly establish the conjecture, 
except the circumstantial evidence alluded to. 

Whether threads are produced at any time, or in any species, intermixed 
with the paraphyses, which threads develope bodies of the nature of conidia or 
spermatia, is an open question. At present I am not prepared to give an opinion. 
In a very old specimen of Helvella infvla I have found cylindrical bodies which 
greatly resemble conidia,' and in other species I have seen occasionally spermatoid 
bodies, which as yet I am unable to account for. This remark is suggested in 
order to indicate one direction in which further observation is desirable. 

Finally, some observations are necessary op the supposed fonctionft 



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attributed by some authors to paraphsrses. It has been affirmed, on the faith of a 
few facts which seem to point in that direction, that paraphyses are .probably 
abortive asci. It has been observed in the genus Tymparms that in one 
species one or two isolated sporidia were found enclosed within i)araphyBeB 
associated with the ordinary octosporous asci. Two or three facts of this kind may 
G^ve plausibility to such a theory ; but on the other hand it must be remembered 
that evacuated asci collapse and become as attenuated as paraphyses. Asci, from 
which a portion of the sporidia have been ejected, will sometimes be observed 
with the remaining two or three sporidia collected near the summit, whilst 
towards the base the walls of the asci are contracted and attenuated so as to 
present an abruptly clavate appearance. If it is not conceded that in the instances 
cited such a phenomenon has been mistaken for one or two sporidia enclosed in a 
paraphyses, is it not equally probable that some asci may become abortive, and 
being mixed with the paraphyses are indistinguishable, unless specially observed 
with this view. It is contended that abortive asci do exist contemporaneously 
with paraphyses and with gravid asd, and that these abortive asci are structurally 
and functionally distinct from the paraphyses, they do not exceed asci in length, 
though less in volume, whereas paraphyses are much longer than the asci in many 
instances, but usually somewhat longer. Again, paraphyses are sometimes more 
or less clavate at the tips, but apparently barren asci would be cylindrical. The 
fact that special functions belong to asci would militate against the assumption 
that they are at the same time degraded from another function. It would seem to 
argue strongly against the hypothesis that paraphyses are abortive asci, when the 
structure of the two as well as their functions are borne in mind. Paraphyses are 
developed prior to asci, they usually exceed them in length, they are often septate 
several times, sometimes branched, often expanded at the apex and enclosing 
coloured granular protoplasm, even when the sporidia are wholly colourless, and 
it is not unusual for the ultimate cells of the paraphyses, not only to become 
deeply constricted but also to break away and lie on the suriace of the hymenium 
like a fine dust, as in some species of Patdlaria and Dermatea, All these 
phenomena are so distinct, that if paraphyses are really abortive asci they must be 
something more, and indeed metamorphosed ascL 

If the phrase ^'abortive asci" has been applied to paraphyses in the same 
sense as stamens in the Phanerogamia are regarded as metamorphosed leaves, 
then we object only to the term, and not to the theory, and would submit that 
<< metamorphosed" asci represent the idea better than ^'abortive" asci, which 
latter is liable to misconception. 

Doubtless the simplest form of fungnis is a simple reproductive cell, beyond 
this we have the vegetative system represented by a thread and the reproductive 
by a spore. In JHscomycetet, the simplest form consists of an ascus borne on a 
vegetative thread or mycelium as in Aacomycea, advancing from this we find the 
aggregated asci circumscribed by a pseudo-receptacle formed from the changed 
substance of the matrix, and then we encounter paraphyses mixed with the asd, 
ultimately the hymenium is enclosed within a distinct reoeptade, If typically we 



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232 

regard a fangtiB as ooiuistiiig of myoelituu and fruit, then it may be permitted to 
speak of stipe, stroma, or receptacle as expansions of the mycelimn, and, accepting 
Aaeomyeei as the type, paraphyses might be regarded as metamorphosed or 
atrophied asci. There would be somewhat of poetical license in such a course, but 
if understood as only to be accepted in an esthetic sense there would perhaps not 
be so much ground for complaint. If, on the contrary, it should be contended 
that paraphyses are merely the raw material from whence fruitful asci are pro- 
duced, or that they are nascent asd which peculiarly favourable circumstances 
might stimulate into fertility, then we cannot accept the theory until stronger 
evidence can be educed in its support. We have already expressed an opinion of 
the functions of paraphyses, hence it is unnecessary to prolong a discussion of what 
they are not. Although there is nothing sensational or startling in the acceptance 
of a theory that certain organs found performing certain functions, were intended 
to perform those functions ; and that performing those essential functions satis- 
factorily is a reason why we should not seek to charge them with others ; it is 
nevertheless our opinion that it is much better to hold to such a simple theory 
until strong evidence is adduced to render reconsideration necessary. 



THE REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS IN BOLETUS SUBTOMENTOSUS. 
By W. G. Smith, Esq. 

Up to the present time I believe nothing has been published in r^erence to 
the reproductive process in Boletus, or even any observations printed on the 
germination of the spores in this genus. In a mature Boletus nothing is more 
easy than to see millions of ripe spores ; but nothing it would appear is more 
impossible than to see a single spore in the act of germination. Botanists as a role 
have continued to look for the germination of the spores immediately after their 
fall from the hymenium. 

Although there may be no true analogy between a spore and a seed, yet 
there is sufficient natural similitude to make one remember that whilst some seeds 
are capable of germination immediately after they reach maturity and will in fact 
only germinate at that particular period ; other seeds require a certain amoimt of 
rest before they will start into renewed life. As far as my experience goes the 
same habit holds good in the fungus tribe — the spores of certain species germinate 
very readily, whilst others (as those belonging to the genus Boletus) require a rest 
of from four to six or even eight weeks before they are able to throw out their first 
new cells. I have only seen the spores of Boletus germinate under one condition, 
and that condition is attained when the spores have been allowed to rest for at 
least a month in the wet and putrid remains of the parent fungus from which they 
originally sprang. 

Every field student of fungi must have observed the wet loathsome maflses 
of black treacley putrescence into which Boleti fall in decay. These masses are 
offensive to the touch, the sight, and the smell ; but notwithstanding these coin 
fessedly objectionable features, a putrid Boletus will well repay dose study* 



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When a fragment of a decomposed Boletus is placed under the microscope it will 
be observed that most of the original constituent cells have vanished, the cells 
being apparently more or less replaced by myriads of monads, bacteria and 
vibriones, the special cells of the hymenium, including the basidia and cystidia, 
being amongst the. last to disappear. The intercellular juices will be seen to have 
given birth to innumerable fine hair-like crystals, whilst the spores will be obsex^ed 
to have suffered no injurious change. Many of the spores will now probably be 
seen in the act of germination amongst the decomposed cells, the crystals, and the 
infusoria. Together with typical spores will be seen many other spores perfectly 
transparent and empty ; these are the exospores which have dischaiged their 
nudeL So different do the normal spores and exospores now appear in their 
different aspects that on a superficial examination only they might possibly be 
considered, as belonging to two series of spores possessing different functions, or 
even " male and female spores," as recently suggested by Van Tieghem. A large 
number of spores are from the first effete and have no nuclei, others are barren 
because they have escaped the spermatic fluid from the cystidia. 

The observation of the germinating spores is most conveniently made with a 
Boletus which has been kept for a month in very wet air under a darkened bell 
glass. 

According to my interpretation of the meaning of the bodies seen upon the 
hjrmenial surface of Boletus the reproductive process is exactly the same in Boletus 
with that described by me under Agaricus and Coprinus. In other words the 
hymenium is studded ' over with three forms of cells. The first are more or less 
globular and barren, the second (named basidia) protrude spicules which carry 
spores (and these spores may*be compared with naked ovules), and the third 
(named (^stidia) are as I conceive essentially male in their functions. The cystidia 
at length open at their apex and discharge a fluid containing motile granules ; 
these granules on bursting act on the spore as the pollen with its tube does on the 
ovule or as the spermatozoid acts on the ovmn. After fertilization the spores rest 
for several weeks in the decaying body of the parent ; during this period nearly all 
traces of the spermatozoids are lost, but a considerable change gradually comes 
over such spores as have been rendered fertile. In Boletus the spores are furnished 
with from one to four nuclei ; these nuclei after fertilization greatly increase in 
size and translucency ; ultimately they get so laige as to greatly distort the outer 
coat of the spore which they at length burst and the nuclei are free. Not unfre- 
quently all the nuclei of one spore become confluent and are discharged as a very 
large solitary nucleus. These discharged nuclei are not true mycelium but the 
first round cells of a new fungus, and the increase goes on by increase of cells. In 
Coprinus the first mycelial threads start from small aggregations of these round 
fertile cells and no doubt the same law holds good in Boletus. Many observations 
prove that new Agarics start from aggregations of round cells upon old mycelium, 
but this does not invalidate the fact that the first cells from the spore are not true 
mycelial threads, but the first round fertile cells of a new plant. To trace these 
discharged cells to a perfect Boletus of the second generation would be very diffi* 
onlt, and voiUd require continuous obatrvation through an entire ysur. 



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234 

A laige number of my obsenrations prove the fact that many fungus spores 
first germidate on the hymenium of the parent, whether the latter is in a state of 
decay or not. As for the woody Polyporei, especially those species in which the pores 
are disposed in strata as in P. fomentarius Fr. P. igniarius Fp. &c. The different 
strata of pores are simply formed by the spores germinating upon the old hymenium 
and forming a new series of pores underneath. The glaucous bloom so often seen 
between and at the mouths of tubes is no other than mycelium and cells from 
germinated spores. This observation can easily be confirmed. 

An unfertilised spore may throw out a thread or even burst and dischazge 
its nucleus, but as far as my experience goes a barren spore of this nature stops 
with this discharge. 

An interest of the first importance attaches itself to the correct interpreta- 
tion of the meaning of the cystidia; long ago Bulliard, Klotysch, and Corda, 
described the cystidia as analogous organs with antheridia or pollenidia; the 
latter author represents Cystidia with open summits ejecting a speranatic liquid ; 
De Bary however can see nothing in cystidia but " cylindrical hairs " because they 
somewhat resemble " pilose formations " seen upon the pilei of some fungi, the 
opinions of botanists who differ from De Bary are described by the latter author 
as " entirely gratuitous." But it is only necessary to examine a few fungi belong- 
ing to different genera of the H3rmenomycete8 to find that De Bary's views are 
founded upon insufficient observation, the cystidia under Pluteus, Armillaria, and 
Lactarius are totally different in character from hairs. The very fact of cystidia 
being crowned with four spicules and springing from the same stratum of cells as 
the spicule-crowned basidia indicates the probable analogy of function and 
relationship between the basidia and cystidia. The barren cells of the hymenial 
surface I consider to be the analogues of the paraphyses amongst the Ascomycetes. 
As if to show the insufficiency of his observations, De Bary says "it seems" 
cystidia have not yet been met with in the Hydnei and Clavariei. But if the 
fruiting surface is examined of a very moderate number of the Hymenomycetes 
the cystidia will be found exactly alike in size and shape with the 1 asidia, and 
unless the extra translucency of the former is taken into consideration the fungus 
really appears to possess no cystidia at all. The common mushroom is a good 
example of this phenomenon for in this species the cystidia and basidia are so much 
alike in size, and they pass into each other's form so much that in a young plant it 
is almost impossible to distinguish basidia from cystidia. It is highly probable 
that cystidia are present in all the Hymenomycetes but they are often overlooked 
from their very small size and their similarity in appearance with the barren cells 
or basidia. Some cystidia are enormous in their comparative size and this is 
especially the case in Coprinus atramentarius and C. niveus, in these the cystidia 
are some 200 times the bulk of the basidia. 

If it be once granted that cystidia are really sexual ofgans then it may at 
once be seen why they are so highly developed in the common and fugitive species. 
We find them of great size in Coprinus Psathyrella, &c., and in the plants coming 
under these sections fecundation and g^rmin&tion almost takes place at the sanle 



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285 

time with the complete developement of the parent fux^gros. Where the fcmgl are 
tough and enduring the spores and cystidia are as a rule small, and fecundation 
and germination proceeds slowly. Seynes in his notes on the structure of the gill 
plates in Agarics refers to the Cystidia of Coprinus, and says he believes these 
large projecting organs so common in this genus merely serve the purpose <rf 
holding the gills together in infancy, in the same way as the infant pileus is held 
down to the stem by the annulus. But this view is expressed on insufficient 
groimds for the cystidia manifestly keep the giUa apart rather than hold them 
together. In infancy the cystidia of this genus undoubtedly act as pegs to keep 
the h3rmenial surfaces from touching, but they are so loosely attached amongst the 
cells that they have no power whatever of holding surfaces together. In fact all 
the cystidia I have ever seen are at length pushed bodily out of the hymenium 
and so set free. This phenomenon is very easily observed in Agaricus Muddus. 
The few botanists who combat the idea of cystidia being male in their nature 
appear to overlook the fact of the open summit of these organs, as figured and 
described by Corda. Not only has the cystidium an orifice through which its 
contents are ejected, but I have convinced myself of the presence of a minute 
operculum in many species. The cystidia in Lactarivji paUichM are very curious : 
at first the summit is round and smooth, and the contents are liquid and colorless. 
Soon however the apex becomes lengthened into a long beak and the contents 
before liquid are now granular and yellow and move restlessly about within the 
Cystidium. On reaching perfect maturity, the elongated summit turns aside or 
gets pushed quite off and the revolving granules rush out. 

I have departed a little from the strict consideration of Boletus jsubtcanen- 
tosus alone, because I believe that what is true of one species of hsrmenomycetoua 
fungi is sure to be more or less true of another species, especially when that 
other species is closely allied to the first, an4 i>ossibly furnished with oi^gans many 
times the bulk of the one first under study. 

Although Boletus is generally described as being without a trama, yet there is 
a series of intermediate cells between each tube, and these cells have the long form 
of ordinary trama cells just as we see similar cells in Paxillus a genus which is 
commonly charactered as being without a trama. A liquid is exuded from 
between the cells into the tubes of Boletus which rapidly crystallizes in the form 
of long straight hair like crystals. The crystals in B. edulis are of a somewhat 
different form. The basidia are studded over the interior surface of each pore and 
each basidium bears the normal four spores supported on spicules. 

Scattered amongst tbe basidia are a number of cystidia with mouths at first 
closed, and at length open, these mouths discharge a fluid containing fine moving 
granules which I refer without doubt to spermatozoids, these granules attach 
themselves to the spores and as I believe fecundate them, and after a period of rest 
the nuclei of the spores become greatly enlarged and burst the outer coat of 
the spore. When they emerge they are the first cells" of a new plant. 

In a typical specimen of Boletus subtomentosus five inches in diameter 
there were 17,100 pores. When highly magnified each single pore (taken to the 

XG 



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236 

oentre of the walls) displayed on its surface no less than 2,097 surface cells. The 
number of cells exposed on the lower surface of the entire Boletus alone was 
85,858,700. The number of spores displayed on the surface alone was 3,898,800. 
The number of spores in the entire Boletus was 4,678,560,000. The number of 
cells in the tubes (including spores) 29,487,240,000. The number of cells in the 
entire fungus 61,344,166,000. 



THE GLADIOLUS DISEASE. 

For many years past the Gladiolus has been subject to a damaging and 
singular disease. As in many other diseases of plants, aU sorts of conflicting 
opinions have been expressed regarding the natv/re of the disease — some growers 
almost denying the existence of any disease whatever, whilst others have described 
it as so bad as to threaten the almost total extinction of the Gladiolus as a garden 
plant in this country. As in the case of the murrain of Potatos, Peach blister, 
&c., different observers have had different conditions of the host plant in view ; 
some writers have attributed the disease to a fungus, whilst others have totally 
denied the presence of any fungnis whatever. Amongst all these conflicting 
opinions the fact remains that there is a Gladiolus disease, and one singular in its 
nature, for the cause is at present imperfectly understood. 

As far as my experience goes the Gladiolus disease is invariably most 
virulent in damp, heavy soils, and in wet seasons ; in well-drained, dry soils the 
disease b almost unknown. It is much more destructive in England than in 
France, simply because the latter country has a clearer and less humid atmos- 
phere. Just as in my experience of the Potato murrain I have found the first 
attack to be almost invariably made upon the seed tuber whilst in the ground, so 
I have observed in the Gladiolus the first part attacked is almost invariably the 
seed-corm which is planted, though the attack may be made before as well as after 
planting. When growth commences the diseased condition of the seed-corm 
rapidly spreads to the sprouting leaves and petioles, and the plant of the year is 
destroyed. It does not follow as a consequence that the new offsets must be 
diseased, for the offsets from a diseased conn are frequently quite sound, though 
it is possible they may have the germs of disease in their constitution, which 
will only show themselves in a bad form in the spring which follows. It is exactly 
the same in the Potato disease. Under certain conditions of dryness, diseased 
seed Potatos will produce healthy plants and tubers free from the murrain. When 
the corm of the Gladiolus is badly diseased it is shrivelled, and permeated 
throughout with a rich red-brown colour. When the corms are lifted from a damp 
soil they are infested with the spawn of different fungi, and as decomposition 
goes on the corms are at length totally destroyed by diverse fungi, infusoria, 
nematoid worms and mites. 

I have often examined the diseased conns of Gladioli, and made notes of the 
various parasitic fungi found in and upon them, but till lately nothing has struck 
me as being specially new or different from what one might expect to find upon 
decaying bulbs or corms of any variety. 



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Plate I. 



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GLADIOLUS DISEASE, UROCYSTIS GLADIOLI, W.G.S. 



PLATE I. 

Fragment of diseased Corm showing the decomposed cells, crystals, and com- 
pound fungus spores. 



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237 

There is, however, a puzzling and singular mycelial growth, commonly 
found upon diseased Gladiolus corms, which has been pointed to with good reason 
as the probable cause of the disease. This mycelium is not peculiar to the 
Gladiolus, for the same pest destroys the bulbs of Crocus sativus, the bulbs of 
Narcissus, and attacks Potatos, Asparagus, and other plants. It was described 
long ago by Dr. Montague, and is known in France under the name of TacoUy and 
in this country as " Copper-web " or Hhizoctonia crocorum, D.C. This " Copper- 
web " is obviously very imperfectly understood, for at present the fruit is unknown: 
in fact the very name of Hhizoctonia (like Bhizomorpha) has almost fallen out of 
use. 

In March of the present year the Rev. H. H. Dombndn furnished me with 
a Gladiolus conn in a very bad state of disease. It presented the usual appearances 
of the Gladiolus disease as just described, and was a mature seed-corm destined to 
bloom this year, and not a young offset. On minutely examining this oorm under 
the microscope I found all the cells and starch destroyed, probably from the pre- 
vious presence of some corrosive mycelium, and the whole interior more or less 
filled with the bodies here illustrated. Whether these bodies are in any way 
connected with the threads described under Hhizoctonia there is no evidence to 
show, for in the first instance we get threads without fruit, and in the new instance 
now brought forward, fruit without threads, but both the threads and fruit 
apparently produce the same fffect of disease upon the corm. Further investigation . 
must clear up this point, but in the meanwhile the bodies detected by me are 
undouhtedli/ new. 

Attention may here be called to the large and magnificent crsrstals ao 
abimdant in Gladiolus corms, and shown in this illustration. Crystals are always 
formed in cells, but here the great crystals are many times larger than the largest 
of the decomposed cells of the corm. This phenomenon can only be explained by 
the probable fact of the crystals aggregating and recrystallising after the cells have 
been destroyed by the corrosive mycelium. 

Different views have been expressed as to the nature of the compound spores 
found this year in Gladiolus corms by me. At first sight they appear to super- 
ficially resemble the resting-spores of a Peronospora, but this view may be at once 
dismissed. They greatly resemble Papulaspora, but I am convinced by several 
characters that they do not belong to this genus, or indeed to any mould, but to 
the order Cesomacei. 

These compound spores bear a strong resemblance to the spores of Theca- 
phora, but I believe they really belong to a new species coming under the genus 
(closely allied to Thecaphora) named Urocystis. This new species I propose 
naming Urocystis Gladioli, and it may be characterised as follows :— Sori (or 
clusters of spores in blisters) obliterated or effused, spores large, compound, con- 
sisting of from three to six inner brown cells, and a larger, indefinite number of 
nearly transparent outer cells, both series of ceUs being fertile Habitat— On and in 
the corms and scapes of Gladioli. (See Plate I., enlarged 200 diam , and A, B, 
Plate IL, enlarged 1000 diam.) 



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Both the brown and white cells burst, and throw out threads of mycelium. 
Further observations can alone show whether this mycelium, under certain con- 
ditions, may now be capable of existing on diverse hosts as mycelium only, and so 
put on the characters of Bhizoctonia. 

The efihised or obliterated sori, or spore blisters, point rather to the genus 
Thecaphora than Urocystis, but I consider the salient characters belong to the 
latter genus, and make it the proper one for the reception of the fungus under 
ooDflideration. Dr. Wittmack, Dr. Magnus, and Dr. Brefeld, of Berlin, have 
examined my preparations, and they consider the compound spores to belong to 
Urocystis. As to the peculiar habit and obliteration of the sori, Dr. Brefeld says 
he has seen Urocystis growing on very different materials, even upon bread. Dr. 
Brefeld considers Urocystis to be a Sclerotium, or a compact spawn or mycelium 
in a state of rest, but this is not my view. 

Whilst describing this curious fungus it may be well to pass briefly in 
review its immediate allies as found in this country, with illustrations taken direct 
from Nature. This wiU at once show the strong family likeness between the new 
U. Gladioli and its neighbours. I may say at this point that Uroc^^stis is some- 
times described under Polycystis. ' 

The first is Thecaphora hyalina, Fing. (c, d., Plate II.). This species, the 
only one of its genus, is closely allied in habit with Urocystis Gladioli, for it is 
"without sori; the compound spores are, however, in one series— not two, brown 
and large, and transparent and small, as in Urocystis. The habit of this Theca- 
phora is most peculiar, for the fungus grows inside the seeds and seed-capsules of 
Convolvulus. There is no external evidence on the seed-capsules of the presence 
of the fungus within. 

Urocystis violffi (e, Plate II.) is a comjnon plague of Violets, it causes large 
gouty swellings upon the petioles and leaves, and otherwise deforms the entire 
plant. At length the swellings burst, and discharge the innumerable spores. 

Urocystis Colchici, Tul. (p, g, Plate II. ), a similar plague with the last. It 
grows upon Colchicum, but is less apparent in its effects. 

Urocystis occulta, Preuss (h, Plate II.), a pest found on Rye and various 
Sedges. 

Urocystis pompholygodes, Schlecht. (j, Plate II.)— a disease of the pAnun- 
culacese ; like U. Yiolae it causes great distortion of the host plant, and makes 
large gouty swellings, which at length burst and dischai^e an immense number of 
spores. 

Most growers of Gladioli will probably be dissatisfied with this paper and 
its hard names, but it must be remembered that it is an attempt at a diagnosis of 
the Gladiolus disease, and treats only of the characteristic and distinguishing 
symptoms ; for, till a disease is understood, a remedy is always out of the question. 

Cure is probably quite within reach ; but the discussion of this subject must 
be reserved for another time.-^Worthington G. Smith, 



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Plate II. 



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i 




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GLADIOLUS DISEASE, UROCYSTIS GLADIOLI, W.G.S. 



PLATE II. 
Compound spores of Urocystis and Thecaphora, enlarged 1000 diamaten. 



A. Urooystis Gladioli. 

B. Urocystis Gladioli in the act of breaking up. 
CD. Thecaphora hyalina. 

E. Urocystis vioke. 

F.G. Urocystis Colchici. 

H. Urocystis occulta. 

J. Urocystis pompholygodes. 



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Pnrilnjt? %ziuuMB f irig |lttfc 



A NEW HEREFORDSHIRE POMONA. 

A special meeting of the members of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club was held at the Free Library, Hereford, on "Wednesday the 25th ult., to con- 
sider the question of publishing a " Herefordshire Pomona.'* The chair was taken 
by Dr. Chapman, of Burghill, the President of the Club for the current year ; 
and there were also present Mr. J. Griffith Morris, the President elect; the 
following vice-presidents ; Rev. W. Jones Thomas, Mr. James Rankin, Rev. 
Charles J. Robinson, and Mr. W. A. Swinboume ; with Rev. C. H. Buhner, Rev. 
James Davies, Dr. Bull, Mr. T. Cam, Mr. F. W. Herbert, Mr. G. H. Piper, Mr. 
J. T. Owen Fowler, and Mr. H. S. Hall, members of the club. 

The President said that as Dr. Bull had prepared the whole subject for 
discussion, perhaps he would at once address the meeting (hear, hear). 

Dr. Bull said that they were aware that it had for a long time been the 
wish of the Woolhope Club to take up the subject of the Pomology of the county, 
and to make inquiries into the history, varieties, value, and uses of the apples and 
pears grown in Herefordshire (hear, hear). They had for a long time believed the 
varieties grown in Herefordshire to be very numerous ; and they knew that the 
whole pomology of the county was neither known nor valued elsewhere as it 
deserved to be. Three years since, after some conversation on the subject, the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, the celebrated mycologist, sent down as a present to the 
Woolhope Club large bundles of grafts of all the most valuable apples in the 
gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society of London. There were no less than 
92 sorts of the hec'i recognised eating and cooking apples, "pot fruit," as 
the term goes here, in contra-distinction to " dder fruit." The dub gave grafts 
of each kind to Messrs. Cranston and Mayos, and distributed the others among 
their own members. On the following year an exhibition of apples, of a very 
interesting description, took place in connection with the club's autumn meeting ; 
and in the present year there was another eichibition of apples, which had excited 
even more interest than the show of last year (hear, hear). The Club, following 
its usual plan, ^ideavoured to obtain the services of the best and most experienced 
man they could find to look at those apples, and, through the influence of the Rev. 
Mr. Bulmer, of CredenhUl, who saw Dr. Hogg at the Bath and West of England 
Show, that ge^leman promised to come to Hereford to inspect the Club's exhibi- 
tion of apples and pears. Dr. Hogg, as the head of the Royal Horticultural 
Society's gaondens in London and Chiswick, as the author of the best Fruit Manual, 
and editor of th« Jowmal of Horticulture, is the first Pomologist in the country. 
Dx. Hogg oainA to Hereford, and was fairly astonished to see at once so many 



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240 

kiiidt of apple that were new to him. Many were sent to he named, and he ooidd 
not name them, for they had no names (hear, hear). Many of them were valuable 
apples, so quite distinct in character, and with snch excellent qualities that they 
deserved to be better known (hear, hear). Dr. Hogg snggested that a local Pomona 
should be compiled, and he himself promised, if the Club desired it, to give them 
the benefit of his experience and knowledge on the subject. He also offered, if 
the Club thought proper to call upon him to do so, to edit the Pomona hiniself 
(hear, hear). That revived the old idea which had been entertained by the Club. 
It was now many years since Knight's " Pomona Herefordiensis '* was publiahed, 
and that work had become so scarce and valuable that a copy could seldom be 
procured. The expensive way in which that book had been brought out made it s 
very difficult one to follow. The Club felt a greater difficulty still, and that was 
the want of a real knowledge of all the recognised 'apples, so that they might at 
once recognise what was new, and what was known elsewhere—so that our apples 
might be valued at the proper estimate. That difficulty, he believed, could now 
be overcome, inasmuch as they had the promise of Dr. Hogg to edit the publication 
(hear, hear). The Club, also, was particularly fortunate in having the Rev. 
Henry Buhner, of Credenhill, as one of its members: He (Mr. Bulmer) was a 
noted pomologist himself, and had taken great pains to promote the study of 
pomology, and in bringing Dr. Hogg down to Herefordshire ; he had also kindly 
undertaken to work with Dr. Hogg, and take the lead in making inquiries in the 
different districts of the county (hear, hear). The Club would also require the 
cordial co-operation of the chief growers of fruit in Herefordshire, to obtain a 
proper account of the fruit which they grew. It would really be of value to 
Herefordshire to make known the description of fruit grown in the county, and 
the advantages which the county possessed for growing it. The orchards would 
become of much more value if the different kinds of fruit grown in them were 
carefully studied and properly known (hear, hear). Herefordshire had the very 
best soil for growing apples, and with the present rapid means of communication, 
Herefordshire— considering its soil— ought to be the orchard of England (hear, 
hear). This rendered it the more important, also that they Bhould grc-v the very 
best kinds of apples, for "pot fruit" would pay better than "cider fruit" in 
these days (hear, hear). They might, therefore, he believed, depend upon 
having the assistance of the growers in the work which the Club proposed 
to undertake. They had seen the trouble they took to send apples to the 
annual exhibition of the Club. The Club exhibited not for prizes, but 
simply to show the different kind of apples that were grown in the 
county. The growers would, he believed, help the Club to make the inquiries 
which they wished to make, in every way they could. The time had therefore 
arrived, he (Dr. Bull) thought, when they might attempt the publication of a 
" Herefordshire Pomona "—with the scientific and practical knowledge of Dr. 
Hogg, and his hearty good-will, at the head of the movement ; with the energy, 
perseverance, and knowledge of Pomology possessed by Mr. Bulmer to work up 
the required information ; with the growers of fruit ready to impart this informa- 
Uon-'-and with the machinery of the Woolhope Club they ought to be able to 



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241 

eemy on the work satisfactorily, always supposing that it would be well supported 
by annual subscriptions from the public The Club ought carefully to consider the 
Bubjectt He had prepared a resolution which he hoped might be acceptable ; and 
as that would explain his ideas more fully he would, without further remarks, read 
it. He would suggest :— 

"That a Pomological Committee, consisting of members of the Woolhope 
Club, in conjunction with the growers of fruit, be formed to investigate the 
Tarieties of apples and pears grown in the district ; to inquire into their origin and 
history ; to ascertain their value and uses ; and to name such varieties as are not 
known elsewhere, and have a really distinct character, with a view to the publica- 
tion of a ** Herefordshire Pomona"; and that Dr. Hogg, F.L.S., be requested to 
edit the work. It is proposed that ' The Herefordshire Pomona' should be pub- 
lished in annual parts, quarto size, to correspond with Knight's * Pomona Here- 
fordiensis.* That the first part should be issued at the close of next year, 1877, 
and that it should consist of three or more coloured plates, with descriptive letter- 
press, according to the amount of annual subscriptions received. That the 
expenditure of the committee be kept entirely distinct from the ordinary funds of 
the Woolhope Club, and that a separate subscription list be opened for def rajdng 
the expenses of publication. That the price of the parts separately be 10s. 6d. 
each ; to annual subscribers 7s. 6d. ; and to annual subscribers who are members 
of the Club 5s. each part. The names of aU subscribers to the work must be given 
to the hon. secretary before the last Club meeting of the year, and the subscription 
must also be paid before that time." 

The particular form that the publication should take had been discussed among 
themselves, and it was agreed that although " The Herefordshire Pomona" should 
be an entirely separate and distinct work from the " Pomona Herefordiensis," it 
would have the same objects in view, and be of the same size, and in that sense 
wotdd be a continuation of Mr. Knight's work. If the illustrations were always 
to represent the exact size of the apples, he questioned whether a representation of 
the Gloria Mwndi could be got on any page less than a quarto (laughter). In Mr. 
Knight's "Pomona" the illustrations were beautifully done, brought out with 
copperplates ; but the plates in the proposed publication would be chromo- 
lithographs. The illustrations would doubtless appear a little more flashy in 
colour than if they were hand-painted ; but he trusted they would be true to 
nature, which was the great object to attain (hear, hear). Dr. BuU had seen a 
good wood engraving of Mr. Knight himself : and he thought it would appear 
exceedingly gracious on their part to publish a likeness of Mr. Andrew Knight 
with the first part (hear, hear). In order to carry out these suggestions the Club 
would require the services of an active secretary, and he was happy to say they 
could obtain such assistance from Mr. Eeginald Symonds, who was very willing 
to take up the subject, and to study the pomology of his native county. He would 
have plenty of work to do, for the real practical success depended very much upon 
the honorary secretary ; but he was ready to do it because he believed it would be 
of great service to the county (hear, hear). With regard to the expense of the 
publication, that, of course, depended upon the number of parts published and 



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upon th« amount of rabtcriptiottB. The vppnxmaXe eost of the woik, wfth ffeaw 
ooloored pUtes repreeenting the size of the apples, would be £35 or £40 & year. 
He believed a small sabecription would produce that sum annually ; but if ihey 
could get £60 a year subecribed the publication mig^t then be iHustraited with nx 
coloured plates. He thought it better to adopt this plan, and let the work stand 
on its own merits, than to depend upon patronage and a oomparatiyely few large 
subscriptions. They only meant to spend each year the money subscribed, and it 
would all be spent in the publication alone, so that the more subscriptions they got 
the more the subecriberi individually would get for their money (hear, hear). 

Bev. Jones Thomas said that Dr. Bull had said nothing with reference to 
giving his own assistance in conjunction with Dr. Hogg and Mr. Buhner m the 
proposed undertaking. 

Dr. Bull said that he would render all the assistance he could (hear, hear). 

Rev. Jones Ihomas asked whether the publication would, if issued, be 
limited to Herefordshire only ? In the little county of Breconshire there was red 
sand, and he did not want to pruse what coidd be grown there. 

Dr. Bull said that as soon as they had exhausted the subject in Hereford- 
shire they might perhaps go into Breconshire (hear, hear). 

Bev. Jones Thomas remarked that a more popular subject than " Pomona" 
could not possibly be suggested for the benefit of Herefordshire (hear, hear). Sub- 
scriptions, he believed, would readily be obtained from all parts of the county. 
Of that he was not in the least afraid. He only hoped that the publication, as 
suggested by Dr. Bull, would be started, and that it would be a very great 
success (hear, hear). 

Bev. C. J. Bobinson asked whether it was intended to reproduce all that 
had appeared in " Knight's Pomona ?" 

Dr. Bull replied that at present they had better confine the publication tp 
apples that were growing in the county and to the new kinds. They had better at 
first keep to the special Herefordshire kinds. 

Bev. C. J. Bobinson said that if the new publication should be considered 
complete without the contents of " Knight's Pomona" It would not be quite so 
acceptable to those who, like himself, did not possess a copy of Knight's work. 

Mr. Fowler apprehended that the new work would be entirely distinct, and 
reminded the club that the copyright of Knight's work belonged to the Agricul- 
tural Society of the county, and, therefore, they could not use any of the contents 
of that work in the new publication without the consent of that society. 

Dr. Bull said that there was so much new work in the county to be done 
that they had better leave the reproduction of Mr. EInight's work till a future 
time. It had been proposed that a separate guarantee fund should be raised to 
the amount of £50 in case the subscriptions should fall short. He did not believe 
tiiat the subscriptions would be less than the sum required ; but it would be safer 
to have a s^arate guarantee fund for each year. The Club had goanateed ^20 ; 



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248 

he himself £5; Bev. C. H. Buhner, £5; and Ifr. Banldn, £6; Bev. James 
Davies, Moor Court, £5; Oeorge H. Piper, Esq., Ledbury, £5; and the Bev. 
William Jones Thomas, Llan Thomas, £5 for the year 1877. Of oonrBe if the 
guarantors were called upon in any single year there would soon be an end of the 
publication. 

Mr. J. G. Morrii^ said that he should not have ventured to move the first 
resolution (as read by l)r. Bull)) had it not been that the Club had kindly placed 
him in the president's chair for the ensuing year ; and as the resolution would 
doubtless receive prominent attention during his year of office, he had less hesita- 
tion in proposing it than he should otherwise have had. Some few years ago the 
Bishop of Manchester when addressing a public meeting in the ShirehaU, rather 
startled some of his hearers by saying that Herefordshire was peculiarly different 
from other counties in England, in having many harvests ; and he made out that 
in Herefordshire there were no less than seven harvests. They began with wool, 
and continued with bark, hay, com, hops, potatoes, and last— the one most special 
to the county — ^the vintage harvest — that was as much as to say, the apple and pear 
crops. The soil and climate of the county were adapted to the growth of the 
apple. No doubt a feeling of that sort prompted the late Mr. Knight to commence 
his '* Pomona," and it had been pretty nearly decided to-day to have a pomological 
department established under the auspices of that Club. He had veiy little doubt 
as to the success of the publication, which woidd enhance the study of pomology ; 
and anybody who wished to obtain knowledge of the growth of apples and pears 
in the county should have a book of the kind suggested to refer to (hear, hear). 
If any persons prepared such a work, who were better able to set about it than the 
Natural History Club resident on the spot ? (hear, hear). He had great pleasure 
in proposing that a pomological department be formed in connection with the 
dub (hear, hear). 

Mr. Bankin seconded the proposition, and suggested that a small handbook 
of the pomology of the county should be published simultaneously with the more 
expensive work, so as to bring the study of the subject within the reach of all 
classes. 

Dr. Bull said that the suggestion was a veiy practical one, but he thought, 
in the present state of knowledge on the subject, it could hardly be expected that 
they should issue a small handbook simultaneously with the more expensive work 
until they had gained sufficient information to compile one. That would be a 
work of some four or five years at least. 

The proposition was carried unanimously. 

On the motion of Dr. Bull, seconded by the Bev. J. Davies, the following 
gentlemen were appointed the general committee, viz., the President of the Wool* 
hope Club, chairman; Sir Henry Scudamore Stanhope, Bart, Mr. W. H. 
Apperley (Withington), Dr. Bull, Bev. C. H. Buhner, Mr. H. C. Beddoe (Here- 
ford), Mr. John Bosley (Lyde), Mr. Thomas Cam, Dr. Chapman (Burghill), Mr. 
Joseph Carless, jun., Mr. John Cranston (Kings Acre), Dr. M'Cullough, Bev. 
James Davies (Moor Court), Mr. J. T. Owen Fowler, Mr. Hall (Garford), Mr. F. 

I B 



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H. Herbert, Mr. Wmiftm HjU (Eggletan), Mr. W. Jay (Lyde), Mr. Thos. Mason 
(WelUngton), Mr. George H. Piper (Norton Canon), Mr. Pitt (Bosbury), Rev. J. 
O. Robinson, Mr. James Rankin (Bryngwyn), Mr. W. A. Swinbonme (Ousop), 
Mr. Charles Watldns, Mr. Arthur Thompson, with power to add to their number. 
Rey. Jones Thomas proposed, and Mr. Swinboume seconded, that the sub- 
committee consist of the Rev. C. H. Buhner (chairman), Mr. H. C. Beddoe, Dr. 
Biill, Mr. Thomas Cam, Dr. Hogg, F.L.S. (London), and Mr. Fowler, Mr. J. 
Griffith Morris with Mr. Reginald Symonds, hon. sec. — Carried unanimously. 

Pr. Bull proposed that Mr. Reginald Symonds be appointed treasurer and 
secretary for this special work. 

Mr. Fowler seconded the proposition, and it was agreed to unanimously. 

At this period of the meeting, Mr. John Bosley, Mr. Mason (Welling^ton), 
Mr. W. Jay, Mr. Thomas Pitt (Bosbury), Mr. Wm. Hill (Eggleton), and Mr. H. 
C. Beddoe, and Mr. Cale (Tarrington) entered the room, and 

Dr. Bull repeated the object of the meeting to them, and stated that the 
Club had decided to make the attempt to publish a ** Herefordshire Pomona" if 
the project met with the support of the growers. 

Mr. Bosley said he approved very highly of the step that had been taken by 
the club, and he thought that growers generally would hail the movement with 
approbation. 

Mr. Jay also spoke approvingly of the object of the meeting. 

Mr. William Hill said he should be happy to support the Club in their 
present efforts, and would endeavour to gain for them the approval of his neigh- 
bours (hear, hear). The movement, he was sure, would become very popular. 

The discussion now became general, Mr. Piper, from Ledbury, had brought 
some very interesting seedling apples raised by himself ; and Mr. Bosley had also 
brought the fruit of a. seedling which promised well in its fruit. 

Mr. Piper remarked that the Oolden Pippin possessed no less than 16 
different names in England. That was a strong argument as to the want of a 
publication like that referred to by Dr. Bull (hear, hear). He was quite convinced, 
from experience, that apples would frequently come true to seed. He had proved 
it himself several times, and had found the young plants bear fruit with the 
characters of the parents, though not always so strongly marked. Mr. Piper 
exhibited apples from his seedlings in proof of his remarks, which were thereupon 
tasted and discussed. 

This concluded the business of the meeting. 



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Ifn0l^0][i? jBlttrHlisia' 




The general annual meeting of the members of the Woolhope Naturalists' 
Field Club was held in the club room at the Free Library, Hereford, on Tuesday, 
February 13th, Present— Dr. Chapman, President (in the ohair), J. Griffiths 
Morris, Esq., the President elect; the Rev. William Jon^ Thomas, James 
Bankin, Esq., and W. A. Swinburne, Esq., Vice-Presidents; the,Bev. James 
Davies, Vice-President elect ; F. Bodenham, Esq., Br. Bull, Be v. J, F. Crouch, 
T. Curley, Esq., James Da vies, Esq., Theos. Lane, Esq., Bev. F. T. Havergal, 
John Lloyd, Esq., Be v. H. Cooper Key, Joseph Greaves, Bsq., Be v. F. Mere- 
wether, Bev. G. M. Metcalfe, and Mr. Arthur Thompson, secretary. 

The Treasurer presented a statement of his accounts for the year 1876, duly 
audited. , ? 

Dr. Chapman presented the meteorologiodl report for 1876 ; and Messrs. 
Stephens and Thompson presented the register of the floe d waters on the Wye for 
1876. 

The following times and places were fixed ior the field meetings ior 1877 : — 

1. On Thursday, May 17th, Mordiford. 

2. On Tuesday, June 19th, Midsummer Hill, Easthor. 

3. On Thursday, July 19th, Presteigne (Ladies* day). 

4. On Tuesday, August 2l8t, Trelleck, near Monmouth. 

5. On Tuesday, October 4th, Fungus Foray. 

Bev. C. H. Bulmer, Credenhill, was re-elected a member; Bev. Wm. 
Bowell, Chandos House, Hereford, was elected a member. 

On the completion of the above business the members a<iIjourned to the 
Green Dragon Hotel to dinner, when the following additional members joined 
them :— Thomas Blashill, Esq. (London), Bev. C. H. Bulmer (Credenhill), E. 
Colt Williams, Esq. (Hereford). ] 

After dinner, Dr. Bull reported how they were getting on with the Here- 
fordshire Pomona. 

Dr. Chapman read his retiring address as President. A vote of thanks was 
unanimously carried to the retiring President for the wiay in which he had fulfilled 
the office during the last year, and for his admirable address. 

The Bev. C. H. Balmer read a paper on "Pomology Historically Con- 
sidered." 

James Davies, Esq., read a paper on " Shrove-Tuesday and its customs." 

E. Colt Williams, Esq., alluded to the annual custom at Westminster 
School on Pancake day. 



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247 



METEOROLOGICAL REPORT FOR 1876, TAKEN AT BURGHILL, 

HEREFORD, 279PT. ABOVE SEA LEVEL, 

By T. a. Chapman, M.D. 

The Meteorological Society has recently organised a system of regular 
observations, and has obtained the assistance of about a score of observers who 
take observations at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. daily. These are the most complete 
observations taken except those at a few first-class observatories. Having com- 
menced to take observations last year I agreed to take them according to the above 
system. The advantages of these observations is their systematic character, 
being taken at all stations at the same time. The great defect of previous 
observations, which has seriously retarded meteorological science, was the 
desultory character of the observations, each observer chosing his own time for 
observations and his own items for record, so that no comparison was possible and 
no picture of the atmospheric condition over the whole country at once obtainable. 

I add in tables as an appendix to this report an abstract of my observations 
for 1876. 

The chief features of the year were the somewhat excessive rainfall, and its 
remarkable distribution, the excess having occurred in the last few months, the 
first seven months having indeed been deficient ; and the unusually high tem- 
perature attained during two periods in July and August With regard to these, 
it is to be observed that the highest temperature I recorded was 89*5'' in the shade, 
whereas others recorded temperatures 6° or 7** higher. There can be no question 
that the mass of the records of very high temperature in the shade are untrust- 
worthy. The whole matter depends on the method of exposure of the ther- 
mometers. The temperature of the air is what we desire to ascertain, apart from 
the effects of radiation or evaporation. My thermometers are exposed in the 
manner advised, after careful consideration, by the Meteorological Society, and I 
think must make a very close approximation to the result desired. The tem- 
perature in the sun recorded at the same time was 141^ and it is obvious that any 
defect in the method of exposure of the thermometer will according to its extent 
more or less approximate the temperature in the so-called shade to this higher 
degree. Not only will any defect in the thermometer stand lead to error of this 
nature, but so also will the proximity of walls, buildings, roads, gravel paths, &c. 
Even when their direct radiation is excluded, they will produce currents of air 
hotter than the true atmospheric temperature. 

The mean height of the barometer for the year was 29*889 in., about *060 
below the average for England. The readings for January were very high, 
exceeding 30 in. on all but two days, and averaging 30*280, associated with a mean 
temperature slightly above the average, and no marked defect of rainfall. In 
May the barometer had again a very high average, viz., 30*172 in., associated with 
a predominance of winds ranging round from E. by N. to N.W., and an almost 
entire absence of S> and S.W. The rainfall was very meagrO) viz., 0*29 in., and 



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248 

the mean temperature deficient. The lowest readings were in December, when 
the average was only 29*426 in., associated with an excessiye rainfall, 6*056 in., 
and a high temperature, viz., 43*0°, and a prevalanceof S. and S.W. winds. A 
very deep and not wide depression passed over on the 3rd and 4th December, its 
apex passing Hereford at 8 a.m. on the 4th, the lowest reading at Burghill being 
28*241 at 8 a.m. A series of observations during the depressions showed its sides 
to be very similar in their steep regular slopes, the apex being rounded. l%e 
mean reading of the barometer in March was also very low, viz., 29*587 in^, 
associated with S.W., W., and N.W. winds and alow temperature. 

The mean temperature for the year was 49*2°, about an average ; high in 
January, February, and December ; low in March and November. The exi;reme 
temperatures of a few days in July and August did not unduly raise the average. 
The highest readings were — 

July— 13 82*3'' August- 

14 86-9' 

15 89*3'' 

16 88-9" 

21 82-0° 

22 84*5" 

23 81*r 
25 SOT 

There were no intense frosts during the year. On two days only, the 8th and 
9th January, the thermometer failed to rise above 32** during some portion of the 
day (in the shade). It fell below 32** in the shade on 44 days, and below 32^ on 
the grass on 111 days. 

The rainfall was a few inches in excess of the probable average for the 
station, having amounted to 31*58 inches. It was defective in May, June, and 
July, the amounts being 29, 1*16, and 0*801 respectively; in great excess in 
September, November, and December, viz., 5*089, 4*105, and 6*056 inches. 

There were no extremely heavy falls, no fall amounting to ore inch was 
recorded during the year, the nearest approach being *99 on January 20 and *97 
on September 30. Even during December the excessive fall was fairly distributed ; 
the heaviest fall being 1*60 in. during the last three days of the year. The con- 
tinuousness of the fall was its most remarkable feature. Only one dry day was 
recorded between September 22nd and October 20th inclusive, viz., 28 days. 
From November 11th to December 7th inclusive, viz., 27 days, only two dry days 
are recorded ; and from December 26, 1876, to January 19th, 1877, only one dry 
day appears, and if falls of less than *01 be noticed we may go on to February 7th^ 
with only three dry days. 



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254 



ADDRESS OF THE RETmiNG PRESIDENT, T. ALGERNON 
CHAPMAN, ESQ., M.D. 

Gentlemen, — The present meeting brings to a close the year during which 
you have done me the honour of placing me in your Presidential chair, and, by 
the rules of our Club, it is necessary that I should address you on the proceedings 
of the Club during my term of oflSce. The rule is, I think, a useful one, although 
it presses with undue weight on one who has no striking events to chronicle and is 
lacking in the literary ability to make his escape, like the cuttle, behind a doud 
of ink ; I fear you will add that a fair share of the penalty is also paid by those 
who have to listen to the address. 

Although the past year has been uneventful, and although our field meet- 
ings have not had all the brilliance of some that I can remember in former years, 
and especially although they have been more than usually lacking in any real 
work in the field, our proceedings have not been altogether a blank. Our meetings 
served their most important purpose of bringing us together, and stimulating such 
scientific ardour as some of us found ourselves possessed of. And we have had a 
few good papers to add to our transactions. The fungus meeting was marked by 
the visit of an unusual wealth of distinguished mycological savants, and, despite 
the weather, some real work was done and some valuable papers were communi- 
cated. On the same occasion the pomological section of the club, so recently 
established, gave remarkable evidence of vitality, and promises under the powerful 
JEgia of Dr. Bull to produce valuable results. Our museum has during the year 
emerged from its chaotic condition into a state of order and efficiency ; a result 
due not only to the munificence of Mr. Rankin, but no less also to the personal 
care and interest which he devotes to it. 

The first field meeting of the year took place on Tuesday, May 23, at Stoke 
Edith, for the Woolhope Valley. On arrival here the business of the club was 
transacted. The members then proceeded to Purton, on the way meeting with 
Dr. Grindrod, who furnished the party with much informat'oa as to the palseonto- 
logy of the neighbourhood. At Purton, a quarry of Upper Ludlow and Aymestry 
Limestone was visited, in which many of its characteristic fossils were seen, but 
no rarities were met with. The section of Upper Ludlow in the lane was noted, 
and considerable attention was given to the section at the bottom of the lane, 
where the passage beds between the Upper Ludlow and Downton sandstone is 
exposed. The bone bed is here represented by a stratum containing bits of carbon, 
pach3rtheca, &c., but few, if any, fish bones. Previous investigation had largely 
removed the most accessible portions of this bed, so that the party were unable 
to do more than fully identify it ; the more so as time was short and return had 
to be made at once to Stoke Edith Gardens to meet the Dudley Club. Seager 
Hill was then ascended, and the topography of the valley studied. After dinner 
we were favoured with a good paper on the Clear-winged Sphinges of the district, 
by Dr. Wood, of .Tarrington. The district, under Dr, Wood's sharp research, 



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255 

proves to be so rich in some of the rarer forms of insect life that I hope he will 
shortly redeem his promise of giving us a more extended paper on the entomolo- 
gical fauna of Woolhope, when he will no doubt point out to us how it happens 
that the varied geological formations, the alternation of hill and vale, and the 
diversified surface, favour the existence of species that are rare or wanting in the 
more level districts of the county where the Old Red prevails. 

In the various references to the geology of our primeval home which occur 
in our transactions, there is always more or less implied, sometimes very distinctly 
stated, a catastophic theory of its formation which I think must be even in excess 
of that at any time held by Sir Roderick Murchison himself, whose views 
especially favour that theory, no doubt, and any of whose opinions must meet 
with an almost superstitious respect throughout the Silurian kingdoms. Such an 
exaggerated form of the theory is no doubt due to the exigencies of our existence 
as a field club. Such accounts of the physical history of the Valley of Woolhope 
as we have, necessarily compress its events into a brief outline, and bring most 
clearly of all before the imagination the immense amount of dendation that has 
taken place. Speaking of the Woolhope Valley, Sir Roderick himself says, 
" What agency, I ask, except that of very powerful currents of water, could have 
removed every fragment of the debris that must have resulted, whether at one or 
several periods of elevation, from the destruction of all the superposed arches of 
rock, and have scooped out all the detritus arising from such destruction, from 
the circling depressions, the central dome, flanking ridges, and former cover of 
those Silurian strata ?" So far all may agree ; at least if ice be included when 
water only is mentioned, and if periods of elevation be understood to be more or 
less long-continued periods, and not comparatively momentary epochs. But when 
he continues : '* And if that water had not been impelled with great force, caused 
by sudden uprises of these rocks from beneath the Old Red Sandstone, what other 
agency will account for so complete a denudation, the broken materials having 
only found issue by one lateral gorge, which was, we see, opened out by a great 
transverse fracture of the encircling ridges" (Siluria, p. 492— 20th edition). 

Any attempt to form a clear idea of the hypothesis implied must convince 
us of its impossibility, I had almost said absurdity. There has been a great 
upheaval of the earth's crust at the Woolhope Valley, and how rapidly it took 
place, we shall probably never know. But endeavour to imagine an upheaval so 
sudden and violent as is implied in the extract I have just quoted. Suppose the 
district to be submerged under any depth of water you think will produce the 
greatest effect, and it is very probable that since the Old Red epoch this district 
has lain under perhaps 2,000 feet of water. Your upheaval is by hypothesis at the 
site of the Woolhope Valley : now this will not produce violent currents at that 
place ; the violent currents will be all around, radiating from the site of the 
upheaval as a centre ; the denudation will be not of the valley itself but of the 
surrounding circle, a subsidence would bring a return current, and would pile up 
debris at the site where we wish to explain denudation. Any repetition of sudden 
upheavals and subsidences would bring us no further. 



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266 

A great point is made of the complete removal of the debris, bat this 
appears to be one of the strongest evidences against any sndden removal by violent 
cnrrent caused by upheaval. Debris removed by such currents would not be 
entirely removed, and whatever was entirely removed from the immediate site of 
the Woolhope valley would be found at no great distance ininmiense and irregular 
piles. Where are they ? If it is suggested that such collections of debris have 
since been removed by the ordinary processes of denudation, the answer of course 
is that ordinary processes of denudation could equally have removed them from 
the Woolhope valley itself. These sndden upheavals and subsidences of a character 
sufficiently violent to produce currents of water capable of removing absolutely 
and completely so many million tons of debris, must also have shaken into abso- 
lute confusion all the strata to a great depth not only at the Woolhope valley 
itself but for many miles around. This we know is very far from being the case, 
indeed the most notable feature of the valley is the very orderly and undisturbed 
position of the strata, so much so that after full allowance for the several con- 
siderable faults that exist, for the dicing up of the rocks by the various lines of 
cleavage, which are not markedly in excess here over other less disturbed districts, 
one i9 filled with admiration at the very slight disturbance of the strata which has 
been caused by their being raised up into an arch of one mile in height ; this con- 
sideration forces one to the conclusion that the upheaval was of a slow and 
majestic character, and that it was not accomplished with much tossing violently 
up and down, like a terrier at a rat or a housemaid shaking a duster. 

But why must the Woolhope Valley especially require such violent 
processes to account for its denudation ? Why must the processes there be different 
from and more violent than those which operated where we now ard ? The reason 
appears to be that at Woolhope we know that strata to the thickness of say one 
mile— though I cannot myself make the removed strata much exceed half-a-mile 
by the most liberal calculations— have been removed, while we are, or choose to 
suppose that we are, in ignorance of the amount of denudation that has taken 
place at Hereford, and assume it to be but trifling. But when we consider the 
certainty that an immense thickness of Old Bed Sandstone has been removed from 
here, that it is very probable that the mountain limestone once extended entirely 
across this site, and that possibly still higher strata did so, we cannot safely give 
the amount of denudation — denudation as complete as at Woolhope-^-at less than 
one mile. Now if we add this to the known denudation at Woolhope, taken as in 
round numbers also a mile, we get two miles as the denudation at Woolhope to 
compare with one mile of denudation at Hereford. Tlus is only a difference of 2 to 
1 — I believe the true ratio is certainly not greater than 3 to 2 ; but let it if you 
will be 5 to 1 or 10 to 1. We are again, I think, forced irresistibly to the conclu- 
sion that there can, if this be so, be no possible ground for assuming denuding 
agencies in the one case differing in kind from those in the other. 

If we assume, what I have already shown gt)od grounds for assuming, that 
the rise of the arch, at Woolhope, was slow and gradual, and even if we assume 
that it rose with considerable rapidity at a remote epoch, we can see that it would 



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267 

always be mibmitted to the much more intense action of denuding agencies of any 
kind than the lower lying district of Hereford. At the present moment, for 
example, denudation of the primeval rocks of the Woolhope district is most 
actively going on. At Hereford they are, and have for the last geological age at 
least, been buried beneath a protecting layer of river gravel and post tertiary 
deposits. 

I take it that we know very Uttle of how the great mass of this denudation 
occuned, or when ; that the sea had a share in it we may suspect, that ice had 
much to do with it there can be no doubt — and we know that river agency has 
been very powerful. But of the former chapters of the history we know little 
except that there were such chapters ; of some of the last chapters there are many 
more or less distinct but fragmentary records. At considerable elevations on the 
flanks of the Wye valley are deposits of river gravel, such as could only have been 
deposited by considerable streams, probably by the Wye itself. By saying the 
Wye, I do not wish to insist that the watersheds were at those dates precisely 
the same as at present, but that a large river passed down the valley past Here- 
ford, as at present, admits of little question. Since the date of the higher and 
earlier, at least, of these gravels, there is considerable evidence, that a minor 
glacial period occurred. But the chief interest of these gravels in the present 
connection is the proof they afford, that at a geologically recent daite the Wye flowed 
at a level sufficiently elevated for it to have entered and swept round the Wool- 
hope valley—and there exist deposits of gravel and drift in the Woolhope valley 
itself to attest that this was very probably the case. Look, again, to the lower 
part of the Wye— at the Wye between Ross and Chepstow. Ask what was the 
level of the Wye at Mordiford before those deep and picturesque goi^es were cut 
through ? Will not the answer again be, that it was sufficiently high to have 
swept the Woolhope vaUey ? 

The inner slope of the outer ridge of the Woolhope Valley is obviously 
formed of talus, due to the subaerial destruction of a cliff or rock wall ; and at 
Adam's Bocks we have still remaining a portion of the cliff not yet entirely lost 
in the accumulating deh:\ii formed by its own destruction. I think it is not by 
any means an abuse of the scientific imagination ta picture these cliffs, perhaps 
not entirely formed— for probably much denudation had previously been accom- 
plished—but having their precipitous faces renewed by the rushing waters of the 
Wye flowing past their bases, at that remote date— however recent the geologist 
may consider it— when the bed of the Wye was many feet above its present level. 

Probably the modem geologist will smile at my remarks, and suggest that 
no one now does fully accept the catastrophic theory. I can only say that our 
transactions show that we still largely accept it to explain the denudation of the 
Woolhope Valley. I am no geologist, and may have fallen into various errors in 
what I have said relating to the processes by which the Woolhope Valley has 
been formed. But I have thought it well to take this opportunity of asserting 
that the Woolhope Club, as a body (or at least I myself as a member of it), do 
not adhere to the belief that the complicated appearances we observe are to be 



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258 

explained by demanding that they be produced more or less off-hand by some 
violent agency, of whose existence there is next to no evidence ; whilst more or 
less completely overlooking these more poweful, if less swift, forces of nature 
which we see constantly in action ; and especially to call attention to the evidence 
we have that much of the sculpturing of the Woolhope Valley, with not a little 
denudation, has been done by the river Wye, during and since the last glacial 
period. If we bear in mind Mr. Croll*s hypothesis— I had almost said demonstra- 
tion—that the glacial period was really a succession of alternations of glacial cold 
and perpetual spring, accompanied by variations in the sea-level, we can under- 
stand that denudation during that period progressed with much greater rapidity 
than at present. 

The second field meeting of the year took place on June 27th, when 
Llanthony Abbey was visited ; the weather was too propitious, the thermometer 
indicating 80deg. in the shade. Thus ladies, for this was the ladies* day, and 
members whose tastes were archseological, and who sought the shelter of the 
ruined abbey, in preference to more extended researches, no doubt found its 
cool shades more pleasant than the intense heat of the sun in the narrow valley of 
the Honddu. I only heard of one member of the Club who succeeded in reaching 
the travertine deposit, with its botanical treasures, which was marked as the limit 
of the day's excursion, but not a few visited the ancient yew trees in the chmxjhyard 
of Capel-y-ffin, and several c'.arical members made some praiseworthy, but rather 
unsuccessful efforts, to study the natural history of their cowled brethren in the 
neighbouring monastery. When the party were again gathered at the Abbey, W. 
Blashill, Esq., read a paper on the abbey, giving not only its history, but fully 
explaining the various portions of the ruins, their dates and former purposes, 
which, so much has time altered and destroyed them, are not immediately obvious 
to the ordinary observer. The other paper for the day, by Dr. M*Cullough, was 
on the Old Bed Sandstone deposits of the district, illustrated by many valuable 
and interesting fossils from neighbouring quarries and by the hills and bold escarp- 
ments of the surrounding valley. 

The third field meeting was in conjunction with the Caradoc Field Club, to 
visit Old Eadnor and Stanner ; I was unable to be present at this meeting, which 
I understand was in every way successful. I hope the field address, by R. W. 
Banks, Esq., will appear in our transactions. 

On the fourth meeting, on August 25, the Club went further afield than 
usual, visiting the Brown Clee Hill. The weather was exceedingly favourable. 
The British and Koman camps on the summits of Brown Clee, of Nordy Bank, 
aud of Abdon Burf were visited and inspected, and the account of them given by 
the Rev. Arthur Clewes, in a short but valuable address, added most materially 
to the interest with which they were viewed ; the hut circles, if hut drcles they 
were, on the summit of the hill, did not meet with a fully satisfactory explanation 
at the hands of any of the members present. Time did not admit of any of the 
coal pits which are worked here being investigated. The same reason interfered 



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with the completion of Mr. Bankin's valuable and useful paper on the " Forma- 
tion of Soils," which he read after dinner, but which we shall have in full in our 
** Transactions." An entomological note of my own was taken as read. 

I have already referred to the fungus meeting as having been eminently 
successful. Its records are fully and pleasantly written by Mr. Worthington G. 
Smith in the pages of the " G-ardeners' Magazine," and if you transfer this to the 
pages of our transactions, it is mere surplusage for me to give you a meagre 
resume of the proceedings. I may take this opportunity of acknowledging the 
liberality of the " Gardeners' Chronicle" and of Mr. W. G. Smith, in providing 
us with numerous illustrations for our forthcoming volume of transactions; 
chiefly bearing on the papers which Mr. W. G. Smith has read at our meetings, 
with several others from his sketches in Herefordshire. There will also adorn 
the volume some plates of Herefordshire fungi from Dr. Bull's drawings. There 
has been considerable delay in getting the earlier part of the volume into the 
printer's hands, but the remainder of the book should progress rapidly. The fruit 
department of our fungus meeting has been, I need not say ably, reported on by 
Dr. Hogg in the pages of the " Journal of Horticulture," whence an account of it 
may be transferred to our columns, so that a detailed account of it now is un- 
necessary. 

The exhibitions of apples and pears show a marked advance on the very 
successful show of the previous year, and may now be accepted as an established 
part of the annual programme of the Club, with every indication of increasing in 
force and usefulness. A further step has however now been taken in the appoint- 
ment of a Pomological Committee who are to publish a Herefordshire Pomona. 
As usual. Dr. Bull is the leading intelligence and active power in this new move- 
ment. The active co-operation of Dr. Hogg, who is, I presume, the first 
pomologist in this country, has been secured, so that there can be no doubt of the 
success of the forthcoming work. The one thing by which individual members of 
the Club may promote this success, is by securing as many subscribers as possible ; 
the larger the number of copies ordered the less will be the actual cost of each ; 
and the difference will enable the Committee to materially increase the size of 
each number. No papers on any pomological subject were communicated to the 
club, though not a little valuable material cropped up in various conversational 
discussions. Much was said on the question of the dying out of old varieties, 
though I fear the question was not materially advanced in any way. The subject 
is one of great interest both practically and scientifically, and I sincerely hope that 
the Pomological Committee will carefully collect all the facts they can bearing on 
the subject. Let us know what old sorts have disappeared ; how and why they 
disappeared. What old sorts still exist, and the precise condition in which they 
are to be found. Let them also, for the benefit of future inquirers, fully describe 
the present state of fully established varieties that are supposed to be at present 
at their best. Nor let them, omit to leave a trustworthy record of those new sorts, 
of the date and circumstances of whose origin it may hereafter prove very desirable 
to have clear evidence. The great want on this subject is not opinionB — opinions 

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are as plentiful as blackberries ; but facts seem unduly scarce ; especially do 
diflferent reporters bring forward most contradictory statements. We are told by 
one that such an apple has entirely disappeared ; a second says, Oh, no, you will 
find it growing at such a place ; a third says, I know the trees you mean, they are 
not such and such an apple, they are so and so— naming another variety. Such 
is the ignorance of many growers of the names of their apples, for which they 
frequently use names given by themselves for their own convenience, that it 
appears extremely probably that many that are supposed to be extinct would bo 
found to be still cultivated under local names, or under no names at all, were a 
sufficient search made for them. 

The general aspect of the question is as to the longevity of varieties propa- 
gated by buds or grafts without the intervention of sexual reproduction. Andrew 
Knight says " that certain varieties of some species of fruit which have been long 
cultivated cannot now be made to grow in the same soils and under the same mode 
of management which was a century ago so perfectly successful," and adds his 
belief that all attempts to propagate these kinds have been given up in conse- 
quence. It would be most desirable to know what is the present state of the 
individual varieties of which Knight half a century ago reported in these terms. 
He adopted the theory that the life of no variety, however grafted and budded, 
would survive the period of existence to which it would have attained if allowed 
to remain as an individual ; and that when the original seedling tree died from 
natural exhaustion and old age, trees derived from it by grafts, buds, cuttings, 
or otherwise, likewise disappeared from the same cause. Innumerable instances 
can be adduced, however, to show that this is certainly not the case ; some of 
them even among apples. Some advocates of the dying out theory, when unable 
to deny the pressure of these facts, shift their ground a little and take up a fresh 
position, bringing forward facts that, if established, are of much scientific interest. 
We cannot deny, they say, that such a sort of apple still grows freely and 
vigorously when grafted in a suitable manner. But look at the fruit, it is not the 
same fruit at all — ^large, succulent, vigorous enough, certainly, but not the same 
fruit ; it is quite lacking in the special qualities that we value in the original kind. 
If this change is real, and not a mere matter of opinion ; if, moreover, it is 
persistent, and shown not to be due to a different stock being used, and especially 
not to the mere youth of the younger-grafted trees, it must be taken to show a 
power of variation of a cumulative character in plants propagated in a non-sexual 
manner, differing both from graft-hybridism and from the sudden sports that 
sometimes occur and can be perpetuated by grafting. Our Pomological Committee 
will produce a work that will, there can be no doubt, be something more than a 
useful book of reference to the apple grower, or a handsome volume for the 
drawing-room table, and I hope they will verify for us all the facts they can 
collect bearing on this subject, not only for our present information but for the 
use of future investigators. Darwin has recently published another work which 
indirectly bears on this*subject. From the conclusion he arrives at we may think 
it extremely probable that varieties propagated by buds and grafts only will, in 
the course of timC) die out, but that whilst theltimQ necessary would be shorter 



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261. 

than that in which a variety propagated by seeds would perish, if, indeed, such a 
variety would, in the sense intended, perish at all, still, its duration would be so 
great that we have not yet had time to witness the decay of any variety in this 
way. This conclusion well accords virith the many known instances of plants 
still vigorous having been propagated by buds or grafts only, for centuries or even 
thousands of yearsi 

Mr. Darwin's recently published work is "On Cross and self -fertilisation 
of Plants." Perhaps the strongest impression formed in reading it is not on the 
subject of the book itself but of its author. One is forcibly reminded of the 
aphorism that one of the chief characteristics of genius is an infinite capacity for 
work. The volume is based on numerous carefully conducted experiments, carried 
out continuously during eleven years. Time would fail me to even briefly sum- 
marise the conclusions .drawn from these experiments. A measure is given of the 
amount of advantage derived from cross over self-fertilisation, and many of the 
•conditions that determine the advantage derived from crossing investigated. 
Why cross fertilisation should be almost a necessity remains, of course, an in- 
scrutable problem, but it is clearly shown that to secure the full advantages that 
result from a cross, it is necessary that the stocks that are crossed should have 
existed under somewhat different conditions for some generations. There are, 
however, several species of plants existing in a state of nature that appear never 
to be cross fertilised, but have probably for ages been propagated by self -fertilisa- 
tion. Of these one of the most remarkable is the Ophrys apifera.^ StiU more 
remarkable, however, is the fact that by artificial selection it appears possible in 
some species, in which ordinarily cross fertilisation is as necessary as with others, 
to raise varieties or races of as much or greater vigour than the parent race, in 
which propagation by self -fertilisation may be continually resorted to without 
diminution of stamina. 

Among other events of the year the Arctic Expedition has brought some 
additions to our knowledge, but those that are of interest to our club are not of 
great importance. The northern limit of animal migration in the direction taken 
by the expedition appears to have been reached, but this limit appears to be 
determined, not by the fact of higher latitudes being uninhabited, but by the 
accident that in that particular longitude there is no further extension of land to 
the north. Another of the events of the past year has been an energetic attempt 
to stifle scientific research, in obedience no doubt to most praiseworthy motives, 
but in effect a striking instance of that zeal without knowledge, whose results are 
not commendable. In the event the common sense of our legislators has so fsa 
prevailed that a measure has been passed that will interfere but slightly with the 
progress of science, whilst it will satisfactorily prevent those abuses in its name 
that are liable to occur, though in this matter it is known that they were in this 
coimtry at least but trifling in extent. I refer to the Experiments on Animals 
Act. The whole question is one to be settled by ordinary common sense — ^but it 
must be common sense duly instructed as to the facts. As a major premiss, 
common sense has long ago decided that pain and even death may be inflicted on 



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aaimAls with a view to an adequate benefit to the human race, and these penalties 
are daily exacted from the animal world for purposes of food, clothing, locomotion^ 
of mere convenience, or even of sport. As a minor premiss we have the com- 
paratiye importance of the object in view, the majority of people require to be 
initmcted that very few experiments by competent observers involve much pain ; 
that few experimentalists inflict in a year as much pain as say one average sports- 
man does in a day's shooting ; and as to the object in view a scientific education 
10 almost necessary to fully understand that the progress of medical and sanitary 
knowledge largely depends upon their results, and how closely the advancement 
of scienoe, on which, what we call modem civilisation is really based, is in some 
of its most important branches associated with them. I take this opportunity to 
express my opinion on the subject, as being one personally quite disinterested in 
the matter, having never made, and having no wish to make such experiments, 
but who believe myself well fitted by education to form a clear and just estimate 
of the whole of the facts. The question will no doubt assume a somewhat 
different aspect when we agree that it is wrong to injure animals in any way. 
But until this Brahminical doctrine obtains acceptance, no better justification for 
such injuries can be found than the advancement of medical, sanitary, and 
physiological scienoe. 

Before drawing these imperfect and desultory remarks to a close, I desire to 
call your attention strongly to our Museiun, i.e., to the Museum of the Hereford 
Tree Library and Museum. I would not only ask you to present to it such speci' 
mens of natural history — especially those belonging to, or collected in the county 
of Hereford, that may now be in your possession — but I think we ought individu- 
ally, and as a club, to specially collect and preserve specimens for it. Duplicates, 
if of any uncommon species or object, would be almost as acceptable as objects 
for our own shelves, as they would enable a proper return to be made when other 
museums are willing to send us from their duplicate drawers, specimens we are 
in want of. I have already adverted to the small amount of real field work done 
by the club, and, I might add, the paucity of papers during the past few years ; 
always excepting the mycological department, where, both as regards field-work 
and papers, there is no lack of energetic vitality. I would suggest that the museum 
might be made the occasion of some l^most valuable work ; if each member of the 
club would take in hand some subject, work up its natural history as displayed in 
the county, and present the results in the form of papers for our club, and 
specimens for the museum, most valuable results would be attained. The greatest 
difficulty in the way of canying out this suggestion, will probably be found in the 
ambition of individuals — I will not insinuate laziness-^I fear that each will 
endeavour to cover too much ground, to work up, perhaps, the ornithology or 
the botany of the county. To reach the maximum of usefulness, as well as of 
uccess, the object of research cannot well be too limited and defined — a small group 
of animals or plants, or even one species will, if fully observed and illustrated, 
present abundant material for a year's work, and, what is so important, the work 
becomes readily manageable — so much' is the history of every species linked with 



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263 

that of many others, that a research even so defined requires to be repressed within 
its own limits with some severity to prevent its branching and extending indefinite- 
ly. The choice of a subject of observation by each member would be determined 
by his opportunities and special likings, and there is no reason, if opportunity 
serves, why he should not be advancing two or more subjects at the same time. 
Arising out of this I am tempted to allude to the fact, that so far as the volumes 
of the Club's proceedings show, there are still large groups that have received 
absolutely no notice from the Club ; so that the distinguished foreigner, say the 
scientific aUacM to the Chinese embassy, might reasonably conclude that Hereford- 
shire was remaraable for containing no mosses or lichens, very few bees, no diptera, 
neuroptera, hemiptera, or orthoptera, no land or fresh water shells, and of many 
smaller groups that they were conspicuous by their absence. There is surely here 
an abundant field even for those who are most diffident of their own powers of 
observation, or who are most deficient in the necessary leisure. 

It only remains to me to thank you for your kindness and forbearance to my 
many shortcomings as your President, and to wish you all prosperity and success 
in your future campaigns. 



POMOLOGY HISTORICALLY CONSIDERED. 
By Rev. C. H. Bulmeb. 

Among the many subjects important to the country at large, and our 
county in particular, I can think of none more worthy of encouragement than the 
study of Pomology at the hands of so scientific and popular a society as the 
Woolhope Field Club; wlicther that subject be enterprised from a literary or 
scientific, from a recreative or commercial point of view. 

I hardly know how I come to be reading a paper on this, or, indeed, on any 
subject. Your President asked me to do so, and in a weak moment I consented. 
But this I do know, that I have always taken.a lively interest in all relating to the 
culture of the apple and pear (the restricted sense, I may hear mention, the Pomo- 
logy of my paper bears), and, although the slight information that I can give, will 
be found both superficial and uninteresting when compared with the knowledge, 
doubtless, of many who are honouring me with their attention, and whose humility 
I might, perhaps, have done well to imitate, still, it shall be my honest endeavour, 
as the best recompense I can make for so great a trial of patience, to supply them 
at any rate with copious materials for friendly discussion afterwards. 

I have chosen the title of my paper, — *^ Pomology, historically considered " 
—to allow full scope for a general sketch of the history, past, present, and future 
of the apple and pear. . s 



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^e early cnltiyation of the pear especially is of great antiquity, and, not 
too innat too strongly on the correctness of old Pomological writers, who can trace, 
they say, no less than 20 varieties, as mentioned by Pliny, and five or six by 
Virgil, it would appear that the first varieties of both apples and pears were 
Introduced into England from the more equal and temperate climate of the con- 
tioent, but at what period, so far as I can learn, is not clearly ascertained. 

Our earliest information of fruits is gathered from fruiterers' bills, and bills 

of fare of royal and other sumptuous entertainments, and a curious instance is 

placed on record so early as Edward I.'s reign, 1292 (to which 1 shall allude 

further on). One Harris, a fruiterer, in the reign of Henry VIII., so Evelyn 

tells us, planted 30 towns in Kent with fruit ; and it is hoped, he continues in his 

usual quaint vein, that others would follow Scudamore's good example (the noble 

introducer, I may here mention, of our French varieties), and plant the best dder 

fruit, till the preference of cider, wholesome and more natural, doth quite vanish 

all other drogues of that nature— a prophecy singularly missing its aim in our day, 

when beer has become one of the estates of the realm— still, also, must time be 

allowed to run its course before the classic verse of Phillipps becomes a prosaic 

fact— 

" That Silurian cyder borae. 

Should place all tastes, and triumph o*er the vine." 

If that stupendous event is ever to take place, most assuredly a very great 
attention must previously have taken place in the management of our trees and 
fruits, for Evelyn's account of the year of grace 1706 might very easily be substi- 
tuted for the present year 1877 ; or, to again quote hisipsissima verba, "There are 
already more persons better provided with Fruit than with Directions to use it as 
they should " when in plentiful years. (I have vividly before me 1875, when in 
my parish hundreds of bushels of fine apples were absorbed into the ground after 
Christmas because they could not find a buyer at dd. a bushel), whenin plentiful 
years, continues Evelyn, so much cider is impaired by ignorant handling and 
becomes dead and sour that many even surfeit with the blessing. It bein; rarely- 
seen in most countries, that any remains good to supply the defects of another 
year. In a scarce and curious tract, headed ** Herefordshire Orchards, a Pattern 
for all England," written anonymously, and said by its author to be the first written 
on the subject (I have it published in a Pomological work by Bichard Bradley, 
Camb. Professor of Botany, in 1726, or only 20 years after Evelyn wrote his 
Pomona), we read ** that Herefordshire was reputed as the orchard of England. 
From the greatest persons to the poorest cottager all habitations are encompassed 
with orchards and gardens, and in most places our hedges are enriched with rows 
of fruit trees, pears or apples, gennet moyles, or crab trees." Of these the writer 
adds en passant : — ''Pears make a weak drink fit only for our hinds, and is 
generally refused by our gentry as breeding wind in the stomack, yet this drink 
(till the heat of summer has caught it) is most pleasant to the female palate, 
having a relish of weak wine mixed with sugar." (I always thought— I may be 
allowed to add also en poMem^— that ladies liked their tipple sweet and 
Btrosgt but it BMms I am mistaken.) " Few cottagenn-yea, very few of onr 



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wealthiest yeomen— do taste any other drink in the family except at some special 
festivals twice or thrice a year, and that for variety rather than choice." Well 
may we of the 19th centary exclaim ''Tempora mutantur, nos et mntamur 
in illis." Many a time — continues the writer — servants when they betake them- 
selves to marriage seek out an acre or two of ground which they find fit for 
orchards ; for this they give fine or double value for years or lives, and thereon 
they build a cottage and plant an orchard, which is all the wealth th^y have for 
themselves and their posterities. I regret to say there is, as in Evelyn's account, 
a black side to this deliciously primitive sketch of an Herefordshire Arcadia in the 
beginning of the 17th century ; for the writer, as he continues, falls into a strain 
of moralising well fitted to the present age. " For gardens, we have little 
encouragement to design more than is necessary for our families, except our Biver 
Wye may be made navigable for transportation, and by defect of transportation 
our store of cyder is become a snare to many who turn God's blessing into wanton- 
ness and drunkenness. I wish (the writer concludes) this sore proverb, Bona terra 
mala gens may not belong to us. The Most High has filled us with many blessings ; 
but we fail so much in returning due thanks that we many times turn His blessingB 
into heavy curses, and make His liberal gifts the prevailing curse of our hasty 
ruin— whereas the Rural Life should, in all reason, be the most humble, tame, and 
innocent." 

I will now, in my retrospective survey, take a glance at the historic apples 
and pears, which were formerly cultivated in Herefordshire, although most of 
them are best known nowadays by their varieties. It seems^ to me I can most 
practically thus treat my subject, because I thoroughly endorse Andrew Knight's 
remark, though contrary I am aware to the opinion of the best old Pomological 
writers, that ** Herefordshire|ifl not so much indebted to its soil, as to some valuable 
varieties." And in commenting on these varieties teriatinif I shall be able to show 
you further, that there is also great truth in another remark of Andrew Knight's 
"that from the description that Parkinscm (who wrote in 1629) has given of the 
apples cultivated in his time, it is evident that many of those known by the same 
name are quite different, and probably new varieties ; some being so altered for 
better or worse, as to assume quite a new seasonal or structural character. 
Among cider apples, to which these remarks specially apply, the Kedstreak or 
Scudamore Crab then reigned supreme ; the early-fruiting Gennet Moyle, its 
hardly formidable rival except with the ladies, both varieties long years ago over- 
taken and swept away by the tide of time ; the Musk and Golden Pippin, pigmy 
anatomies of their former selves, while the Foxwhelp and Styre in a moribund 
state are only existing on their past reputation, which their numerous progeny 
unfortunately does not in any degreejgive promise of sustaining. 

I will take first some of our historic Perry pears, on account of their 
extreme longevity, and from being so well known to us all. The Teignton Squash 
is first in point of excellence, if not of antiquity, having existed without doubt at 
the beginning of the 16th century. Its origin is obscure. Although in the last 
stage of debility and decay the old trees bear well, though disappearing ftot. 



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The growth of the Teignton Squash resembles very closely that of the Longland, 
ft variety which is still flourishing, and of all pears I shoold call the farmer's 
friend, as its fruit keeps fairly and makes very good perry, while to the housewife, 
nothing can exceed it as a stewing pear in richness and colour, before the Catillac 
and other late stewing pears come into season. The Oldfield, however, is the best 
pear we have, whether its fecundity, or the lasting qualities of its fruit or perry 
is considered. Evelyn mentions in his day (1706) a gentleman who had some 
bottles of Oldfield perry brought him from a distance of 800 miles, that was 
over 40 years old, as rich and high flavoured as ever it was— a perfect Begale, he 
calls it. I can also endorse Evelyn*B eulogism, " Penes auctorem fit fides," as I 
have tasted some bottled perry from this variety over 40 years old, in perfect con- 
dition, made from my own glebe orchard from original trees, I do not hesitate in 
saying— although in full bearing— that are in their third century. These, however, 
I regret to say, are isolated facts — ^the exception not the rule — as the description 
of Palladius holds good now-a-days as in his times centuries ago that perry, 
chiefly owing to its irrepressible fermentation, '^hyeme durat sed primd acescit 
estate." The most picturesque and popular, without doubt, is the venerable 
Barland, or Bareland, originally of Bosbury :— the same old lofty-growing trees 
we see now growin? most probably filled the tankard of the Herefordshire farmer 
and his guests in the 17th century. It is more a sister beverage, a right sort of 
smoke-a-pipe perry (as an old right-sorted farmer himself described Foxwhelp 
cyder), than any other. Of dessert sorts of Historic pears, time will only allow 
of my mentioning two, the Easter Beurr^ and Beurr^ Diel, and to find them a 
local and special history. These two varieties I have ascertained were shown at 
our last Pomological Exhibition in far larger quantities than any others, and 
both in their selection and production reflected great credit on their growers. 
Looking at the market price of fruit in Covent Garden Market a fortnight back 
and before the commencement of the London season, I found there two identical 
pears alone mentioned by name at what must be considered the highly remunera- 
tive price of 5s. to 128. per dozen, while Blenheim and Ribstoa Pippins (again 
strange to record), shown at our exhibition both in far greater quantities than any 
other variety of apples, fetched from 12s. to Ids. per bushel. It is, I believe, well 
to comment on facts, like these, when in Herefordshire, the Orchard of England, 
so many tons of first quality fruit are suffered to perish through want of seasonable 
pruning, sheltering, or picking ; or, still more unpardonable neglect of the sim- 
plest rules to be observed in subsequent hoarding. Thus, the home counties and 
Herefordshire, and even some parts of Yorkshire, who, as Phillipps sings, do not 
disdain to learn— 

" How Nature's gifts may be improved by art," 
command a ready market ; while Herefordshire, with the finest natural advantages 
in the world, is obliged perfunctorily to depend upon the impecunious visits of the 
huckster for the sale for her immense surplus stock of what she has only to thank 
herself for being, pot-fruit or pit-fruit. 

As I must hurry on, I feel, to bring my paper to a close, I will only give you 
a list of the most celebrated of historic varieties of apples, making a few remarks 



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afterwards chiefly as regards the nomendature and varietieB of those oldest, best 
known, and valued. 

The Joanetting or Juneting, the Margaret, the Pomeroy, the Costard, the 
Winter Quoining or Queening, the Kusset or Koyal Kusset, the Lemon or Quince 
Pippin, the Golden Pippin, the Nonpareil, the Beefing and the Margil. Among 
cider fruit the Red Dymock, the Forest Styre, the Royal Wilding, the Red Streak, 
the Woodcock, and the Foxwhelp. This list includes, I believe, nearly all the old 
historic varieties — some flourishing, some lingering on to the present day. 

The etymology of the Joanetting, or Juneting apple is so singular, and 
decides the name of so many other apples and pears, that I shall not apologise for 
selecting it. It is one of the oldest and earliest bearing apples, hence the mistake 
about its name being June eating, in allusion to its maturity at the end of June or 
July. Dr. Hogg traces its name to Joanetting, from its apples ripening about St. 
John's day ; for a similar reason the next apple, the Margaret takes its name from 
St. Margaret's day, July 20th when the apple would be in season. 

The Costard is one of our oldest English apples; the variety is actually 
mentioned by name on a fruiterer's bill, in Edward I's reign, 12d2 (as previously 
alluded to), and although now almost extinct, still used to be so common, that 
retailers of it (even the very price mentioned at Is. per 100), were called 
"Costard-monger," a name in popular use now in the word " Costermonger." 
Some etymologists (including the great Dr. Johnson) consider the name Costard 
to be derived from cost a head, but why it is difficult to tell. Dr. Hogg traces 
the name to Costatus Ang. Costate, or ribbed, on account of the prominent ribs 
on its sides. 

The Quoining or Queening is an old apple of which we have many varieties 
in Herefordshire (notably the Cowame Quoining, a most valuable apple) which 
were excellently and numerously shown at our Pomological exhibition. The name 
Quoining may be traced by the angularity of the shape of the apple (similarly as in 
the Costard) from the word coin or quoin— the comer stone of a building. 

The Catshead is another very old apple still grown among us, but chiefly I 
have noticed in cottagers' gardens, where, however, it is gradually giving way, 
especially in Herefordshire, to the Hawthomden, and Lord Suffield. 

Phillipps sings its praises thus, — 

" The Catshead, weighty orb, 
Enonnous in its growth.'-' 

The old and Winter Pearmain must by no means be omitted. It is the very 
oldest historic variety we have. In Bloomfield's " History of Norfolk," as quoted 
by Hogg, there is curious mention made of a tenure in that county, by petty 
Sergeantry, and the pa3rment of 200 Pearmains, and 4 hogsheads of cider of 
Pearmains, into the exchequer at the feast of St. Michael 

The origin of the name is equally curious. In early historical works of the 
same period Charlemagne is written Charlemaine, the last syllable as Pearmaine, 
and as Charlemaine was derived from Carolus Magnus, so Pearmaine is derived 
from Pyros Magnus, the great Pear Apple, in allusion to its pyrif orm shape. 

I K 



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The Lemon or Qaiaoe Fippiii is mentioned by Ellis in 1744 as bo good an 
apple for all ages that many plant the tree in preference to all others. I know a 
nnrseryman in my neighbourhood who has several trees of this variety in wonder- 
ful bearing ; but he says he could sell twenty times the quantity he has to different 
nunneries, where, owing to its brisk and refreshing taste, it is a special favourite. 

The Grolden Pippin, though of considerable antiquity, has very little early 
history. It is not the Grolden Pippin of John Parkinson, because he speaks of it 
as a large variety. Evelyn, in his Pomona, states that Lord Clarendon had in his 
time at his estate in Berkshire an orchard of 1,000 golden and other cider pippins, 
but no allusion is made to it as a dessert apple. 

The Margil is still grown snccessfully in Herefordshire. It is said to have 
been originally introduced from Versailles in 1750. This apple was shown very 
nicely at our late Pomona Exhibition. In delicacy of flavour it is unsurpassed, 
but unfortunately it is a shy bearer, owing chiefly to its blossoms suffering from 
frost more than other apples. 

The last, though one of the earliest historic apples, I shall mention is the 
Pomeroy or King's Apple. This apple is of extreme antiquity, but very little is 
known of its early history. In Hogg's Fruit Manual (a work most judiciously 
added by Br. Bull to the Free Library), and from whose descriptions I have largely 
borrowed, two distinct varieties are mentioned in use nearly at the same time, but 
differing altogether in shape, flavour, quality, and colour of flesh. I take a particu- 
lar interest in this old and highly-valuable variety, because in my parish we have 
three or more very old trees still flourishing, and I was glad to see this apple 
exceedingly well shown from many parts at our late exhibition. 

The original variety of Pomeroy still bears very fine juicy and delicious fruit 
in September, but which very soon perishes, indeed last year many apples decayed 
while hanging on the tree. 

This undoubtedly would be the Pomeroy of Somerset mentioned by Hogg, 
. though he puts back its season too late from October to December. Now I was 
shown, and indeed tasted, a fortnight ago a specimen of the second variety, the 
Pomeroy of Lancashire, which had been bought in the Hereford Christmas market 
under the pseudonym of the Green Blenheim. This cannot be the true Pomeroy, 
as this variety does not answer at all to the description given it by the old writers, 
neither seasonally nor structurally, and I was pleased to find in For83rth, who 
wrote his treatise in 1810, that this is only a late variety of the true Pomeroy. 

He describes it as the Winter Pomeroy and a good baking apple, and keep- 
ing till January. I should say this might be a variety of the true Pomeroy, pro- 
miscuously crossed with the Nonpareil or one of its many varieties, as it bears a 
strong resemblance to that apple. 

The most interesting of our cider historic apples, which may be considered 
as existing now are the Dymock Bed, the Koyal Wilding, the Cowame Bed, the 
Sk3rrmes Kernel, Forest Styre, the Underleaf, the Woodcock, and the Foxwhelp. 
Of thee|9 varieties I will only briefly fay that the Dymook Bed is either ft different 



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269 

apple altogether or altered strangely in character. Now it is one of our earliest 
and best cider fruits in the Ledbury district, while in Forsyth's time, the Dymock 
Red — similar otherwise in description— kept from January to March. 

The Royal Wilding also demands a special notice. It is one of our best 
cider fruits, and I always thought that Herefordshire had the credit of raising- 
it until undeceived by Dr. Hogg, who claims that honour for Devonshire. Now 
I find in old Barry Langley so different a plate altogether of the Royal Wilding 
in his time, to what it is now with us, that I must consider them two distinct 
varieties of apples, until disproved by seeing a specimen of this fruit in the autumn 
from Devonshire. 

Of the Forest Styre, I have failed in obtaining any history whatever. It is 
mentioned by the oldest writers, and its praise extolled to the skies when grown 
on light and chalky soils. It is an early sort, and the strength of its cider 
immense. I am told grafts from the old trees canker and perish sooner or later, 
while the cider made now is harsh, and has lost all that charm of flavour for which 
formerly it was so celebrated. 

With the Foxwhelp this is not the case ; I mean with the original trees ; if 
fruit only can be got the flavour or gust is most prononc^, but from any other trees 
than the original this flavour is barely perceptible. 

With this piece of information I come to a full stop. Evelyn dismisses the 
Foxwhelp in a single line contemptuously, '' as making a cider that requires two or 
three years to come round." Can I with any sense of self-respect or in common 
justice, leave to the last and dismiss hurriedly our prince of apples, the sole 
survivor in the race of time, our highly-flavoured fruit that like Shelley's flower is 
" dying of its own sweet loveliness," and like the '* expiring swan is singing only 
in its death"? No, we "orchat lords of Herefordshire," as represented by the 
Woolhope Club, mean to pay the highest tribute in our power and to make its 
fame immortal by allotting to the Foxwhelp Apple the pride of place, in the first 
number of our Standard Herefordshire Pomona, while as to my humble self, I will 
not, I repeat, insult the time-honoured, lichen-sheathed giant by giving him now 
a beggarly passing notice, but thanking the company for their attention will leave 
some other brother member the high privilege of reading a special paper in honour 
of the Foxwhelp, on its longevity, its specific untransferableness, and its unri- 
valled power in the words of Evelyn (speaking of dU good cider), "in soberly 
exhilarating the spirits of us hypochrondriacal islanders." 



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270 

BHBOVE TUESDAY AND ITS CUSTOMS. 
Bt James Dayies, Esq. 

As the annual meeting of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club falls this 
year on the day known as Shrove Tuesday, I have, in compliance with a request 
for that parpoBO, prepared a few remarks upon the well-known custom of this day, 
as well aa the derivation of its name. I very much fear the subject will be con- 
■idered by many somewhat puerile for such a learned society, and that it is almost 
too much to ask the members to leave their lofty speculations on geology, meteoro- 
logy, botany, natural history, and their associated sciences, and condescend to give 
a hearing to a few observations on Shrove Tuesday, pancakes, and apple fritters. 

As respects the season of Lent, so intimately connected with Shrove Tues- 
day, we are informed in Echard's History of England that in the year 640 Eadbald 
was snooeeded by his son Eroombert in Kent, who commanded the destroying of 
idols in his dominions, and was the first king who established the observance of 
Lent by law and penalty. 

But in treating of this subject it must not be supposed that I contemplate 
any theological remarks on the observance or non-observance of the Quadragesimal 
Fast, preparatory to the great festival of the Christian Passover, which in the 
English Liturgy are distinguished by the several names of Lent and Easter — 
however questionable such ecclesiastical terms may appear— for it is merely my 
. intention to make a few observations of an antiquarian character upon the day 
known as Shrove Tuesday, and its agreeable prandial association of the pancake. 

In the ancient laws and institutions of this island, we find frequent reference 
to the Quadragesimal Fast of Lent as an important church season, and whoever 
will take the trouble to glance over " The Ancient Laws and Institutes of Eng- 
land,*' as well as " The Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales " published some 
years ago under the auspices of the Commissioners of Public Eecords), will find 
much curious information in connection with the ecclesiastical rites and customs 
of the times to which those institutes relate. 

In the preface to the Laws of Howel D Jo, according to the Dull Gwynedd, 
ie., the VefMdoU(m or North Wales Code, it is stated that the time when Howel 
summoned the wise men of the Principality together to examine and deliberate 
upon their ancient laws was that of Lent, because everyone should be pure- at 
that holy time, and should do no wrong at a time of purity. 

The preface to the DuU Dyjed or Dimetian or South Wales Code states that 
this same King remained with the assembly during the whole of Lent, and that 
at the termination of Lent he selected twelve of the wisest of the laity, with a 
most learned scholar, to form and systematise the laws and usages for him and his 
kingdom perfectly, and the nearest possible to truth and justice. 

If we pass over to another section of this Island during the same periods of 
history— namely, that portion occupied by our Anglo-Saxon ancestors— we shall 
find in the rites observable with the same Lenten fast the more direct clue to the 
origin of the word Shrove-Tuesdayf but whether our forefathers instituted the 
association of the well-known pancake, or received the custom from earlier a^es, 



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271 

will be a point for farther investigation. It is probable that the custom dates 
from a more remote antiquity. 

As respects the derivation of the term Shrove^ as distinctive of the day 
before the Quadragesimal Fast of Lent, it is evident that it has its origin in the 
Anglo-Saxon word ahrift, which signified "confession." In the Anglo-Saxon 
Ecclesiastical Laws there is much mention of it — for instance, in the laws of King 
Ethelred there is an injunction that every man should keep strictly to his Chris- 
tianity, and accustom himself frequently to thrifU And again, if a corpse was 
buried out of its proper thrift diatrictf soul scot was to be paid to the proper 
authority to which it belonged. In the laws of Cnut it is prescribed that if a 
criminal condemned to death desired serif t sprace, i.e., confession, it was not to 
be denied him ; and if any one denied him, he was to make " bot " or amends to 
the King with a hundred and twenty shillings, or otherwise clear himself by 
showing that he was justified in the refusal. 

In the Canons of Edgar there are full directions for acrifty both for the 
guidance of him who shrived and of him who was shriven, as well as the festival- 
tides and fast tides, when it ought to be performed. 

In the Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical institutes it is enjoined that in the week 
immediately before Lent every one should go to his confession (or shHftf as the 
Anglo-Saxon renders the word), and his confession or shrift should so shrive or 
confess him as he then may hear by his deeds what he is to do. 

There cannot, therefore, be any doubt that the term Shrove Tuesday has 
been thus derived ; and that it simply means Confession Tuesday^ from the injunc- 
tion in the institutes of the early church of this country to attend that ministra- 
tion as a preliminary to the Quadragesimal Fast preparatory to Easter. 

In the Canterbury tales of Geoffry Chaucer the term shrive frequently 
occurs, and it would appear to be there used as the technical expression for the rite 
of confession. e.g., it is enjoined in the Parson's Tale that " thou shalt shrive thee 
of all thy sinnes to o (cne) man, and not parcelmele to o (one) man and parcelmele 
to another.^' 

Again, in the Friars Tale, the Soumpner, or Apparitor, in alluding to his 
own unjust demands upon those who came within his jurisdiction (and without 
which he represents that he could not live) alludes to shrift^ and to Shrifte Faders, 
or Father Confessors, in the following lines : — 

What I may gete in council prively, 
No manner conscience that have I. 
N'ere min extortion, I might not liven, 
Ne of swich japes wol I not be shriven, 
Stomak ne conscience know I non, 
I shrewe these Skri/te Faders everich on. 

A sarcastic reflection on the Soumpner, as well as the Shrifte Faders, which is 
somewhat characteristic of the writings of Chaucer in exposing the peculiar vices 
of his own time. 

Shrove Tuesday , or Sh/rove Tide, FaOerrCs Eve and Pancake Tuesday, as it 



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212 

WM Also called, appears to have been, aooording to ¥rriter8 on popular antiquities, 
a general day of conf essiony and with the previous Monday, also a day of sport 
•did pastime, being deemed by some the last day of Christmas, and celebrated 
with flags, masques, and other popular amusements. It is stated that on the 
morning of this day London school boys used to bring game cocks to their masters, 
and were permitted .to amuse themselves with seeing them fight. Another amuse- 
ment of this day was that of threshing the fat hen, which is done as follows : — 
Aooording to a notice in Fosbrooke*s Encyclopedia of Antiquities, the hen was 
hung on a man's back, who had also bells hung about him, whilst others, who 
were blindfolded and had boughs in their hands, chased the man and the hen 
about som» large court or small inclosure. The man who had the hen and bells 
shifted about as well as he could, whilst those who were blindfolded followed the 
BOimd to strike him and his hen. After the amusement was over, the hen was 
boiled with bacon ; and plenty of pancakes and fritters were added to the enter- 
tainment. It is said that lazy or sluttish girls were presented with the first pan- 
cake ; which, if they well understood the joke, they of course declined to accept. 
In Wales, if hens did not lay eggs before Shrove Tuesday, they were threshed by 
a man, who, if he happened to strike and kill any, was entitled to them for his 
pains. There were other customs in connection with this day, such as masquer- 
ades and processions ; and effigies called holly-boys and ivy-girls (probably the 
evergreen remains of Christinas) were burned. Playing at football by married 
and unmarried women, archery, running, leaping, wrestling, and sham fights were 
also among the accustomed amusements of our ancestors on this day, but which 
have now happily, given way to more rational and enlightened occupations. In 
Normandy there was a kind of Fraternity of Buffoons, known as Comards, or 
Conards, who disguised themselves in grotesque dresses, and performed farces and 
burlesques in the streets on Shrove Tuesday, and we are informed that men of 
rank even entered their society. They were masked, and personated allegorical 
characters, such as Avarice, Bevenge, Passion, &c., as well as the more real 
personages of Pope, Emperors, Kings, and others in authority. Among all the 
former customs of Shrove Tuesday, the pancake has most notably survived, and, 
like mince pie and plum pudding at Christmas, will no doubt continue to be 
handed down as a memorial of past times. The origin of the Shrove Tuesday 
pancake would appear to be a continuation of the Koman festival of Fomacalta 
on the 18th of February ; which, according to Ovid, were a kind of sacrifices 
offered before the grinding of. com, and continued in memory of the practice of 
baking bread on a hearth in the form of flat cakes before the Goddess Pomar 
invented ovens. 

In connection with andent-mythology there were various festive seasons 
which were continued, after a similar observance, under the change of religion 
from Paganism to Christianity, e.^., the 25th of March (our Lady-Day) was the 
Boman HUaria in honour of the mother of the gods ; whilst December was famous 
for the feasts of Saturn, the most celebrated of the whole year, when all orders of 
penons were devoted to mirth and feasting^friends interchanged presents, and 
maittra treated thtir sUves with special iadulgenciee. Amongst th« Northeni 



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273 

na^ons the 24th of December was the winter solstice, when on that and the fol- 
lowing day they celebrated the birth (as it were) of the new sun, the 24th being 
the last of the shortest days ; so that we can readily perceive the natural con- 
tinuity of festive enjoyment when there was a certain amount of apparent corres- 
pondence with the several seasons under the old and new religious faith. 

In Joebrooke's Encyclopedia of Antiquities, quoting Danet, the author 
notes that ovens were invented by the Goddess Fornax, and were at first mere 
contrivances for roasting wheat before the way of grinding com and making bread 
was found out ; previously to which, as we well know, bread was made in the 
form of cakes baked upon the hearth, or flat plates or pans. Ovens, according to 
Suidas, were invented by the Egyptians ; at first they were small, but in process 
of time larger ones became adopted. The bakehouse became an important 
appendage to a Eoman residence, and the principal families baked their bread at 
home, at first upon heated stones and afterwards in ovens. The ancient Jews, in 
common with other Eastern nations, adopted the custom of baking in pans. In 
Leviticus ii., 5 to 7, we find reference to this mode of baking in the expression, 
"If thy oblation be a meat offering haken in a pan;** and again, " If thy oblation 
be a meat haJken in the frying pan" Parkhurst in his Hebrew lexicon informs us 
that the Hebrew word (UbebtUj pancakes is derived from the word (IMb)^ which 
signifies to move or toss up and down ; and in illustration quotes the passage, 2nd 
Sam., xiii., 6 to 8, where, in recording the circumstances of Tamar, the daughter 
of David, and her brother Amnon, it is said she took the dough or flour and 
kneaded it, and made cakes, or rather tossed it in his sight, and did bake the 
cakes, which would mean no other than that she tossed and turned the cakes in 
the pan during the process of baking. 

Dr. Shaw informs us in his travels among the Bedouin Arabs, that their 
bread was made into thin cakes, baked either on the coals, or else in a shallow 
earthen vessel like a frying pan, and was the same kind of vessel as mentioned in 
Leviticus ii. 5. ' • 

This account of baking in the East has been noticed by Dr. Pococke, Sir 
John Ohardin, and other Eastern travellers and writers. 

Dr. Adam Clarke, in his Commentary on the Bible, quoting Dr. Shaw's 
Travels, states that some of the Arabians had in their tents stones or copper 
plates made for the purpose of baking, and that Dr. Pococke had similiarly 
observed iron hearths used for baking their bread. The Dr. further states that 
Sir John Chardin described these iron plates as commonly used in Peisia, and 
among the wandering people dwelling in tents, as being the easiest way of baking. 

Thus we have, as it were, a connecting link with the pancake of the present 
day— a lingering illustration of the manners and customs of patriarchal times. 
The pancake of Shrove Tuesday was known among the Normans under the name 
of erevpe or cnspellm, and it was made with flour mixed with eggs, and fried In 
a pan. 

The fritter appears to be of latter date. Orange fritters are menti<»ied by 
some writers, and there was the apple fritter of the 15th century, known aathe 



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274 

fryUoT'Pomet which by the way will serve as a connecting link— verbally at least if 
no farther— between our present subject and that of a more strictly pomological 
character. 

Cakes, in connection with religious ceremonies, are of great antiquity. In 
the Levitical Law of the Jews we find (Lev. ii. 4) that they were enjoined that if 
they brought an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven it should be of 
unleavened cakes of fine flour jingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed 
with oil ; and when this people fell into idolatry in subsequent times, we find the 
prophet Jeremiah rebuking them, amongst other practices ( Jer. vii. 18) that their 
women kneaded dough to make cakes to the Queen, i.e., the frame or workman- 
ship of heaven, in allusion to the idolatrous adoration of the heavenly bodies which 
the Jews had copied from their heathen neighbours. 

Pliny observes that Numa taught the Romans to offer fruits to the gods, 
and to make supplication before them, bringing salt cakes and parched com, as 
grain in this state was considered most wholesome ; and the Romans did not deem 
grain as pure and proper for divine service that had not been previously parched. 

Ovid intimates that these bread offerings originated with agriculture, that 
when men sowed their fields they dedicated the first fruits of their harvest to 
Ceres, to whom the ancients attributed the art of agriculture, and in honour of 
whom they made burnt offerings of com. 

Cakes appear to have been the association of a variety of festive seasons. 
They were valued among the Classical Ancients in sacrifices, for presents and 
other rejoicings ; and in our own country, in the middle ages, were given away 
amongst friends, which the Puritans endeavoured to abolish as savouring of a 
relic of superstition. We have, however, remaining in the present day the twelfth- 
cake on Epiphany night, the Easter cake, and in Herefordshire and Grloucester- 
shire that so well known as the '* mothering" cake on Midlent Sunday, in addition 
to the more general Shrove Tuesday pancake. 

Such was the importance attached to this Shrove Tuesday Pancake festival, 
that amongst the various kinds of bells in use in early times, as for instance the 
passing bell for the dead, the curfew bell against fire, the mot bell to assemble the 
people, and some others, there was the pancake bell, which was rang on Shrove 
Tuesday to remind of the important prandial custom of that indulgent day, 
previously to the long and stringent abstinence preparatory to the greater festival 
at Easter— the most important in the Ecclesiastical Calendar. We may then 
summarise our remarks thus : — 

1. That Shrove Tuesday means Confession Tuesday, preparatory to the 
Quadragesimal Fast of Lent. 

2. That the Pancake was a continuation in the Church, or rather a transfer 
and compromise of the earlier pagan custom of the Fomacalia Festival of the 
Koman Msrthology. And now apologising for these rough notes on our subject, I 
would thank each listener for a patient hearing of these very imperfect remarks on 
Shnyoe Tuesday wUh Us Pancakes and A^ppU Fritters^ 



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